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1.

Perfil dos enfermeiros de Cabo Verde/África: fatores que influenciam a qualidade de vida/ Profile of nurses from Cape Verde/Africa: the influencing factors of life quality/ Perfil de enfermeras del Cabo Verde/África: factores que influyen en la calidad de vida

Reis, Deisa Salyse dos; Pelzer, Marlene Teda; Ventura, Jeferson; Paula, Saul Ferraz de; Moniz, Ana Suzete Baessa; Semedo, José António Cabral
;
| Idioma(s): Inglés; Portugués
Objetivo: Descrever o perfil e os fatores que influenciam a qualidade de vida dos enfermeiros de um hospital de grande porte de Cabo Verde/África. Método: Pesquisa descritiva simples com uma abordagem quantitativa. Participaram 40 enfermeiros. Os dados foram coletados em junho e julho de 2015, analisados com o programa Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS), versão 20.0. Resultados: 72,5% são do sexo feminino e 27,5% do sexo masculino, 40% estão em uma faixa etária entre 36 a 45 anos, 52,5% são solteiros(as). Dos fatores que influenciam a qualidade de vida, 19,4% referiram a baixa remuneração, 15,7% condições de trabalho e motivação, 13,1% carga horária e estresse. Conclusão: A partir dos fatores que influenciam a qualidade de vida dos enfermeiros foi possível identificar a necessidade de mudanças com o intuito de fornecer melhores condições de trabalho e renda para os enfermeiros cabo-verdianos Objective: To describe the profile and factors that influence the quality of life of nurses at a large hospital in Cape Verde-Africa. Method: Simple descriptive research with a quantitative approach. 40 nurses participated. Data were collected in June and July 2015, analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: 72.5% are female and 27.5% are male, 40% are between 36 and 45 years of age, 52.5% are single. Of the factors that influence quality of life, 19.4% referred to low remuneration, 15.7% working conditions and motivation, 13.1% workload and stress. Conclusion: Based on the factors that influence nurses' quality of life, it was possible to identify the need for changes in order to provide better working conditions and income for the Cape Verdean nurses Objetivo: Describir el perfil y los factores que influyen en la calidad de vida del personal de enfermería en un hospital grande Verde-África del Cabo. Método: Investigación descriptiva simple con un enfoque cuantitativo. Con la asistencia de 40 enfermeras. Los datos fueron recogidos en junio y julio de 2015, se analizaron con el paquete estadístico para las Ciencias Sociales (SPSS) versión 20.0. Resultados: El 72,5% son mujeres y el 27,5% hombres, 40% están en el grupo de edad entre 36 a 45 años, el 52,5% son solteros (as). Los factores que influyen en la calidad de vida, el 19,4% informó de un salario bajo, 15,7% las condiciones de trabajo y la motivación, el 13,1% de carga de trabajo y el estrés. Conclusión: A partir de los factores que influyen en la calidad de vida de las enfermeras fue posible identificar la necesidad de cambio con el fin de ofrecer mejores condiciones de trabajo e ingresos para los caboverdianos enfermeras
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2.

The impact of recreational care activity in the immediate postoperative period/ O impacto do cuidado lúdico no pós-operatório imediato/ El impacto de la atención de recreo en el postoperatorio inmediato

