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1.

The impact of a private sector living wage intervention on consumption and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a middle income country.

Rehkopf, David H; Burmaster, Katharine; Landefeld, John C; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Flynn, Emily P; Acevedo, Maria Cecilia; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Adler, Nancy; Fernald, Lia C H
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: A positive association of socioeconomic position and health is well established in high-income countries. In poorer nations, however, higher income individuals often have more cardiovascular risk factors (including obesity) than do those with less income. Our study goal was to estimate the effects of receiving a living wage (340% higher income) on short-term changes in consumption and cardiovascular risk factors among low-wage workers in a middle-income country. METHODS: This cross-sectional study matched workers at an apparel factory (n=105) in the Dominican Republic with those at a similar factory (n=99) nearby, 15 months after the intervention factory introduced a substantially higher living wage. Statistical matching on non-time varying individual characteristics (childhood health, childhood living conditions, work experience, demographic factors) strengthened causal inference. Primary outcomes were blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), pulse rate, body mass index and waist circumference. Secondary outcomes were dietary consumption and spending on services, consumables and durable goods. RESULTS: Receiving the living wage was associated with increased consumption of protein, dairy, soda and juice and sugars, but not with cardiovascular risk factors. Intervention factory workers spent more on grocery items and household durable goods. CONCLUSIONS: While having a higher income in a middle-income country might be expected to increase obesity and its associated health risks, the current study found no short-term negative associations. There may be possible longer-term negative health consequences of increases in consumption of soda, juice and sugars, however. It is important to consider complementary interventions to support healthy dietary intake in areas with increasing wages.
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2.

Racial/Ethnic Minority Older Adults' Perspectives on Proposed Medicaid Reforms' Effects on Dental Care Access.

Northridge, Mary E; Estrada, Ivette; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Greenblatt, Ariel P; Metcalf, Sara S; Kunzel, Carol
| Idioma(s): Inglés
To examine how proposed Medicaid reform plans are experienced by racial/ethnic minority older adults and what the implications are for their ability to access dental care through Medicaid, from 2013 to 2015 we conducted focus groups in northern Manhattan, New York, New York, among African American, Dominican, and Puerto Rican adults aged 50 years and older. Participants reported problems with affording copayments for care, complicated health and social issues, the need for vision and dental care close to home, and confusion about and stigmatization with Medicaid coverage. Federal, state, and local public health agencies can help by clarifying and simplifying Medicaid plans and sustaining benefits that older adults need to live healthy and dignified lives.
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3.

Explaining the Immigrant Health Advantage: Self-selection and Protection in Health-Related Factors Among Five Major National-Origin Immigrant Groups in the United States.

Riosmena, Fernando; Kuhn, Randall; Jochem, Warren C
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Despite being newcomers, immigrants often exhibit better health relative to native-born populations in industrialized societies. We extend prior efforts to identify whether self-selection and/or protection explain this advantage. We examine migrant height and smoking levels just prior to immigration to test for self-selection; and we analyze smoking behavior since immigration, controlling for self-selection, to assess protection. We study individuals aged 20-49 from five major national origins: India, China, the Philippines, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. To assess self-selection, we compare migrants, interviewed in the National Health and Interview Surveys (NHIS), with nonmigrant peers in sending nations, interviewed in the World Health Surveys. To test for protection, we contrast migrants' changes in smoking since immigration with two counterfactuals: (1) rates that immigrants would have exhibited had they adopted the behavior of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites in the NHIS (full "assimilation"); and (2) rates that migrants would have had if they had adopted the rates of nonmigrants in sending countries (no-migration scenario). We find statistically significant and substantial self-selection, particularly among men from both higher-skilled (Indians and Filipinos in height, Chinese in smoking) and lower-skilled (Mexican) undocumented pools. We also find significant and substantial protection in smoking among immigrant groups with stronger relative social capital (Mexicans and Dominicans).
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4.

Identifying Health Promotion Needs Among Dominican-American Adolescents.

Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Roye, Carol F
| Idioma(s): Inglés
PURPOSE: Immigration from the Dominican Republic to the United States has grown rapidly. Yet, although adolescent pregnancy and obesity are common concerns among Hispanics, little is known specifically about Dominican adolescent health. This study was undertaken to assess Dominican-American adolescents' health concerns and their perceptions about their health promotion needs. DESIGN AND METHODS: Dominican-American adolescents (N=25) were recruited in a pediatric clinic in New York City which primarily serves a Dominican population. Eligibility criteria included age 13-21years, self-identifying as Dominican ethnicity, and able to speak and read English. They completed a questionnaire, with demographic questions and questions about their risk behaviors including sexual and substance use. After completing the questionnaire, they participated in a semi-structured interview addressing their health education experiences and suggestions for such programs. Quantitative data were analyzed using frequencies to provide a demographic and behavioral profile. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-five adolescents, ages 13-21years, (female N=19, male N=6) participated in the study. Most were in school (92%) and were sexually experienced (68%). Programmatic preferences included in-person programs rather than online. They spontaneously addressed the importance of cultural issues, and the need to address several issues in addition to sexuality, including obesity and substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Programming for this population should address a broad conceptualization of health, and incorporate Dominican cultural issues. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Nurses working with adolescents of Dominican origin, should provide health education that incorporates the specific needs of this population, including culturally congruent face-to-face interventions.
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5.

The role of teleconferences in global public health education.

Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Zelinski, Christy
| Idioma(s): Inglés
This paper presents a global health education program using a 'Teleconference' approach. It provides examples of how technology can be used to deliver health education at the international level. Two international teleconferences about public health issues were conducted in 2013 and 2014 involving universities and public health institutions in Colombia, Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Uganda, and the United States. More than 400 students, faculty, and community members attended these educational events. These teleconferences served as the medium to unite countries despite the geographical distances and to facilitate collaborations and networking across nations. Teleconferences are an example of effective technology-based health education and health promotion programs.
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6.

Comparative analysis of dietary guidelines in the Spanish-Speaking Caribbean.

Fuster, Melissa
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: Dietary guidelines are important education and policy tools to address local nutrition concerns. The current paper presents a comparative analysis of nutrition messages from three Spanish-speaking Caribbean countries (Cuba, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic) to explore how these dietary guidelines address common public health nutrition concerns, contextualized in different changing food environments and food culture similarities. DESIGN: Qualitative, comparative analysis of current dietary guideline documents and key recommendations. RESULTS: Key recommendations were categorized into sixteen themes (two diet-based, ten food-based and four 'other'). Only the Cuban dietary guidelines included diet-based key recommendations. Of the ten food-based key recommendations, only four themes overlapped across the three dietary guidelines (the encouragement of fruits and vegetables, addressing protein sources and fat). Other overlaps were found between dietary guideline pairs, except between Cuba and Puerto Rico. Further analysis revealed differences in levels of specificity and acknowledgement of local dietary patterns and issues, as well as the need to revise the guidelines to account for current scientific advances. CONCLUSIONS: The present study underscored the importance of context in the framing of dietary advice and the influence of national socio-economic and political situations on nutrition policy and education efforts. The results contribute to inform efforts to improve nutrition communication in the region and among migrant communities.
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7.

Understanding internalized HIV/AIDS-related stigmas in the Dominican Republic: a short report.

Rael, Christine Tagliaferri; Hampanda, Karen
| Idioma(s): Inglés
HIV/AIDS-related stigmas can become internalized, resulting in declines in physical and mental health. Pathways to internalized HIV-related stigma (IS), characterized by persistently negative, self-abasing thoughts, are not well established among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Identifying factors involved in self-directed shaming and blaming is important, given the high HIV prevalence in the DR's most vulnerable populations. The present study sheds light on factors involved in negative and self-abasing thoughts in WLWHA in the DR by examining the relationship between depression, perceived HIV-related stigma from the community (PSC), perceived HIV-related stigma from family (PSF), and IS. The Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10), and an instrument designed to measure perceived HIV-related stigma from the community and family was administered to 233 WLWHA in Puerto Plata, DR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordered multiple logistic regression. Results showed that depression (OR = 1.60; p < .05), PSC (OR = 3.68; p < .001), and PSF (OR = 1.60; p < .01) were positively associated with IS. These findings indicate that IS-reducing interventions should address HIV-related depression. Additionally, HIV-related treatment and care services should work with WLWHA to adopt healthier attitudes about how community members view people living with HIV/AIDS in the DR.
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8.

