biblioteca virtual en salud

BVS - Literatura Cientifica y Técnica

 

Historico de búsqueda  ()

Su selección  ()

Collapse All  Ocultar
Expand All  Mostrar
Tipo
Texto completo (29820)
Idioma
Año
Resultados  1-10 de 58.829
Enviar resultado
adicionar en sua lista
1.

Determinação ou determinantes sociais da saúde: texto e contexto na américa latina/ Social determination or social determinants of health: text and context in latin america/ Determinación o determinantes sociales de la salud: texto y contexto en américa latina

Borghi, Carolina Michelin Sanches de Oliveira; Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães de; Sevalho, Gil
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Resumo Determinação social da saúde e determinantes sociais da saúde têm se apresentado como sinônimos em um contexto de retomada do tema. A concepção de determinação e determinantes e a historicidade desses modelos teóricos transcende o plano acadêmico, ao se considerar a particularidade envolvendo saúde pública, saúde coletiva e medicina social, em que ciência e política se relacionam estreitamente. Ao se delinearem diferenças entre essas denominações, procura-se neste ensaio recuperar, no plano teórico, a elaboração de determinação social da saúde, destacando sua relação com o conhecimento produzido na América Latina e sua repercussão no Brasil, bem como as influências dos paradigmas científicos, epistemológicos, arcabouços teóricos e projetos em disputa nesse campo. Para abranger dimensões políticas e acadêmicas que os modelos teóricos comportam, recorremos ao auxílio de autores que transitam entre diferentes campos de conhecimento. Sem a pretensão de esgotar todos os possíveis pontos de contemplação que nossa incursão proporcionou, apresentamos uma síntese de nossa concepção do modelo teórico de determinantes sociais da saúde e sobretudo de determinação social da saúde, que propomos desmembrar em duas categorias, determinação estrutural e determinação estrutural-relacional, para, ao enfatizar epistemologicamente a complexidade, permitir melhor contemplação de avanços teóricos e metodológicos. Abstract The social determination of health and the social determinants of health have been presented as synonyms in a context in which this topic is being revisited. The conception of determination and determinants and the historicity of these theoretical models transcend the academic realm, once we consider the particularity involving public health, collective health, and social medicine, in which science and politics have a close relationship. Through the description of the differences between these two terms, our aim in this essay was to bring back, in theory, the elaboration of the social determination of health, highlighting its relationship with the knowledge produced in Latin America and its repercussions in Brazil, as well as the influences of the scientific and epistemological paradigms, the set of theories, and the projects that are in dispute in this field. In order to encompass the academic and political dimensions contained in the theoretical models, we sought the help of authors that move among different fields of knowledge. Without the intention of covering all of the points of observation that our incursion provided, we present a summary of our conception of the theoretical model of the social determinants of health and, chiefly, of the social determination of health, which we suggest should be divided into two categories, structural determination and structural-relational determination, in order to enable a better observation of the theoretical and methodological improvements, by emphasizing complexity epistemologically. Resumen La determinación social de la salud y los determinantes sociales de la salud se han presentado como sinónimos en un contexto de reanudación del tema. La concepción de determinación y determinantes, y la historicidad de estos modelos teóricos, transcienden el plano académico, al considerarse la particularidad que implica salud pública, salud colectiva y medicina social, en donde ciencia y política están estrechamente relacionadas. Al establecerse diferencias entre éstas denominaciones, en este ensayo se busca recuperar, en el plano teórico, el desarrollo de la determinación social de la salud, destacando su relación con el conocimiento producido en América Latina y su repercusión en Brasil, así como las influencias de los paradigmas científicos, epistemológicos, marcos teóricos y proyectos en disputa en este campo. Para abarcar dimensiones políticas y académicas que los modelos teóricos comportan, recurrimos a la ayuda de autores que transitan entre diferentes campos de conocimiento. Sin la pretensión de agotar todos los posibles puntos de vista que nuestra incursión proporciona, presentamos una síntesis de nuestra concepción del modelo teórico de determinantes sociales de la salud y principalmente de la determinación social de la misma, que proponemos desmembrar en dos categorías, determinación estructural y determinación estructural-relacional, de manera que al enfatizar epistemológicamente la complejidad, permita una mejor visión de los avances teóricos y metodológicos.
adicionar en sua lista
2.