Ventura, Jeferson; Cassenote, Liege Gonçalves; Gehlen, Maria Helena; Paula, Saul Ferraz de; Martins, Elenice Spagnolo Rodrigues
| Idioma(s): Inglés; Portugués
Objective: The study's goal has been to understand the impact of playful educational actions performed by nurses in the immediate postoperative period, aiming to restore health promotion and maintenance strategies. Methods: It is an action-based research that was carried out in a municipal hospital in the Central region of Rio Grande do Sul State. The participants were hospitalized patients scheduled to undergo cholecystectomy procedure. This research was performed in three stages, as follows: the first one used a semi-structured questionnaire; the second, was the socialization of the recreational strategy developed by the researcher; and the third, sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the recreational activity. Data analysis was done by the content analysis under the thematic modality. Results: "Playfulness allied to therapeutic communication determining the confrontation of the perioperative process" and "Playfulness in the nursing consultation as a strategy toward the health education and self-care stimuli". Conclusion: The playful educational activities toward clients hospitalized for surgical procedure impact as a care methodology with innovative, active, and dialogic characteristics, then providing moments of demystification and understanding of the context that will be experienced in a creative and light way Objetivo: Compreender o impacto de ações educativas lúdicas realizadas pelo enfermeiro no pós-operatório imediato, visando reconstruir estratégias de promoção e manutenção da saúde. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa-ação, realizada em um hospital municipal na região central, Rio Grande do Sul. Os participantes foram pacientes internados para realização de colecistectomia. Feita em três momentos, primeiro utilizou um questionário semiestruturado; segundo, a socialização da estratégia lúdica desenvolvida pelo pesquisador; terceiro, buscou avaliar a efetividade da ação educativa lúdica. Submetidos à análise de conteúdo, na modalidade temática. Resultados: "Ludicidade aliada à comunicação terapêutica determinando o enfrentamento do processo perioperatório" e "Ludicidade na consulta de Enfermagem como estratégia de educar para a saúde e estimular o autocuidado". Conclusão: As ações educativas lúdicas a clientes internados para a realização de procedimento cirúrgico impactam como uma metodologia de cuidado inovadora, ativa e dialógica, proporcionando momentos de desmistificação e compreensão do contexto que será vivenciado, de forma criativa e leve. Descritores: Educação em Saúde, Promoção da Saúde, Enfermagem, Ludicidade Objetivo: Comprender el impacto de las actividades educativas recreativas llevadas a cabo por personal de enfermería en el postoperatorio inmediato, con el objetivo de reconstruir las estrategias de promoción y mantenimiento de la salud. Métodos: Se trata de una investigación en la acción llevada a cabo en un hospital municipal en la región central, RS. Los participantes fueron pacientes hospitalizados para la colecistectomía. Que tuvo lugar en tres etapas, que se utiliza por primera vez un cuestionario semi-estructurado, de acuerdo con la socialización de la estrategia de juego desarrollado por el investigador, en tercer lugar, tuvo como objetivo evaluar la eficacia de las actividades lúdicas educativas. Sometido a análisis de contenido, modalidad temática. Resultados: "Lo lúdico combinan con la comunicación terapéutica determinar la cara del proceso perioperatorio" y "Lo lúdico en consulta de Enfermería como una estrategia para educar a la salud y estimular el autocuidado." Conclusión: Las actividades lúdicas educativas a los clientes hospitalizados para llevar a cabo la cirugía de impacto como una metodología innovadora de atención, activa, y de diálogo, proporcionando momentos de desmitificación y la comprensión del contexto que se experimentará, forma creativa y la luz
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3.

A contextualização do aborto sob a ótica do enfermeiro/ The contextualization of abortion from the standpoint the nurse

Ayres, Rodrigo; Martins, Aline de Carvalho; Xavier, Rozânia Bicego; São Bento, Paulo Alexandre de Souza; Silva, Juliana Neto da
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| Idioma(s): Portugués
Objetivou-se analisar a opinião de enfermeiros do sexo masculino quanto ao aborto provocado. Através de uma pesquisa exploratória, descritiva e de natureza qualitativa, baseada na técnica da bola de neve, com análise de conteúdo. Os resultados demonstram que existe uma invisibilidade masculina quando se trata de gestações indesejadas onde a figura feminina é sempre colocada como culpada, imprudente ou responsável. Concluindo que o enfermeiro apesar de toda questão ética que envolve a profissão, a intervenção profissional é fruto de atitude e valores sociais e intelectuais de cada profissional.(AU)
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4.

Hope as a behavior and cognitive process: A new clinical strategy about mental health's prevention.

Hartmann, José Antônio Spencer; Fernandes, Alina Laís Almeida de Farias; Medeiros, Antônio Gabriel Araújo Pimentel de; Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho de; Pinheiro, Keny Silva Castelo Branco; Amorim, Lucyeli Luna Lopes de; Queiroga, Mariana Ferreira Silveira de; Cruz, Marianne Rodrigues Correia da; Araújo, Rebeca Cristine Torres de; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim
| Idioma(s): Inglés
INTRODUCTION: Given the aging population, it is necessary to develop strategies for the prevention and promotion of mental health in the elderly. Hope as the ability to trace and maintain paths can be used as a key construct for these strategies, promoting cognitive health if stimulated. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the behavior and cognitive development of elderly people through hope training as a clinical strategy for health promotion. METHODS: A clinical experiment with a comparative and cross-sectional design. There were 2 data collection phases over a 6-month period. The sample comprised 51 participants, divided into groups having received either more or less than 6 months of stimulation. The instruments used were the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and Expectations/Hope Scale About the Future and Life's Guidance. The Wilcoxon signed-ranks test (t test) was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Hope in addition to cognitive stimulation shows more significant results in elderly people at initial stimulation (0.18), mainly at the permanence and troubleshooting on the paths concerned; this corresponds with the results obtained for hope (0.18). Depressive symptomatology showed significant differences among the 2 groups (0.39 and 0.02). In the between-groups comparisons, only GDS showed significance (0.46).Hope training has an impact on the remission of depressive symptoms and, despite increased hope levels, training was effective for the reduction of depression symptoms for up to 6 months, thereafter only playing a maintenance role. Broadly, hope has been shown to promote elderly people's mental health.
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5.

