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2.

A cross-country analysis of climate shocks and smallholder food insecurity.

Niles, Meredith T; Salerno, Jonathan D
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Future climate changes will affect smallholder farmers in the developing world, posing threats to household food security. Nevertheless, there remains limited comparable evidence across multiple countries and regions regarding the global extent of climate shocks affecting smallholder food security. We examine data from 5,299 household surveys across 15 countries in Latin America, Africa and South Asia to assess the extent of climate shocks and their association with food insecurity, as well as what strategies may help buffer against climate shocks. We find that 71% of households reported experiencing a climate shock in the previous five years. Fifty-four percent reported experiencing food insecurity during one or more months annually. A multilevel statistical model estimated factors correlated with food insecurity as well as factors correlated with food insecurity among households that had experienced a climate shock. Households that reported experiencing a climate shock were 1.73 times more likely to be food insecure. As well, larger and poorer households were associated with higher odds of food insecurity while using pesticides, keeping large livestock, and being more educated are associated with lower odds of food insecurity. Among households that had experienced a climate shock, additional factors are correlated with lower odds of food insecurity when compared to otherwise similar households: use of fertilizers, pesticides, veterinary medicines, large livestock, and household assets. Together, these results demonstrate the extent of existing climate shocks affecting smallholder farmers and how interventions may potentially support adaptation and reduce food insecurity.
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3.

Neighborhood disparities in access to healthy foods and their effects on environmental justice.

Hilmers, Angela; Hilmers, David C; Dave, Jayna
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Environmental justice is concerned with an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. These burdens comprise immediate health hazards as well as subtle inequities, such as limited access to healthy foods. We reviewed the literature on neighborhood disparities in access to fast-food outlets and convenience stores. Low-income neighborhoods offered greater access to food sources that promote unhealthy eating. The distribution of fast-food outlets and convenience stores differed by the racial/ethnic characteristics of the neighborhood. Further research is needed to address the limitations of current studies, identify effective policy actions to achieve environmental justice, and evaluate intervention strategies to promote lifelong healthy eating habits, optimum health, and vibrant communities.
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4.

A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods.

Song, Hee-Jung; Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Miyong; Suratkar, Sonali; Sharma, Sangita; Anliker, Jean
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: While corner store-based nutrition interventions have emerged as a potential strategy to increase healthy food availability in low-income communities, few evaluation studies exist. We present the results of a trial in Baltimore City to increase the availability and sales of healthier food options in local stores. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. SETTING: Corner stores owned by Korean-Americans and supermarkets located in East and West Baltimore. SUBJECTS: Seven corner stores and two supermarkets in East Baltimore received a 10-month intervention and six corner stores and two supermarkets in West Baltimore served as comparison. RESULTS: During and post-intervention, stocking of healthy foods and weekly reported sales of some promoted foods increased significantly in intervention stores compared with comparison stores. Also, intervention storeowners showed significantly higher self-efficacy for stocking some healthy foods in comparison to West Baltimore storeowners. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the study demonstrated that increases in the stocking and promotion of healthy foods can result in increased sales. Working in small corner stores may be a feasible means of improving the availability of healthy foods and their sales in a low-income urban community.
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5.

Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.

Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hyun Jung; Jung, Yumi; Thompson, Tracy; Alaimo, Katherine; Risley, John; Mayfield, Kellie
| Idioma(s): Inglés
This study evaluated a community-based and social marketing healthy corner store program (FIT store) to improve the affordability and availability of healthy foods in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores data were analyzed for the FIT (N = 4) stores. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among the FIT store customers before (N = 401) and after (N = 318) the intervention. Three FIT stores improved their total Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores availability score from before to after the intervention. A significantly higher level of FIT awareness and monthly bean and nut consumption was reported in the postintervention.
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6.

Prioritizing health and community food security through the farm bill.

