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2.

A cross-country analysis of climate shocks and smallholder food insecurity.

Niles, Meredith T; Salerno, Jonathan D
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Future climate changes will affect smallholder farmers in the developing world, posing threats to household food security. Nevertheless, there remains limited comparable evidence across multiple countries and regions regarding the global extent of climate shocks affecting smallholder food security. We examine data from 5,299 household surveys across 15 countries in Latin America, Africa and South Asia to assess the extent of climate shocks and their association with food insecurity, as well as what strategies may help buffer against climate shocks. We find that 71% of households reported experiencing a climate shock in the previous five years. Fifty-four percent reported experiencing food insecurity during one or more months annually. A multilevel statistical model estimated factors correlated with food insecurity as well as factors correlated with food insecurity among households that had experienced a climate shock. Households that reported experiencing a climate shock were 1.73 times more likely to be food insecure. As well, larger and poorer households were associated with higher odds of food insecurity while using pesticides, keeping large livestock, and being more educated are associated with lower odds of food insecurity. Among households that had experienced a climate shock, additional factors are correlated with lower odds of food insecurity when compared to otherwise similar households: use of fertilizers, pesticides, veterinary medicines, large livestock, and household assets. Together, these results demonstrate the extent of existing climate shocks affecting smallholder farmers and how interventions may potentially support adaptation and reduce food insecurity.
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3.

Neighborhood disparities in access to healthy foods and their effects on environmental justice.

Hilmers, Angela; Hilmers, David C; Dave, Jayna
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Environmental justice is concerned with an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. These burdens comprise immediate health hazards as well as subtle inequities, such as limited access to healthy foods. We reviewed the literature on neighborhood disparities in access to fast-food outlets and convenience stores. Low-income neighborhoods offered greater access to food sources that promote unhealthy eating. The distribution of fast-food outlets and convenience stores differed by the racial/ethnic characteristics of the neighborhood. Further research is needed to address the limitations of current studies, identify effective policy actions to achieve environmental justice, and evaluate intervention strategies to promote lifelong healthy eating habits, optimum health, and vibrant communities.
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5.

O encontro entre o desenvolvimento rural sustentável e a promoção da saúde no Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira/ The meeting between sustainable rural development and health promotion in Food Guide for the Brazilian Population

Oliveira, Nádia Rosana Fernandes de; Jaime, Patricia Constante
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Resumo O Guia Alimentar é documento que aborda os princípios e as recomendações de uma alimentação adequada e saudável para a população brasileira, tendo como propósito apoiar a educação alimentar e nutricional e subsidiar políticas e programas nacionais de alimentação e nutrição no setor de saúde e também em outros setores. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a interseção entre a promoção da saúde e o desenvolvimento rural sustentável no Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira. Realizou-se análise do texto do Guia através de temas previstos a partir dos conceitos de promoção da saúde e desenvolvimento rural sustentável. Posteriormente, revisou-se o texto e foram identificados temas emergentes expressos pela interseção dos conceitos, sendo, então, discutidos à luz do referencial bibliográfico dos campos da segurança alimentar e nutricional, do desenvolvimento rural e da epidemiologia nutricional. Sete temas previstos e seis temas emergentes foram identificados e relacionados a quatro dimensões explicativas dos seis temas de interseção relacionados aos conceitos, os quais foram identificados a partir dos elementos constitutivos dos itens: princípios e diretrizes do Guia Alimentar; dez passos para uma alimentação saudável; superação de obstáculos para a realização desses dez passos. O Guia Alimentar propõe a produção social da saúde na interação entre as noções de alimentação adequada e saudável, segurança alimentar e nutricional, e desenvolvimento rural. Destacam-se as recomendações e orientações que dialogam com a produção de alimentos de base agroecológica e com a garantia da biodiversidade alimentar na agricultura familiar, bem como a perspectiva de relação com os sistemas alimentares locais. Abstract The Food Guide is a document that addresses the principles and recommendations of an adequate and healthy food for the Brazilian population, with the purpose to support food and nutrition education, and support national policies and food and nutrition programs in the health sector and also in other sectors. The objective of this study is to identify the intersection between health promotion and sustainable rural development in the Food Guide for the Brazilian population. We conducted an analysis of the Guide text from the provided themes established by the concepts of health promotion and sustainable rural development, and subsequently identified emerging themes expressed by the intersection of the concepts, and then discussed in the light of the nutrition and food security, rural development, and nutritional epidemiology bibliography. Seven expected themes and six emerging themes were identified and related to four explanatory dimensions of the six intersection of issues related to the concepts, which were identified from the constitutive elements of items: principles and guidelines of the Food Guide; ten steps to a healthy diet; overcoming obstacles to achieving the ten steps. The Food Guide suggests the social promotion of health in the interaction between the notions of proper nutrition and healthy food and nutritional security, and rural development. Highlight the recommendations and guidelines that dialogue with the production of agroecological basis of food and ensuring food biodiversity in family farming, as well as the prospect of relationship with local food systems.
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6.

Tackling 'wicked' health promotion problems: a New Zealand case study.