Efficacy of a mobile phone-based life-skills training program for substance use prevention among adolescents: study protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

Haug, Severin; Paz Castro, Raquel; Wenger, Andreas; Schaub, Michael P
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Life-skills trainings conducted within the school curriculum are effective in preventing the onset and escalation of substance use among adolescents. However, their dissemination is impeded due to their large resource requirements. Life-skills training provided via mobile phones might represent a more economic and scalable approach. The main objective of the planned study is to test the efficacy of a mobile phone-based life-skills training to prevent substance use among adolescents within a controlled trial. METHODS/DESIGN: The efficacy of a mobile phone-based life-skills training to prevent substance use among adolescents will be tested in comparison to an assessment only control group, within a cluster-randomised controlled trial with two follow-up assessments after 6 and 18 months. The fully automated program is based on social cognitive theory and addresses self-management skills, social skills, and substance use resistance skills. Participants of the intervention group will receive up to 4 weekly text messages over 6 months in order to stimulate (1) positive outcome expectations, e.g., on using self-management skills to cope with stress, (2) self-efficacy, e.g., to resist social pressure, (3) observational learning, e.g. of interpersonal competences, (4) facilitation, e.g., of strategies to cope with negative emotions, and (5) self-regulation, e.g., by self-monitoring of stress and emotions. Active program engagement will be stimulated by interactive features such as quiz questions, message- and picture-contests, and integration of a friendly competition with prizes in which program users collect credits with each interaction. Study participants will be 1312 students between the ages of 14 and 16 years from approximately 100 secondary school classes. Primary outcome criteria will be problem drinking according to the short form of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and cigarette smoking within the last 30 days preceding the follow-up assessment at month 18. DISCUSSION: This is the first study testing the efficacy of a mobile phone-based life-skills training for substance use prevention among adolescents within a controlled trial. Given that this intervention approach proves to be effective, it could be easily implemented in various settings and would reach large numbers of young people in a cost-effective way. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN41347061 (registration date: 21/07/2018).
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6.

CDC Grand Rounds: Promoting Well-Being and Independence in Older Adults.

Olivari, Benjamin S; Baumgart, Matthew; Lock, Sarah L; Whiting, C Grace; Taylor, Christopher A; Iskander, John; Thorpe, Phoebe; McGuire, Lisa C
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Healthy aging is not merely the absence of disease or disability, but requires physical and mental health and ongoing social engagement (1). As the average U.S. life expectancy increases, recognition that public health can play a vital role in promoting healthy, successful aging even in the face of increased prevalence of chronic diseases, including types of dementia, among older adults (i.e., aged ≥65 years) has grown. Furthermore, actively engaging adults in prevention and wellness along with involving their caregivers (i.e., the family and friends of older adults who provide them with unpaid and informal support and services) can serve to prevent or delay the onset of physical disabilities and cognitive decline. Adults often are reluctant to discuss their concerns about worsening memory with their health care providers although such discussions can lead to earlier diagnosis and better care, planning, and support. As advances in public health and health care have helped increase life expectancy, public health professionals and health care providers have the opportunity to improve the quality of life for older adults and their caregivers and reduce the burdens associated with aging.
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7.

Effects of a strategy for the promotion of physical activity in students from Bogotá.

