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1.

Comparative analysis of dietary guidelines in the Spanish-Speaking Caribbean.

Fuster, Melissa
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: Dietary guidelines are important education and policy tools to address local nutrition concerns. The current paper presents a comparative analysis of nutrition messages from three Spanish-speaking Caribbean countries (Cuba, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic) to explore how these dietary guidelines address common public health nutrition concerns, contextualized in different changing food environments and food culture similarities. DESIGN: Qualitative, comparative analysis of current dietary guideline documents and key recommendations. RESULTS: Key recommendations were categorized into sixteen themes (two diet-based, ten food-based and four 'other'). Only the Cuban dietary guidelines included diet-based key recommendations. Of the ten food-based key recommendations, only four themes overlapped across the three dietary guidelines (the encouragement of fruits and vegetables, addressing protein sources and fat). Other overlaps were found between dietary guideline pairs, except between Cuba and Puerto Rico. Further analysis revealed differences in levels of specificity and acknowledgement of local dietary patterns and issues, as well as the need to revise the guidelines to account for current scientific advances. CONCLUSIONS: The present study underscored the importance of context in the framing of dietary advice and the influence of national socio-economic and political situations on nutrition policy and education efforts. The results contribute to inform efforts to improve nutrition communication in the region and among migrant communities.
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2.

Service, training and outreach--the EARS Inc. Model for a self sustainable hearing program in action.

Carkeet, Donna; Pither, David; Anderson, Margaret
| Idioma(s): Inglés
PURPOSE: EARS Inc. is a faith based not-for-profit organization established in 1998. As an organization, it has consistently maintained a goal to provide both short-term and long-term projects in low and middle income countries. One specific project undertaken by EARS Inc involved developing a hearing health program in the Dominican Republic. METHODS: This article is a review of the challenges and successes encountered on the road to establishing improved access and affordability of hearing aid technology for the hearing impaired in Domincan Republic. RESULTS: Despite the challenges, after 12 years of local programming, the hearing health services in the Dominican Republic were successfully implemented. The development of these services included the simultaneous development of a training program, earmould laboratory, hearing aid repair services as well as calibration services and sales of batteries and accessories. CONCLUSIONS: As demonstrated in this review, it is possible to develop sustainable and comprehensive diagnostic and rehabilitation hearing services in a developing country. It is clear that training, equipping and empowering local staffs are instrumental to the success of the program. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: A good hearing aid fitting is more than supplying technology. Patient education and the clinician fitting the hearing aid are important. Access to follow-up services including battery supplies, hearing aid adjustments and hearing aid repairs is essential for a hearing aid fitting program in low and middle income countries to be sustainable. Check the WHO guidelines for hearing aid provision in developing countries when planning a program. When working in a country, co-ordinate with local professionals involved in hearing health where available.
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3.

A material cost-minimization analysis for hernia repairs and minor procedures during a surgical mission in the Dominican Republic.

Cavallo, Jaime A; Ousley, Jenny; Barrett, Christopher D; Baalman, Sara; Ward, Kyle; Borchardt, Malgorzata; Thomas, J Ross; Perotti, Gary; Frisella, Margaret M; Matthews, Brent D
| Idioma(s): Inglés
INTRODUCTION: Expenditures on material supplies and medications constitute the greatest per capita costs for surgical missions. We hypothesized that supply acquisition at non-profit organization (NPO) costs would lead to significant cost-savings compared with supply acquisition at US academic institution costs from the provider perspective for hernia repairs and minor procedures during a surgical mission in the Dominican Republic. METHODS: Items acquired for a surgical mission were uniquely QR-coded for accurate consumption accounting. Both NPO and US academic institution unit costs were associated with each item in an electronic inventory system. Medication doses were recorded and QR codes for consumed items were scanned into a record for each sampled procedure. Mean material costs and cost-savings ± SDs were calculated in US dollars for each procedure type. Cost-minimization analyses between the NPO and the US academic institution platforms for each procedure type ensued using a two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs test with α = 0.05. Item utilization analyses generated lists of most frequently used materials by procedure type. RESULTS: The mean cost-savings of supply acquisition at NPO costs for each procedure type were as follows: $482.86 ± $683.79 for unilateral inguinal hernia repair (n = 13); $332.46 ± $184.09 for bilateral inguinal hernia repair (n = 3); $127.26 ± $13.18 for hydrocelectomy (n = 9); $232.92 ± $56.49 for femoral hernia repair (n = 3); $120.90 ± $30.51 for umbilical hernia repair (n = 8); $36.59 ± $17.76 for minor procedures (n = 26); and $120.66 ± $14.61 for pediatric inguinal hernia repair (n = 7). CONCLUSION: Supply acquisition at NPO costs leads to significant cost-savings compared with supply acquisition at US academic institution costs from the provider perspective for inguinal hernia repair, hydrocelectomy, umbilical hernia repair, minor procedures, and pediatric inguinal hernia repair during a surgical mission in the Dominican Republic. Item utilization analysis can generate minimum-necessary material lists for each procedure type to reproduce cost-savings for subsequent missions.
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5.

