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Editorial Commentary: The Ever-changing Landscape of Health Care Economics-"The Future Ain't What It Used to Be".

Crall, Timothy S
| Idioma(s):
Payment models for orthopaedic services are constantly changing. Rather than have changes dictated to us, it is our responsibility as experts in arthroscopic surgery to advocate for patients and offer our unique insight to governmental agencies and payers. Before we can begin to understand this complex landscape, we need to start at the beginning and master the fundamentals of health care economics: cost-effectiveness analysis, cost minimization, cost benefit, and the like. Failure to do so will mean being left out of a conversation that will ultimately affect our ability to care for patients.
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Health Economic Evaluations of Digital Health Interventions for Secondary Prevention in Stroke Patients: A Systematic Review.

Valenzuela Espinoza, Alexis; Steurbaut, Stephane; Dupont, Alain; Cornu, Pieter; van Hooff, Robbert-Jan; Brouns, Raf; Putman, Koen
| Idioma(s):
BACKGROUND: In the first 5 years after their stroke, about a quarter of patients will suffer from a recurrent stroke. Digital health interventions facilitating interactions between a caregiver and a patient from a distance are a promising approach to improve patient adherence to lifestyle changes proposed by secondary prevention guidelines. Many of these interventions are not implemented in daily practice, even though efficacy has been shown. One of the reasons can be the lack of clear economic incentives for implementation. We propose to map all health economic evidence regarding digital health interventions for secondary stroke prevention. SUMMARY: We performed a systematic search according to PRISMA-P guidelines and searched on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and National Institute for Health Research Economic Evaluation Database. Only digital health interventions for secondary prevention in stroke patients were included and all study designs and health economic outcomes were accepted. We combined the terms "Stroke OR Cardiovascular," "Secondary prevention," "Digital health interventions," and "Cost" in one search string using the AND operator. The search performed on April 20, 2017 yielded 163 records of which 26 duplicates were removed. After abstract screening, 20 articles were retained for full-text analysis, of which none reported any health economic evidence that could be included for analysis or discussion. Key Messages: There is a lack of evidence on health economic outcomes on digital health interventions for secondary stroke prevention. Future research in this area should take health economics into consideration when designing a trial and there is a clear need for health economic evidence and models.
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Targeted Incentive Programs For Lung Cancer Screening Can Improve Population Health And Economic Efficiency.

Kim, David D; Cohen, Joshua T; Wong, John B; Mohit, Babak; Fendrick, A Mark; Kent, David M; Neumann, Peter J
| Idioma(s):
Because an intervention's clinical benefit depends on who receives it, a key to improving the efficiency of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is to incentivize its use among the current or former smokers who are most likely to benefit from it. Despite its clinical advantages and cost-effectiveness, only 3.9 percent of the eligible population underwent LDCT screening in 2015. Using individual lung cancer mortality risk, we developed a policy simulation model to explore the potential impact of implementing risk-targeted incentive programs, compared to either implementing untargeted incentive programs or doing nothing. We found that compared to the status quo, an untargeted incentive program that increased overall LDCT screening from 3,900 (baseline) to 10,000 per 100,000 eligible people would save 12,300 life-years and accrue a net monetary benefit (NMB) of $771 million over a lifetime horizon. Increasing screening by the same amount but targeting higher-risk people would yield an additional 2,470-6,600 life-years and an additional $210-$560 million NMB, depending on the extent of the risk-targeting. Risk-targeted incentive programs could include provider-level bonuses, health plan premium subsidies, and smoking cessation programs to maximize their impact. As clinical medicine becomes more personalized, targeting and incentivizing higher-risk people will help enhance population health and economic efficiency.
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Current Health and Economic Burden of Chronic Diabetic Osteomyelitis.