Kaiser, Michelle L
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Food security and health are complex interrelated issues. Individual characteristics exist within the physical and built environments. Title IV of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 is analyzed in terms of how it addresses systemic food insecurity and the opportunities the policy has for improving public health by increasing support for the availability of affordable local produce to low-income households. Structural changes need to occur for programs to be equitable, efficient, and effective. Interdisciplinary leadership within government agencies, school systems, social service agencies, health care agencies, and nonprofit networks is necessary to ensure food security and health for all Americans. Social work and public health practitioners have the opportunity to change the status quo, encourage community-level interventions, advocate for producers and consumers, and encourage more equitable distribution of food to create a healthier low-income population.
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7.

Formative evaluation for a healthy corner store initiative in Pitt County, North Carolina: engaging stakeholders for a healthy corner store initiative, part 2.

Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Bringolf, Karamie R; Lloyd, Cameron L; McGuirt, Jared T; Lawton, Katherine K; Morgan, Jo
| Idioma(s): Inglés
INTRODUCTION: We examined the feasibility of increasing access to healthful food in corner stores to inform a Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) initiative by engaging stakeholders (corner store owners and customers) in a formative evaluation. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with corner store owners and managers (n = 11). Customer intercept surveys (n = 179) were also conducted with customers of 9 stores. Corner stores were located in rural food deserts (municipalities without a chain supermarket) and in low-income, urban municipalities in eastern North Carolina. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and double-coded. Qualitative themes related to feasibility of increasing access to healthful foods were extracted. Shopping patterns of rural and urban customers were compared by using t tests. RESULTS: Corner store owners were willing to stock more healthful foods, but they perceived that customer demand for these foods was low. Rural customers reported more frequently shopping at corner stores than urban customers and more frequently stated that the reason they do not eat more fruits and vegetables is that the stores in which they shop do not sell them. Most customers reported they would be very or somewhat likely to purchase fresh produce at a corner store. CONCLUSION: Corner stores may be an important source of food for rural and low-income residents and thus a good place in which to intervene. The results of this formative evaluation were used to plan and evaluate a CPPW healthy corner store initiative.
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8.

Changes in food and beverage environments after an urban corner store intervention.

Cavanaugh, Erica; Green, Sarah; Mallya, Giridhar; Tierney, Ann; Brensinger, Colleen; Glanz, Karen
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: In response to the obesity epidemic, interventions to improve the food environment in corner stores have gained attention. This study evaluated the availability, quality, and price of foods in Philadelphia corner stores before and after a healthy corner store intervention with two levels of intervention intensity ("basic" and "conversion"). METHODS: Observational measures of the food environment were completed in 2011 and again in 2012 in corner stores participating in the intervention, using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Corner Stores (NEMS-CS). Main analyses included the 211 stores evaluated at both time-points. A time-by-treatment interaction analysis was used to evaluate the changes in NEMS-CS scores by intervention level over time. RESULTS: Availability of fresh fruit increased significantly in conversion stores over time. Specifically, there were significant increases in the availability of apples, oranges, grapes, and broccoli in conversion stores over time. Conversion stores showed a trend toward a significantly larger increase in the availability score compared to basic stores over time. CONCLUSION: Interventions aimed at increasing healthy food availability are associated with improvements in the availability of low-fat milk, fruits, and some vegetables, especially when infrastructure changes, such as refrigeration and shelving enhancements, are offered.
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9.

Alimentación y salud, una relación conflictiva: el caso de España./ [Food and health, a conflictive relationship: the case of Spain].

García-Brenes, M David
| Idioma(s): Español
This study analyzes the factors that have triggered a gradual deterioration of eating habits and the new social and cultural imperatives that have seriously undermined the well-being of Spanish consumers. It shows that consumption of basic food products to ensure good nutrition has declined, while consumption of unhealthy food products has increased. The consumption of cereals, rice, legumes and wine has significantly declined; meat, milk, dairy products and fat consumption has substantially increased. Moreover, eating habits have changed and diversified, adapting to new constraints imposed by an increasingly industrialized society. Conclusions and recommendations for acquiring healthy eating habits are presented at the end of the paper.
Resultados  1-10 de 261