Recruitment of Caribbean female commercial sex workers at high risk of HIV infection.

Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Zorrilla, Carmen D; Morgan, Cecilia A; Donastorg, Yeycy; Metch, Barbara; Madenwald, Tamra; Joseph, Patrice; Severe, Karine; Garced, Sheyla; Perez, Marta; Escamilia, Gina; Swann, Edith; Pape, Jean William
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate novel eligibility criteria and outreach methods to identify and recruit women at high risk of HIV-1 infection in the Caribbean. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2009-2012 among 799 female commercial sex workers in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico. Minimum eligibility criteria included exchange of sex for goods, services, or money in the previous 6 months and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a man during the same period. Sites used local epidemiology to develop more stringent eligibility criteria and recruitment strategies. Participants were asked questions about HIV/AIDS and their level of concern about participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess predictors of prevalent HIV infection and willingness to participate in a future HIV vaccine study. RESULTS: HIV prevalence at screening was 4.6%. Crack cocaine use [odds ratio (OR) = 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.8-9.0)] was associated with and having sex with clients in a hotel or motel [OR = 0.5, CI (0.3-1.0)] was inversely associated with HIV infection. A total of 88.9% of enrolled women were definitely or probably willing to participate in a future HIV vaccine trial. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that local eligibility criteria and recruitment methods can be developed to identify and recruit commercial sex workers with higher HIV prevalence than the general population who express willingness to join an HIV vaccine trial.
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6.

Feasibility of road traffic injury surveillance integrating police and health insurance data sets in the Dominican Republic.

Puello, Adrian; Bhatti, Junaid; Salmi, Louis-Rachid
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of semiautomated linking of road traffic injury (RTI) cases in different data sets in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The study population consisted of RTI cases in the Dominican Republic in 2010 and were identified in police and health insurance data sets. After duplicates were removed and fatality reporting was corrected by using forensic data, police and health insurance RTI records were linked if they had the same province, collision date, and gender of RTI cases and similar age within five years. A multinomial logistic regression model assessed the likelihood of being in only one of the data sets. RESULTS: One of five records was a duplicate, including 21.1% of 6 396 police and 16.2% of 6 178 insurance records. Health insurance data recorded 43 of 417 deaths as only injured. Capture - recapture estimated that both data sets recorded one of five RTI cases. Characteristics associated with increased likelihood (P < 0.05) of being only in the police data set were female gender [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.5], age ≥ 16 years (OR = 1.7), collision in the regions of Cibao Northeast (OR = 4.1) and Valdesia (OR = 6.4), day of occurrence from Tuesday to Saturday (ORs from 1.5 to 2.9), month of occurrence from October to December (ORs from 1.6 to 4.5), and occupant of four-wheeled vehicles (OR = 5.4) or trucks (OR = 5.3). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent semiautomated linking procedures were feasible to ascertain the RTI burden in the Dominican Republic and could be improved by standardized coding of police and health insurance RTI reporting.
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7.

A cross-national comparison of perceptions of aging and older adults discussion of comparative analysis and findings of the five countries: Part 2.

O'Brien-Suric, Nora
| Idioma(s): Inglés
This international comparative study on perceptions of aging and older people focusing on the predictor variables of Age, Gender, Marital Status, and Income Level has demonstrated that there are similarities and differences among how the participants in the countries view aging and older people. This study is exploratory with the intent to demonstrate that there is much to be gained from investigating the similarities and differences in perceptions of aging among countries.
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8.