Geraghty, Terese; LaPorta, Guido
| Idioma(s):
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) prevalence is as high as 25% and 40-80% of DFUs become infected (DFI). About 20% of infected ulcers will spread to bone causing diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). DFU costs Medicare $9-13 billion/year. The most expensive costs associated with DFU are inpatient costs and hospital admissions. DFO costs are driven mostly by surgical procedures. DFU patients have a 3-year cumulative mortality rate of 28% and rates approaching 50% in amputated patients. Areas Covered: This review will summarize the current health and economic burden of DFO covering management, epidemiology, and copious costs associated with DFO. The review began by searching PubMed and Cochrane databases for various terms including, 'diabetic osteomyelitis costs,' 'diabetic foot infection,' and 'diabetes and antibiotics.' Additionally, references from retrieved publications were reviewed. The global burden of DFU calls for investigating new therapeutic options. Expert Opinion: For DFI, anti-biofilm agents have had success because they directly deliver antimicrobials to the infection site. For DFO, intraosseous (I/O) antibiotic therapy similarly bypasses the issue of vascular disease, will likely have improved therapeutic efficacy, and reduced costs for DFO patients. I/O antibiotic therapy has had clinical success in one case report already, and may significantly improve the lives of those afflicted with DFO.
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Mission-oriented translational cancer research - health economics.

Jönsson, Bengt; Sullivan, Richard
| Idioma(s):
Health economics is an integrated aspect of all phases of mission-oriented translational cancer research, and it should be considered as an intrinsic component of any study aimed at improving outcomes for patients and intervention costs. Information about value and value for money of new options for prevention and treatment is needed for decisions about their adoption and use by health care systems.
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Does domiciliary welfare rights advice improve health-related quality of life in independent-living, socio-economically disadvantaged people aged ≥60 years? Randomised controlled trial, economic and process evaluations in the North East of England.

Howel, Denise; Moffatt, Suzanne; Haighton, Catherine; Bryant, Andrew; Becker, Frauke; Steer, Melanie; Lawson, Sarah; Aspray, Terry; Milne, Eugene M G; Vale, Luke; McColl, Elaine; White, Martin
| Idioma(s):
BACKGROUND: There are major socio-economic gradients in health that could be influenced by increasing personal resources. Welfare rights advice can enhance resources but has not been rigorously evaluated for health-related impacts. METHODS: Randomised, wait-list controlled trial with individual allocation, stratified by general practice, of welfare rights advice and assistance with benefit entitlements, delivered in participants' homes by trained advisors. Control was usual care. Participants were volunteers sampled from among all those aged ≥60 years registered with general practices in socio-economically deprived areas of north east England. Outcomes at 24 months were: CASP-19 score (primary), a measure of health-related quality of life; changes in income, social and physical function, and cost-effectiveness (secondary). Intention to treat analysis compared outcomes using multiple regression, with adjustment for stratification and key covariates. Qualitative interviews with purposive samples from both trial arms were thematically analysed. FINDINGS: Of 3912 individuals approached, 755 consented and were randomised (381 Intervention, 374 Control). Results refer to outcomes at 24 months, with data available on 562 (74.4%) participants. Intervention was received as intended by 335 (88%), with 84 (22%) awarded additional benefit entitlements; 46 did not receive any welfare rights advice, and none of these were awarded additional benefits. Mean CASP-19 scores were 42.9 (Intervention) and 42.4 (Control) (adjusted mean difference 0.3 [95%CI -0.8, 1.5]). There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes except Intervention participants reported receiving more care at home at 24m (53.7 (Intervention) vs 42.0 (Control) hours/week (adjusted mean difference 26.3 [95%CIs 0.8, 56.1]). Exploratory analyses did not support an intervention effect and economic evaluation suggested the intervention was unlikely to be cost-effective. Qualitative data from 50 interviews suggested there were improvements in quality of life among those receiving additional benefits. CONCLUSIONS: We found no effects on health outcomes; fewer participants than anticipated received additional benefit entitlements, and participants were more affluent than expected. Our findings do not support delivery of domiciliary welfare rights advice to achieve the health outcomes assessed in this population. However, better intervention targeting may reveal worthwhile health impacts.
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Health economics methods for public health resource allocation: a qualitative interview study of decision makers from an English local authority.