A Pilot Study to Examine the Disparities in Water Quality between Predominantly Haitian Neighborhoods and Dominican Neighborhoods in Two Cities in the Dominican Republic.

Rogers-Brown, Jessica; Johnson, Ryan; Smith, Dominique; Ramsey-White, Kim
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Worldwide, diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death affecting over 1.7 million individuals annually. Much of this can be attributed to lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. Nearly all of these deaths occur in countries with developing economies. This public health problem is apparent in the island of Hispaniola; the island that is shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Significant gaps in income between the countries have resulted in Haitians migrating into the Dominican Republic. While there has been increased migration into the Dominican Republic, many of the neighborhoods remain segregated. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted at 49 sites in the Dominican Republic. Samples were classified as being from a Haitian neighborhood or Dominican neighborhood and analyzed for microbial contamination. Overall, Haitian neighborhoods were found to have statistically significantly higher levels of contamination of both coliform and E. coli. The odds of having E. coli contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.25 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. The odds of having coliform contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.78 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. This study provides evidence of the disparity in access to clean drinking water for Haitian immigrants and highlights the need for further investigation.
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9.

Heterosexual transmission of HIV in the Dominican Republic: gendered indicators are associated with disparities in condom use.

Jimenez, Michelle M; Andrade, Flavia C D; Raffaelli, Marcela; Iwelunmor, Juliet
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Gendered dynamics in heterosexual relationships compromise women's self-efficacy and increase their vulnerability to acquiring HIV. This study examines the impact of socioeconomic determinants, media exposure, and sexual expectations on sexual behaviors of men and women in the Dominican Republic (DR). METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 51,018 adults in the Dominican Republic age 15 to 45 years collected by the Demographics and Health Survey (DHS) in 2007. Measures included demographic and socioeconomic indicators, social exposures, sexual expectations and sexual behaviors. Logistic regression models explored gender differences in condom use. RESULTS: Study findings indicated that women were less likely to use a condom at last intercourse than men (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29; 95 % CI = 0.27, 0.31). Among men, secondary (OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.16, 1.76) and higher education (OR = 1.58; 95 % CI = 1.25, 2.00), being in the richest quintile (OR = 1.25; 95 % CI = 1.07, 1.47), and living in a female-headed household (OR = 1.13; 95 % CI 1.03, 1.23) increased the likelihood of condom use. Compared to never married men, currently and formerly married men were less likely to use condoms (OR = 0.03; 95 % CI = 0.03, 0.04 and OR = 0.67; 95 % CI = 0.60, 0.75, respectively). The odds of condom use increased for young women 15-19 years old in comparison with women age 30-34 years, but decreased as they grew older. For women, being in the richer quintile (OR = 1.28; 95 % CI = 1.06, 1.54), living in a female-headed household (OR = 1.26; 1.12, 1.41), and having good access to media (OR = 1.24; 95 % CI = 1.12, 1.42) increased the likelihood of condom use. Being currently married or formerly married and living in rural areas decreased such likelihood among women. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings provide evidence that, in the DHS, socioeconomic and cultural differences between men and women affects condom use. Efforts to reduce HIV transmission within heterosexual relationships in the DR call for tailored, gender-specific interventions that take into account gender differences of power and sexual behaviors.
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10.

Health care workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices on tobacco use in economically disadvantaged dominican republic communities.

Prucha, Michael G; Fisher, Susan G; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; de Monegro, Zahíra Quiñones; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR.
Resultados  1-10 de 170