Recruitment of Caribbean female commercial sex workers at high risk of HIV infection/ Captación de mujeres profesionales del sexo con alto riesgo de infección por VIH en el Caribe

Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Madenwald, Tamra; Metch, Barbara; Donastorg, Yeycy; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Zorrilla, Carmen D.; Pape, Jean William; Swann, Edith; Escamilia, Gina; Perez, Marta; Joseph, Patrice; Severe, Karine; Garced, Sheyla; HVTN 907 Protocol Team
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate novel eligibility criteria and outreach methods to identify and recruit women at high risk of HIV-1 infection in the Caribbean. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2009-2012 among 799 female commercial sex workers in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico. Minimum eligibility criteria included exchange of sex for goods, services, or money in the previous 6 months and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a man during the same period. Sites used local epidemiology to develop more stringent eligibility criteria and recruitment strategies. Participants were asked questions about HIV/AIDS and their level of concern about participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess predictors of prevalent HIV infection and willingness to participate in a future HIV vaccine study. RESULTS: HIV prevalence at screening was 4.6%. Crack cocaine use [odds ratio (OR) = 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.8-9.0)] was associated with and having sex with clients in a hotel or motel [OR = 0.5, CI (0.3-1.0)] was inversely associated with HIV infection. A total of 88.9% of enrolled women were definitely or probably willing to participate in a future HIV vaccine trial. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that local eligibility criteria and recruitment methods can be developed to identify and recruit commercial sex workers with higher HIV prevalence than the general population who express willingness to join an HIV vaccine trial. OBJETIVO: Evaluar nuevos criterios de selección y métodos extrainstitucionales encaminados a detectar y captar a las mujeres con alto riesgo de contraer la infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el Caribe. MÉTODOS: Del 2009 al 2012, se llevó a cabo un estudio prospectivo de cohortes de 799 mujeres profesionales del sexo en la República Dominicana, Haití y Puerto Rico. Los requisitos mínimos de selección fueron el intercambio de relaciones sexuales por bienes, servicios o dinero en los últimos 6 meses y las relaciones sexuales vaginales o anales sin protección con un hombre durante el mismo período. En cada centro se aplicaron criterios de selección y estrategias de captación más restrictivos, en función de las características epidemiológicas locales. Se formularon a las participantes preguntas acerca de la infección por el VIH/sida y su motivación para participar en un estudio clínico sobre la vacuna contra el VIH. Se usó un modelo de regresión logística con el fin de analizar los factores pronósticos de prevalencia de infección por el VIH y la voluntad de participar en un estudio futuro sobre la vacuna contra el virus. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de infección por el VIH en el momento del tamizaje fue 4,6%. El consumo de crack se asoció con la infección por el VIH (razón de posibilidades [OR]: 4,2; intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95%: 1,8-9,0) y la práctica de relaciones sexuales con clientes en un hotel o un motel se asoció inversamente con esta infección (OR: 0,5; IC 95%: 0,3-1,0). El 88,9% de las mujeres inscritas manifestó una disposición decidida o probable de participar en un estudio futuro sobre la vacuna contra el VIH. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados del estudio indican que es posible formular criterios de selección e introducir métodos de captación locales con el propósito de detectar y captar a las mujeres profesionales del sexo, que presentan una prevalencia de infección por el VIH mayor que la población general y manifiestan una buena disposición de participar en un ensayo clínico sobre la vacuna contra el VIH.
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9.

Feasibility of road traffic injury surveillance integrating police and health insurance data sets in the Dominican Republic/ Factibilidad de la vigilancia de las lesiones por accidentes de tránsito mediante la integración de los conjuntos de datos de la policía y del seguro nacional de salud en la República Dominicana