Métodos não farmacológicos utilizados pelo Enfermeiro na prevenção e controle da Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica/ Non-pharmacological methods used by the Nurse in the prevention and control of Systemic Arterial Hypertension

Reis, Leonardo Lima de Moraes dos; Silva, Rayza Caroline Marques da; Armada e Silva, Halene Cristina Dias de; Souza, Camila Cruz de; Silva, Maria Regina Bernardo da; Cunha, Adriana Loureiro da
;
| Idioma(s): Portugués
A Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica (HAS) é uma doença crônica multifatorial caracterizada por níveis tensionais elevados e sustentados. Objetivos: descrever e analisar a eficácia das terapias não farmacológicas no controle da HAS, utilizadas pelo enfermeiro. Metodologia: Estudo descritivo, quantitativo, realizado com 43 adultos atendidos pelo Programa Academia Carioca de um Centro Municipal de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro no período de agosto a setembro de 2017. Os dados da pesquisa foram coletados com aplicação de um questionário estruturado com cinco perguntas objetivas e através de análise documental do prontuário do paciente no programa. Resultado: 87,5% dos entrevistados conseguiram melhorar ou estabilizar os níveis pressóricos em detrimento de 12,5% dos entrevistados que apresentaram piora destes níveis. Conclusão: O uso de terapias não farmacológicas indica uma melhora da qualidade de vida dos participantes do Programa Academia Carioca, sendo estes portadores ou não de HAS, contudo nota-se ainda que os enfermeiros não priorizam a indicação à prática de exercícios físicos.(AU)
adicionar en sua lista
3.

Rationale and Design of Distance-Based Training to Persuade Local Health Department Employees That Addressing Social Determinants of Health Is Their Job, Too.

Bernstein, Melissa F; Cinnick, Samantha E; Franzosa, Emily; Murrman, Marita K; Freudenberg, Nicholas
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Public health workers in local health departments frequently rate skills needed to address social determinants of health among their top training needs. These workers have the ability to impact social determinants of health, but many may believe this responsibility is not part of their job description or that they do not have the necessary skills or resources. Guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion and employing the case study method of instruction, the Region 2 Public Health Training Center designed a 45-minute, self-paced, online training module, titled Strategies to Advance Health Equity: How Health Departments Can Promote Living Wages, to persuade public health workers that addressing social determinants of health, especially those related to income disparities, is part of their day-to-day responsibilities. This article describes the module design, promising preliminary assessment data, and the formal evaluation plan.
adicionar en sua lista
4.

Stakeholder Perspectives on the Social Determinants of Mental Health in Community Coalitions.

Kataoka, Sheryl H; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Roya; Figueroa, Chantal; Castillo, Enrico G; Bromley, Elizabeth; Patel, Heather; Wells, Kenneth B
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Objective: Although evidence supports the potential for community coalitions to positively address social determinants of mental health, little is known about the views of stakeholders involved in such efforts. This study sought to understand county leaders' perspectives about social determinants related to the Health Neighborhood Initiative (HNI), a new county effort to support community coalitions. Design: Descriptive, qualitative study, 2014. Setting: Community coalitions, located in a large urban city, across eight service planning areas, that serve under-resourced, ethnic minority populations. Procedures: We conducted key informant interviews with 49 health care and community leaders to understand their perspectives about the HNI. As part of a larger project, this study focused on leaders' views about social determinants of health related to the HNI. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. An inductive approach to coding was used, with text segments grouped by social determinant categories. Results: County leaders described multiple social determinants of mental health that were relevant to the HNI community coalitions: housing and safety, community violence, and employment and education. Leaders discussed how social determinants were interconnected with each other and the need for efforts to address multiple social determinants simultaneously to effectively improve mental health. Conclusions: Community coalitions have an opportunity to address multiple social determinants of health to meet social and mental health needs of low-resourced communities. Future research should examine how community coalitions, like those in the HNI, can actively engage with community members to identify needs and then deliver evidence-based care.
adicionar en sua lista
5.

Considering parental hearing status as a social determinant of deaf population health: Insights from experiences of the "dinner table syndrome".