Signal, Louise N; Walton, Mat D; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph; Bowers, Sharron G; Carter, Kristie N; Gorton, Delvina; Heta, Craig; Lanumata, Tolotea S; McKerchar, Christina W; O'Dea, Des; Pearce, Jamie
| Idioma(s): Inglés
This paper reports on a complex environmental approach to addressing 'wicked' health promotion problems devised to inform policy for enhancing food security and physical activity among Maori, Pacific and low-income people in New Zealand. This multi-phase research utilized literature reviews, focus groups, stakeholder workshops and key informant interviews. Participants included members of affected communities, policy-makers and academics. Results suggest that food security and physical activity 'emerge' from complex systems. Key areas for intervention include availability of money within households; the cost of food; improvements in urban design and culturally specific physical activity programmes. Seventeen prioritized intervention areas were explored in-depth and recommendations for action identified. These include healthy food subsidies, increasing the statutory minimum wage rate and enhancing open space and connectivity in communities. This approach has moved away from seeking individual solutions to complex social problems. In doing so, it has enabled the mapping of the relevant systems and the identification of a range of interventions while taking account of the views of affected communities and the concerns of policy-makers. The complex environmental approach used in this research provides a method to identify how to intervene in complex systems that may be relevant to other 'wicked' health promotion problems.
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7.

A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods.

Song, Hee-Jung; Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Miyong; Suratkar, Sonali; Sharma, Sangita; Anliker, Jean
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: While corner store-based nutrition interventions have emerged as a potential strategy to increase healthy food availability in low-income communities, few evaluation studies exist. We present the results of a trial in Baltimore City to increase the availability and sales of healthier food options in local stores. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. SETTING: Corner stores owned by Korean-Americans and supermarkets located in East and West Baltimore. SUBJECTS: Seven corner stores and two supermarkets in East Baltimore received a 10-month intervention and six corner stores and two supermarkets in West Baltimore served as comparison. RESULTS: During and post-intervention, stocking of healthy foods and weekly reported sales of some promoted foods increased significantly in intervention stores compared with comparison stores. Also, intervention storeowners showed significantly higher self-efficacy for stocking some healthy foods in comparison to West Baltimore storeowners. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the study demonstrated that increases in the stocking and promotion of healthy foods can result in increased sales. Working in small corner stores may be a feasible means of improving the availability of healthy foods and their sales in a low-income urban community.
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8.

Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.

Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hyun Jung; Jung, Yumi; Thompson, Tracy; Alaimo, Katherine; Risley, John; Mayfield, Kellie
| Idioma(s): Inglés
This study evaluated a community-based and social marketing healthy corner store program (FIT store) to improve the affordability and availability of healthy foods in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores data were analyzed for the FIT (N = 4) stores. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among the FIT store customers before (N = 401) and after (N = 318) the intervention. Three FIT stores improved their total Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores availability score from before to after the intervention. A significantly higher level of FIT awareness and monthly bean and nut consumption was reported in the postintervention.
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9.

Formative evaluation for a healthy corner store initiative in Pitt County, North Carolina: engaging stakeholders for a healthy corner store initiative, part 2.

Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Bringolf, Karamie R; Lloyd, Cameron L; McGuirt, Jared T; Lawton, Katherine K; Morgan, Jo
| Idioma(s): Inglés
INTRODUCTION: We examined the feasibility of increasing access to healthful food in corner stores to inform a Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) initiative by engaging stakeholders (corner store owners and customers) in a formative evaluation. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with corner store owners and managers (n = 11). Customer intercept surveys (n = 179) were also conducted with customers of 9 stores. Corner stores were located in rural food deserts (municipalities without a chain supermarket) and in low-income, urban municipalities in eastern North Carolina. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and double-coded. Qualitative themes related to feasibility of increasing access to healthful foods were extracted. Shopping patterns of rural and urban customers were compared by using t tests. RESULTS: Corner store owners were willing to stock more healthful foods, but they perceived that customer demand for these foods was low. Rural customers reported more frequently shopping at corner stores than urban customers and more frequently stated that the reason they do not eat more fruits and vegetables is that the stores in which they shop do not sell them. Most customers reported they would be very or somewhat likely to purchase fresh produce at a corner store. CONCLUSION: Corner stores may be an important source of food for rural and low-income residents and thus a good place in which to intervene. The results of this formative evaluation were used to plan and evaluate a CPPW healthy corner store initiative.
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10.

Prioritizing health and community food security through the farm bill.

Kaiser, Michelle L
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Food security and health are complex interrelated issues. Individual characteristics exist within the physical and built environments. Title IV of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 is analyzed in terms of how it addresses systemic food insecurity and the opportunities the policy has for improving public health by increasing support for the availability of affordable local produce to low-income households. Structural changes need to occur for programs to be equitable, efficient, and effective. Interdisciplinary leadership within government agencies, school systems, social service agencies, health care agencies, and nonprofit networks is necessary to ensure food security and health for all Americans. Social work and public health practitioners have the opportunity to change the status quo, encourage community-level interventions, advocate for producers and consumers, and encourage more equitable distribution of food to create a healthier low-income population.
Resultados  1-10 de 263