Puello, Adrian; Bhatti, Junaid; Salmi, Louis-Rachid
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of semiautomated linking of road traffic injury (RTI) cases in different data sets in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The study population consisted of RTI cases in the Dominican Republic in 2010 and were identified in police and health insurance data sets. After duplicates were removed and fatality reporting was corrected by using forensic data, police and health insurance RTI records were linked if they had the same province, collision date, and gender of RTI cases and similar age within five years. A multinomial logistic regression model assessed the likelihood of being in only one of the data sets. RESULTS: One of five records was a duplicate, including 21.1% of 6 396 police and 16.2% of 6 178 insurance records. Health insurance data recorded 43 of 417 deaths as only injured. Capture - recapture estimated that both data sets recorded one of five RTI cases. Characteristics associated with increased likelihood (P < 0.05) of being only in the police data set were female gender [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.5], age ≥ 16 years (OR = 1.7), collision in the regions of Cibao Northeast (OR = 4.1) and Valdesia (OR = 6.4), day of occurrence from Tuesday to Saturday (ORs from 1.5 to 2.9), month of occurrence from October to December (ORs from 1.6 to 4.5), and occupant of four-wheeled vehicles (OR = 5.4) or trucks (OR = 5.3). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent semiautomated linking procedures were feasible to ascertain the RTI burden in the Dominican Republic and could be improved by standardized coding of police and health insurance RTI reporting. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la factibilidad de la vinculación semiautomática de los registros de casos de lesiones por accidentes de tránsito (LAT) de diferentes conjuntos de datos en países de ingresos bajos y medianos. MÉTODOS: La población de estudio la constituían los casos de LAT ocurridos en la República Dominicana en el 2010 y registrados en los conjuntos de datos de la policía y del seguro nacional de salud. Después de eliminar los casos duplicados y corregir la notificación de defunciones a partir de los datos forenses, se vincularon los registros de LAT de la policía y el seguro de enfermedad si los casos correspondían a la misma provincia, fecha de colisión y sexo, y la edad era similar con una diferencia no superior a cinco años. Se evaluó la probabilidad de aparecer únicamente en uno de los conjuntos de datos mediante un modelo de regresión logística polinómica. RESULTADOS: Uno de cada cinco registros estaba duplicado (21,1% de los 6 396 registros de la policía y 16,2% de los 6 178 registros del seguro). En el conjunto de datos del seguro nacional de salud se registraron 43 de las 417 defunciones como únicamente lesionados. Mediante el método de captura-recaptura se calculó que en ambos conjuntos de datos se registraban uno de cada cinco casos de LAT. Las características asociadas con una mayor probabilidad (P < 0,05) de aparecer únicamente en el conjunto de datos de la policía fueron el sexo femenino (razón de posibilidades ajustada [OR] = 2,5), la edad ≥ 16 años (OR = 1,7), la colisión en las regiones del nordeste de Cibao (OR = 4,1) y Valdesia (OR = 6,4), el día del accidente de martes a sábado (OR de 1,5 a 2,9), el mes del accidente de octubre a diciembre (OR de 1,6 a 4,5) y los ocupantes de vehículos de cuatro ruedas (OR = 5,4) o camiones (OR = 5,3). CONCLUSIONES: Los procedimientos sistemáticos de vinculación semiautomatizada se mostraron factibles para evaluar la carga de LAT en la República Dominicana, y se podrían mejorar mediante la codificación estandarizada de las notificaciones de LAT de la policía y del seguro nacional de salud.
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10.

The double task of preventing malnutrition and overweight: a quasi-experimental community-based trial.

Navarro, José I; Sigulem, Dirce M; Ferraro, Alexandre A; Polanco, Juan J; Barros, Aluísio J D
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: The Maternal-Child Pastoral is a volunteer-based community organization of the Dominican Republic that works with families to improve child survival and development. A program that promotes key practices of maternal and child care through meetings with pregnant women and home visits to promote child growth and development was designed and implemented. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the program on nutritional status indicators of children in the first two years of age. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was used, with groups paired according to a socioeconomic index, comparing eight geographical areas of intervention with eight control areas. The intervention was carried out by lay health volunteers. Mothers in the intervention areas received home visits each month and participated in a group activity held biweekly during pregnancy and monthly after birth. The primary outcomes were length and body mass index for age. Statistical analyses were based on linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: 196 children in the intervention group and 263 in the control group were evaluated. The intervention did not show statistically significant effects on length, but point estimates found were in the desired direction: mean difference 0.21 (95%CI -0.02; 0.44) for length-for-age Z-score and OR 0.50 (95%CI 0.22; 1.10) for stunting. Significant reductions of BMI-for-age Z-score (-0.31, 95%CI -0.49; -0.12) and of BMI-for-age > 85th percentile (0.43, 95%CI 0.23; 0.77) were observed. The intervention showed positive effects in some indicators of intermediary factors such as growth monitoring, health promotion activities, micronutrient supplementation, exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding. CONCLUSIONS: Despite finding effect measures pointing to effects in the desired direction related to malnutrition, we could only detect a reduction in the risk of overweight attributable to the intervention. The findings related to obesity prevention may be of interest in the context of the nutritional transition. Given the size of this study, the results are encouraging and we believe a larger study is warranted.
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