Frew, Emma; Breheny, Katie
| Idioma(s):
Local authorities in England have responsibility for public health, however, in recent years, budgets have been drastically reduced placing decision makers under unprecedented financial pressure. Although health economics can offer support for decision making, there is limited evidence of it being used in practice. The aim of this study was to undertake in-depth qualitative research within one local authority to better understand the context for public health decision making; what, and how economics evidence is being used; and invite suggestions for how methods could be improved to better support local public health decision making. The study included both observational methods and in-depth interviews. Key meetings were observed and semi-structured interviews conducted with participants who had a decision-making role to explore views on economics, to understand the barriers to using evidence and to invite suggestions for improvements to methods. Despite all informants valuing the use of health economics, many barriers were cited: including a perception of a narrow focus on the health sector; lack of consideration of population impact; and problems with translating long timescales to short term impact. Methodological suggestions included the broadening of frameworks; increased use of natural experiments; and capturing wider non-health outcomes that resonate with the priorities of multiple stakeholders.
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Organising Support for Carers of Stroke Survivors (OSCARSS): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial, including health economic analysis.

Patchwood, Emma; Rothwell, Katy; Rhodes, Sarah; Batistatou, Evridiki; Woodward-Nutt, Kate; Lau, Yiu-Shing; Grande, Gunn; Ewing, Gail; Bowen, Audrey
| Idioma(s):
BACKGROUND: Stroke often results in chronic disability, with partners and family members taking on the role of informal caregiver. There is considerable uncertainty regarding how best to identify and address carers' needs. The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) is a carer-led approach to individualised assessment and support for caregiving that may be beneficial in palliative care contexts. CSNAT includes an implementation toolkit. Through collaboration, including with service users, we adapted CSNAT for stroke and for use in a UK stroke specialist organisation providing long-term support. The main aims of OSCARSS are to investigate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of CSNAT-Stroke relative to current practice. This paper focuses on the trial protocol, with the embedded process evaluation reported separately. METHODS: Longitudinal, multi-site, pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial with a health economic analysis. Clusters are UK services randomised to CSNAT-Stroke intervention or usual care, stratified by size of service. Eligible carer participants are: adults aged > 18 years; able to communicate in English; referred to participating clusters; and seen face-to-face at least once by the provider, for support. The 'date seen' for initial support denotes the start of intervention (or control) and carers are referred to the research team after this for study recruitment. Primary outcome is caregiver strain (FACQ - Strain) at three months after 'date seen'. Secondary outcomes include: caregiver distress; positive caregiving appraisals (both FACQ subscales); Pound Carer Satisfaction with Services; mood (HADs); and health (EQ-5D5L) at three months. All outcomes are followed up at six months. Health economic analyses will use additional data on caregiver health service utilisation and informal care provision. DISCUSSION: OSCARSS is open to recruitment at the time of article submission. Study findings will allow us to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the CSNAT-Stroke intervention, directed at improving outcomes for informal carers of stroke survivors. Trial findings will be interpreted in the context of our embedded process evaluation including qualitative interviews with those who received and provided services as well as data on treatment fidelity. OSCARSS will contribute to knowledge of the unmet needs of informal stroke caregivers and inform future stroke service development. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN58414120 . Registered on 26 July 2016.
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Socio-economic status, social support, social network, dental status, and oral health reported outcomes in adolescents.

Vettore, Mario V; Ahmad, Saousan F H; Machuca, Carolina; Fontanini, Humberto
| Idioma(s):
This study explored the relationships between sex, socio-economic status, social support, social network, dental clinical status, dental pain, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and self-rated oral health (SROH) in adolescents. A cross-sectional study involving 542 adolescents, aged 12-14 yr, was conducted in Dourados, Brazil, to collect dental clinical measures (dental caries, missing teeth, and dental trauma), as well as measures of social support, social network, dental pain, OHRQoL, and SROH. Information on family income and parental education were collected from participant's parents. Structural equation modeling showed that higher income predicted better dental status and better SROH. Greater social support was linked to better dental status and better OHRQoL. Having more social networks was directly linked to better dental status. Poor dental status was linked to dental pain and poor OHRQoL. Dental pain predicted poor OHRQoL and worse SROH. Poor OHRQoL predicted worse SROH. Family income, social support, and social networks indirectly predicted dental pain via dental status. The latter was indirectly linked to OHRQoL and SROH via dental pain. Social support and social networks indirectly predicted OHRQoL and SROH via dental status and dental pain. Socio-economic factors and social relationships should be considered when planning health promotion and dental care provision to improve an adolescent's oral health.
Resultados  1-10 de 110.767