Hall, Wyatte C; Smith, Scott R; Sutter, Erika J; DeWindt, Lori A; Dye, Timothy D V
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The influence of early language and communication experiences on lifelong health outcomes is receiving increased public health attention. Most deaf children have non-signing hearing parents, and are at risk for not experiencing fully accessible language environments, a possible factor underlying known deaf population health disparities. Childhood indirect family communication-such as spontaneous conversations and listening in the routine family environment (e.g. family meals, recreation, car rides)-is an important source of health-related contextual learning opportunities. The goal of this study was to assess the influence of parental hearing status on deaf people's recalled access to childhood indirect family communication. We analyzed data from the Rochester Deaf Health Survey-2013 (n = 211 deaf adults) for associations between sociodemographic factors including parental hearing status, and recalled access to childhood indirect family communication. Parental hearing status predicted deaf adults' recalled access to childhood indirect family communication (χ2 = 31.939, p < .001). The likelihood of deaf adults reporting "sometimes to never" for recalled comprehension of childhood family indirect communication increased by 17.6 times for those with hearing parents. No other sociodemographic or deaf-specific factors in this study predicted deaf adults' access to childhood indirect family communication. This study finds that deaf people who have hearing parents were more likely to report limited access to contextual learning opportunities during childhood. Parental hearing status and early childhood language experiences, therefore, require further investigation as possible social determinants of health to develop interventions that improve lifelong health and social outcomes of the underserved deaf population.
adicionar en sua lista
6.

Family-Based Social Health Insurance for Informal Workers in Vietnam: Willingness to Pay and Its Determinants.

Thi Thuy Nga, Nguyen; FitzGerald, Gerard; Dunne, Michael P
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The study aimed to assess willingness to pay for family-based social health insurance and its determining factors among informal workers in Vietnam. A double-bounded dichotomous choice approach was used to elicit the willingness to pay of 391 heads of uninsured households. The study indicates that 48.8% of 391 uninsured households were willing to pay for family-based health insurance. The households were willing to pay about 921.9 thousand Vietnamese dongs per household per year (US$42). The factors that significantly affected willingness to pay were household income, number of uninsured members in a household, and sickness of the household head. The study suggests that a feasible premium for family-based health insurance supported by government subsidy, along with attention to the quality improvements of health services, could be an effective means to increase coverage among the informal sector workers.
adicionar en sua lista
7.

Towards a global monitoring system for implementing the Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health: developing a core set of indicators for government action on the social determinants of health to improve health equity.

| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: In the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization (WHO) Member States pledged action in five areas crucial for addressing health inequities. Their pledges referred to better governance for health and development, greater participation in policymaking and implementation, further reorientation of the health sector towards reducing health inequities, strengthening of global governance and collaboration, and monitoring progress and increasing accountability. WHO is developing a global system for monitoring governments' and international organizations' actions on the social determinants of health (SDH) to increase transparency and accountability, and to guide implementation, in alignment with broader health and development policy frameworks, including the universal health coverage and Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) agendas. We describe the selection of indicators proposed to be part of the initial WHO global system for monitoring action on the SDH. METHODS: An interdisciplinary working group was established by WHO, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research-Institute of Population and Public Health. We describe the processes and criteria used for selecting SDH action indicators that were of high quality and the described the challenges encountered in creating a set of metrics for capturing government action on addressing the Rio Political Declaration's five Action Areas. RESULTS: We developed 19 measurement concepts, identified and screened 20 indicator databases and systems, including the 223 SDG indicators, and applied strong criteria for selecting indicators for the core indicator set. We identified 36 suitable existing indicators, which were often SDG indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Lessons learnt included the importance of ensuring diversity of the working group and always focusing on health equity; challenges included the relative dearth of data and indicators on some key interventions and capturing the context and level of implementation of indicator interventions.
adicionar en sua lista
8.

Psychosocial Determinants of Teens' Online Engagement in Drug Prevention Social Media Campaigns: Implications for Public Health Organizations.