Gutiérrez-Martínez, Leidys; Martínez, Rocío Gámez; González, Silvia A; Bolívar, Manuel A; Estupiñan, Omaira Valencia; Sarmiento, Olga L
| Idioma(s): Inglés; Español
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the promotion of physical activity during recess on the levels of physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and adiposity of Colombian students. METHODS: Three schools were randomly selected by an intervention group in Bogotá, Colombia, in 2013: Intervention (Active Module of Active Recess - MARA) + Text Messages (SMS) (MARA+SMS group), intervention (MARA group), control (control group). Intervention was implemented for ten weeks. The duration and intensity of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured objectively using accelerometers Actigraph-GT3X+. Adiposity was measured by body mass index and fat percentage. We measured at baseline (T0) and during the tenth week of intervention (T1). We evaluated the effect of the intervention using a difference-in-difference analysis (DID). RESULTS: We included 120 students (57.5% girls; mean age = 10.5 years; standard deviation [SD] = 0.64). There was a significant increase in the mean daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity in the MARA group (Difference T1-T0 = 6.1 minutes, standard error [SE] = 3.49, p = 0.005) in relation to the control group. There were no significant changes in the minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity in the MARA+SMS group (Difference T1-T0 = -1.0 minute; SE = 3.06; p = 0.363). The minutes decreased in the control group (Difference T1-T0 = -7.7 minutes; SE = 3.15; p = 0.011). The minutes of sedentary behaviors decreased in the MARA and MARA+SMS groups and increased in the control group (MARA Difference T1-T0 = -15.8 minutes; SE = 10.05; p= 0.279; MARA+SMS Difference T1-T0 = -11.5 minutes; SE = 8.80; p= 0.869; Control Difference T1-T0 = 10.9 minutes; SE = 9.07; p = 0.407). There was a higher participation in the MARA group in relation to the MARA+SMS group (MARA group = 34.4%; MARA+SMS group = 12.1%). There were no significant changes in adiposity at 10 weeks according to difference-in-differences analysis (body mass index p: ΔMARA+SMS group versus Δcontrol group = 0.945, ΔMARA group versus Δcontrol group = 0.847, ΔMARA+SMS group versus ΔMARA group = 0.990; FP p ΔMARA+SMS group versus Δcontrol group = 0.788, ΔMARA group versus Δcontrol group = 0.915, ΔMARA+SMS group versus ΔMARA group = 0.975). CONCLUSIONS: The Active Module of Active Recess is a promising strategy to increase physical activity levels and decrease sedentary behavior in students. The addition of Text Messages was not associated with increased moderate to vigorous physical activity or changes in adiposity.
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8.

How Do We Evaluate Health in All Policies? Comment on "Developing a Framework for a Program Theory-Based Approach to Evaluating Policy Processes and Outcomes: Health in All Policies in South Australia".

Holt, Ditte Heering; Ahlmark, Nanna
| Idioma(s): Inglés
It is well-established that population health is influenced by a multitude of factors, many of which lie outside the scope of the health sector. In the public health literature it is often assumed that intersectoral engagement with nonhealth sectors will be instrumental in addressing these social determinants of health. Due to the expected desirable outcomes in population health, several countries have introduced Health in All Policies (HiAP). However, whether this systematic, top-down approach to whole-of-government action (which HiAP entails) is efficient in changing government policies remains unclear. A systematic evaluation of HiAP is therefore much needed. Lawless and colleagues present an evaluation framework for HiAP in their article: "Developing a Framework for a Program Theory-Based Approach to Evaluating Policy Processes and Outcomes: Health in All Policies in South Australia." This work is an important endeavor in addressing this problem (of uncertainty as to whether HiAP is effective) and represents an essential contribution to the HiAP literature. Nonetheless, in the spirit of encouraging ongoing reflection on this topic, we wish to highlight some challenges in the presented framework, which may pose difficulties in operationalization. We find that the evaluation framework faces two main limitations: its unclear causal logic and its level of complexity. We argue that in order to function as a tool for evaluation, the framework should be explicit about the mechanisms of change and enable us to trace whether the assumed causal relations resulted in changes in practice. Developing manageable evaluation frameworks, albeit simplified, may then be an important part of cumulating the theoretical insights aspired in theory-based evaluation. On this basis, we highlight how HiAP processes and healthy public policies respectively involve different mechanisms, and thus argue that different program theories are needed.
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9.

Evaluating Health in All Policies Comment on "Developing a Framework for a Program Theory-Based Approach to Evaluating Policy Processes and Outcomes: Health in All Policies in South Australia".

Peña, Sebastián
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Health in All Policies (HiAP) has gained attention as a potential tool to address complex health and societal challenges at global, regional, national and subnational levels. In a recent article, Lawless et al propose an evaluation framework developed in the context of the South Australia HiAP initiative. Strategies, mediators, activities and impacts identified in the framework could potentially be useful for evaluating HiAP in other settings. Creating and sustaining political will, managing conflicts of interest and achieving financially, politically and conceptually sustainable HiAP initiatives are challenges that could be further strengthened in the current framework.
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10.

Tools Clinicians Can Use to Help Get Patients Active.

Kennedy, Ann Blair; Hales, Sarah B
| Idioma(s): Inglés
An epidemic of physical inactivity has given rise to a population struggling with early mortality and an increase in chronic non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Primary care providers as well as other clinicians are in a position to help overcome this epidemic of physical inactivity. The goal of this commentary is to provide clinicians with resources and recommendations from the recent literature to help overcome barriers to physical activity counseling and help patients become physically active. Theory-based interventions from communication and exercise prescriptions to wearables and mobile health technology are discussed. Limitations and future directions are explored.
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