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Comparative analysis of dietary guidelines in the Spanish-Speaking Caribbean.

Fuster, Melissa
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: Dietary guidelines are important education and policy tools to address local nutrition concerns. The current paper presents a comparative analysis of nutrition messages from three Spanish-speaking Caribbean countries (Cuba, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic) to explore how these dietary guidelines address common public health nutrition concerns, contextualized in different changing food environments and food culture similarities. DESIGN: Qualitative, comparative analysis of current dietary guideline documents and key recommendations. RESULTS: Key recommendations were categorized into sixteen themes (two diet-based, ten food-based and four 'other'). Only the Cuban dietary guidelines included diet-based key recommendations. Of the ten food-based key recommendations, only four themes overlapped across the three dietary guidelines (the encouragement of fruits and vegetables, addressing protein sources and fat). Other overlaps were found between dietary guideline pairs, except between Cuba and Puerto Rico. Further analysis revealed differences in levels of specificity and acknowledgement of local dietary patterns and issues, as well as the need to revise the guidelines to account for current scientific advances. CONCLUSIONS: The present study underscored the importance of context in the framing of dietary advice and the influence of national socio-economic and political situations on nutrition policy and education efforts. The results contribute to inform efforts to improve nutrition communication in the region and among migrant communities.
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Understanding internalized HIV/AIDS-related stigmas in the Dominican Republic: a short report.

Rael, Christine Tagliaferri; Hampanda, Karen
| Idioma(s): Inglés
HIV/AIDS-related stigmas can become internalized, resulting in declines in physical and mental health. Pathways to internalized HIV-related stigma (IS), characterized by persistently negative, self-abasing thoughts, are not well established among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Identifying factors involved in self-directed shaming and blaming is important, given the high HIV prevalence in the DR's most vulnerable populations. The present study sheds light on factors involved in negative and self-abasing thoughts in WLWHA in the DR by examining the relationship between depression, perceived HIV-related stigma from the community (PSC), perceived HIV-related stigma from family (PSF), and IS. The Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10), and an instrument designed to measure perceived HIV-related stigma from the community and family was administered to 233 WLWHA in Puerto Plata, DR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordered multiple logistic regression. Results showed that depression (OR = 1.60; p < .05), PSC (OR = 3.68; p < .001), and PSF (OR = 1.60; p < .01) were positively associated with IS. These findings indicate that IS-reducing interventions should address HIV-related depression. Additionally, HIV-related treatment and care services should work with WLWHA to adopt healthier attitudes about how community members view people living with HIV/AIDS in the DR.
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Recruitment of Caribbean female commercial sex workers at high risk of HIV infection/ Captación de mujeres profesionales del sexo con alto riesgo de infección por VIH en el Caribe

Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Madenwald, Tamra; Metch, Barbara; Donastorg, Yeycy; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Zorrilla, Carmen D.; Pape, Jean William; Swann, Edith; Escamilia, Gina; Perez, Marta; Joseph, Patrice; Severe, Karine; Garced, Sheyla; HVTN 907 Protocol Team
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate novel eligibility criteria and outreach methods to identify and recruit women at high risk of HIV-1 infection in the Caribbean. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2009-2012 among 799 female commercial sex workers in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico. Minimum eligibility criteria included exchange of sex for goods, services, or money in the previous 6 months and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a man during the same period. Sites used local epidemiology to develop more stringent eligibility criteria and recruitment strategies. Participants were asked questions about HIV/AIDS and their level of concern about participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess predictors of prevalent HIV infection and willingness to participate in a future HIV vaccine study. RESULTS: HIV prevalence at screening was 4.6%. Crack cocaine use [odds ratio (OR) = 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.8-9.0)] was associated with and having sex with clients in a hotel or motel [OR = 0.5, CI (0.3-1.0)] was inversely associated with HIV infection. A total of 88.9% of enrolled women were definitely or probably willing to participate in a future HIV vaccine trial. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that local eligibility criteria and recruitment methods can be developed to identify and recruit commercial sex workers with higher HIV prevalence than the general population who express willingness to join an HIV vaccine trial. OBJETIVO: Evaluar nuevos criterios de selección y métodos extrainstitucionales encaminados a detectar y captar a las mujeres con alto riesgo de contraer la infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el Caribe. MÉTODOS: Del 2009 al 2012, se llevó a cabo un estudio prospectivo de cohortes de 799 mujeres profesionales del sexo en la República Dominicana, Haití y Puerto Rico. Los requisitos mínimos de selección fueron el intercambio de relaciones sexuales por bienes, servicios o dinero en los últimos 6 meses y las relaciones sexuales vaginales o anales sin protección con un hombre durante el mismo período. En cada centro se aplicaron criterios de selección y estrategias de captación más restrictivos, en función de las características epidemiológicas locales. Se formularon a las participantes preguntas acerca de la infección por el VIH/sida y su motivación para participar en un estudio clínico sobre la vacuna contra el VIH. Se usó un modelo de regresión logística con el fin de analizar los factores pronósticos de prevalencia de infección por el VIH y la voluntad de participar en un estudio futuro sobre la vacuna contra el virus. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de infección por el VIH en el momento del tamizaje fue 4,6%. El consumo de crack se asoció con la infección por el VIH (razón de posibilidades [OR]: 4,2; intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95%: 1,8-9,0) y la práctica de relaciones sexuales con clientes en un hotel o un motel se asoció inversamente con esta infección (OR: 0,5; IC 95%: 0,3-1,0). El 88,9% de las mujeres inscritas manifestó una disposición decidida o probable de participar en un estudio futuro sobre la vacuna contra el VIH. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados del estudio indican que es posible formular criterios de selección e introducir métodos de captación locales con el propósito de detectar y captar a las mujeres profesionales del sexo, que presentan una prevalencia de infección por el VIH mayor que la población general y manifiestan una buena disposición de participar en un ensayo clínico sobre la vacuna contra el VIH.
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Feasibility of road traffic injury surveillance integrating police and health insurance data sets in the Dominican Republic/ Factibilidad de la vigilancia de las lesiones por accidentes de tránsito mediante la integración de los conjuntos de datos de la policía y del seguro nacional de salud en la República Dominicana