Dunn, Hailee K; Pearlman, Deborah N; Beatty, Avery; Florin, Paul
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Social networking sites (SNSs) now serve as a primary form of communication among adolescents. Consequently, drug prevention campaigns delivered through SNSs have the potential to reach a wide network of adolescents if teens are willing to engage in the message diffusion process by commenting on, "liking," following, creating, or sharing prevention messages with their networked peers. However, little is known about the psychosocial factors that influence adolescents' willingness to participate in drug prevention social media campaigns. We use qualitative methods to explore reasons why adolescents may or may not want to engage in the message diffusion process. We conducted four semi-structured focus groups with a total of 33 high school students from various school- and community-based youth programs in Rhode Island. Focus groups were followed by a brief self-administered questionnaire collecting information about participants' social media use to augment qualitative findings. Overall, findings reveal that engaging teens in the message diffusion process can be advantageous but difficult to accomplish due to multiple factors. Most notably, asking adolescents to participate in drug prevention campaigns delivered through SNSs means also asking youth to violate online norms that promote drug use, which could in turn subject them to peer reprisal. We conclude that future studies should begin to investigate strategies addressing the various challenges we identified. Meanwhile, prevention specialists should consider alternative or supplemental evidence-based approaches to drug prevention rather than invest resources into activities that may offer little return on investment.
adicionar en sua lista
9.

Adoption of Social Determinants of Health EHR Tools by Community Health Centers.

Gold, Rachel; Bunce, Arwen; Cowburn, Stuart; Dambrun, Katie; Dearing, Marla; Middendorf, Mary; Mossman, Ned; Hollombe, Celine; Mahr, Peter; Melgar, Gerardo; Davis, James; Gottlieb, Laura; Cottrell, Erika
| Idioma(s): Inglés
PURPOSE: This pilot study assessed the feasibility of implementing electronic health record (EHR) tools for collecting, reviewing, and acting on patient-reported social determinants of health (SDH) data in community health centers (CHCs). We believe it is the first such US study. METHODS: We implemented a suite of SDH data tools in 3 Pacific Northwest CHCs in June 2016, and used mixed methods to assess their adoption through July 2017. We modified the tools at clinic request; for example, we added questions that ask if the patient wanted assistance with SDH needs. RESULTS: Social determinants of health data were collected on 1,130 patients during the study period; 97% to 99% of screened patients (n = 1,098) had ≥1 SDH need documented in the EHR, of whom 211 (19%) had an EHR-documented SDH referral. Only 15% to 21% of patients with a documented SDH need indicated wanting help. Examples of lessons learned on adoption of EHR SDH tools indicate that clinics should: consider how to best integrate tools into existing workflow processes; ensure that staff tasked with SDH efforts receive adequate tool training and access; and consider that timing of data entry impacts how and when SDH data can be used. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that adoption of systematic EHR-based SDH documentation may be feasible, but substantial barriers to adoption exist. Lessons from this study may inform primary care providers seeking to implement SDH-related efforts, and related health policies. Far more research is needed to address implementation barriers related to SDH documentation in EHRs.
adicionar en sua lista
10.

Associations of Neighborhood-Level Social Determinants of Health with Bacterial Infections in Young, Febrile Infants.

Yaeger, Jeffrey P; Moore, Kari A; Melly, Steven J; Lovasi, Gina S
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To examine the sociodemographic characteristics of one population of young, febrile infants and identify associations between neighborhood-level social determinants of health (SDHs) with bacterial infections. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cross sectional study of all infants ≤90 days old with a temperature of ≥38°C who presented in 2014 to the emergency department of an urban children's hospital in a large east coast city. The primary outcome was the presence of a bacterial infection, defined as a positive urine, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid culture that was treated clinically as a pathogen. The home address of each infant was geocoded and linked to neighborhood data based on census tract. Neighborhood-level SDHs included deprivation index, median household income, poverty, childhood poverty, social capital, and crowded housing. Associations were estimated using generalized estimating equations and negative binomial regression analysis. Models were adjusted for age, prematurity, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Of 232 febrile infants, the median age was 54 days, 58% were male, 49% were Hispanic, and 88% had public health insurance; 31 infants (13.4%) had a bacterial infection. In the adjusted analyses, the risk of bacterial infection among infants from neighborhoods with high rates of childhood poverty was >3 times higher (relative risk, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.04-9.6) compared with infants from neighborhoods with low rates of childhood poverty. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that SDHs may be associated with bacterial infections in young, febrile infants. If confirmed in subsequent studies, the inclusion of SDHs in predictive tools may improve accuracy in detecting bacterial infections among young, febrile infants.
Resultados  1-10 de 58.829