Puello, Adrian; Bhatti, Junaid; Salmi, Louis-Rachid
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of semiautomated linking of road traffic injury (RTI) cases in different data sets in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The study population consisted of RTI cases in the Dominican Republic in 2010 and were identified in police and health insurance data sets. After duplicates were removed and fatality reporting was corrected by using forensic data, police and health insurance RTI records were linked if they had the same province, collision date, and gender of RTI cases and similar age within five years. A multinomial logistic regression model assessed the likelihood of being in only one of the data sets. RESULTS: One of five records was a duplicate, including 21.1% of 6 396 police and 16.2% of 6 178 insurance records. Health insurance data recorded 43 of 417 deaths as only injured. Capture - recapture estimated that both data sets recorded one of five RTI cases. Characteristics associated with increased likelihood (P < 0.05) of being only in the police data set were female gender [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.5], age ≥ 16 years (OR = 1.7), collision in the regions of Cibao Northeast (OR = 4.1) and Valdesia (OR = 6.4), day of occurrence from Tuesday to Saturday (ORs from 1.5 to 2.9), month of occurrence from October to December (ORs from 1.6 to 4.5), and occupant of four-wheeled vehicles (OR = 5.4) or trucks (OR = 5.3). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent semiautomated linking procedures were feasible to ascertain the RTI burden in the Dominican Republic and could be improved by standardized coding of police and health insurance RTI reporting. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la factibilidad de la vinculación semiautomática de los registros de casos de lesiones por accidentes de tránsito (LAT) de diferentes conjuntos de datos en países de ingresos bajos y medianos. MÉTODOS: La población de estudio la constituían los casos de LAT ocurridos en la República Dominicana en el 2010 y registrados en los conjuntos de datos de la policía y del seguro nacional de salud. Después de eliminar los casos duplicados y corregir la notificación de defunciones a partir de los datos forenses, se vincularon los registros de LAT de la policía y el seguro de enfermedad si los casos correspondían a la misma provincia, fecha de colisión y sexo, y la edad era similar con una diferencia no superior a cinco años. Se evaluó la probabilidad de aparecer únicamente en uno de los conjuntos de datos mediante un modelo de regresión logística polinómica. RESULTADOS: Uno de cada cinco registros estaba duplicado (21,1% de los 6 396 registros de la policía y 16,2% de los 6 178 registros del seguro). En el conjunto de datos del seguro nacional de salud se registraron 43 de las 417 defunciones como únicamente lesionados. Mediante el método de captura-recaptura se calculó que en ambos conjuntos de datos se registraban uno de cada cinco casos de LAT. Las características asociadas con una mayor probabilidad (P < 0,05) de aparecer únicamente en el conjunto de datos de la policía fueron el sexo femenino (razón de posibilidades ajustada [OR] = 2,5), la edad ≥ 16 años (OR = 1,7), la colisión en las regiones del nordeste de Cibao (OR = 4,1) y Valdesia (OR = 6,4), el día del accidente de martes a sábado (OR de 1,5 a 2,9), el mes del accidente de octubre a diciembre (OR de 1,6 a 4,5) y los ocupantes de vehículos de cuatro ruedas (OR = 5,4) o camiones (OR = 5,3). CONCLUSIONES: Los procedimientos sistemáticos de vinculación semiautomatizada se mostraron factibles para evaluar la carga de LAT en la República Dominicana, y se podrían mejorar mediante la codificación estandarizada de las notificaciones de LAT de la policía y del seguro nacional de salud.
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Sistema de salud de República Dominicana/ The health system of Dominican Republic

Rathe, Magdalena; Moliné, Alejandro
| Idioma(s): Español
En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de la República Dominicana y, con mayor detalle, el sistema de salud dominicano, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, el gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, las tareas de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública y la generación de información. También se discuten la participación de los usuarios en la operación y evaluación del sistema de salud y las más recientes innovaciones implementadas, dentro de las que destacan la nueva Ley General de Salud, la nueva Ley de Seguridad Social y el Plan Decenal de Salud. This paper describes the health conditions in Dominican Republic and the characteristics of the Dominican health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the health expenditure, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health and the generation of health information. The participation of health care users in the operation and evaluation of the system and the most recent policy innovations, including the new General Health Law, the new Social Security Law and the Decennial Health Plan are also discussed.
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Socio-economic differences in health, nutrition, and population: Dominican Republic 1996, 2002

Gwatkin, Davidson R; Rutstein, Shea; Johnson, Kiersten; Suliman, Eldaw; Wagstaff, Adam; Amouzou, Agbessi
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Resultados  1-10 de 104