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2.

Evaluation of barriers to sustainable medication access in Honduras.

Narayanan, Navaneeth; Stoffella, Sylvia S; Roy-Burman, Arup; Lynch, Mary; Ifland, Luke; Brock, Tina
| Idioma(s): Inglés
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3.

Measurement of Health Program Equity Made Easier: Validation of a Simplified Asset Index Using Program Data From Honduras and Senegal.

Ergo, Alex; Ritter, Julie; Gwatkin, Davidson R; Binkin, Nancy
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Equitable access to programs and health services is essential to achieving national and international health goals, but it is rarely assessed because of perceived measurement challenges. One of these challenges concerns the complexities of collecting the data needed to construct asset or wealth indices, which can involve asking as many as 40 survey questions, many with multiple responses. To determine whether the number of variables and questions could be reduced to a level low enough for more routine inclusion in evaluations and research without compromising programmatic conclusions, we used data from a program evaluation in Honduras that compared a pro-poor intervention with government clinic performance as well as data from a results-based financing project in Senegal. In both, the full Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) asset questionnaires had been used as part of the evaluations. Using the full DHS results as the "gold standard," we examined the effect of retaining successively smaller numbers of variables on the classification of the program clients in wealth quintiles. Principal components analysis was used to identify those variables in each country that demonstrated minimal absolute factor loading values for 8 different thresholds, ranging from 0.05 to 0.70. Cohen's kappa statistic was used to assess correlation. We found that the 111 asset variables and 41 questions in the Honduras DHS could be reduced to 9 variables, captured by only 8 survey questions (kappa statistic, 0.634), without substantially altering the wealth quintile distributions for either the pro-poor program or the government clinics or changing the resulting policy conclusions. In Senegal, the 103 asset variables and 36 questions could be reduced to 32 variables and 20 questions (kappa statistic, 0.882) while maintaining a consistent mix of users in each of the 2 lowest quintiles. Less than 60% of the asset variables in the 2 countries' full DHS asset indices overlapped, and in none of the 8 simplified asset index iterations did this proportion exceed 50%. We conclude that substantially reducing the number of variables and questions used to assess equity is feasible, producing valid results and providing a less burdensome way for program implementers or researchers to evaluate whether their interventions are pro-poor. Developing a standardized, simplified asset questionnaire that could be used across countries may prove difficult, however, given that the variables that contribute the most to the asset index are largely country-specific.
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5.

Barriers in household access to medicines for chronic conditions in three Latin American countries.

Emmerick, Isabel Cristina Martins; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Vialle-Valentin, Catherine; Ross-Degnan, Dennis
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Access to medicines is one of the major challenges in health policy. The high out-of-pocket expenditures on medicines in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region represents important barrier to affordable access to care for NCDs. This paper aim to identify key barriers in access to medicines for household members with a diagnosed chronic condition in three Central America countries. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytic study, based on data from three household surveys using a common methodology. We examined associated factors to: (1) seeking care for chronic illness from a trained clinician in the formal health system, and (2) obtaining all medicines sought for the chronic conditions reported. RESULTS: A chronic condition was reported in 29.8 % (827) of 2761 households - 47.0, 30.7 and 11.8 % in Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala, respectively. The three main chronic conditions reported were hypertension, arthritis, and diabetes. Seeking care in the formal health system ranged from 73.4 % in Nicaragua to 83.1 % in Honduras, while full access to medicines varied from 71.6 % in Guatemala to 88.0 % in Honduras. The main associated factors of seeking care in the formal health system were geographic location, household head gender, Spanish literacy, patient age, perceived health status, perceived quality of public sector care, household economic level, and having health insurance. Seeking care in the formal health system was the main bivariate associated factor of obtaining full access to medicines (OR: 4.3 95 % CI 2.6 - 7.0). The odds of full access to medicines were significantly higher when the household head was older than 65 years, medicines were obtained for free, households had higher socioeconomic status, and health care was sought in the private sector. CONCLUSIONS: The nature of the health system plays an important role in access to medicines. Access is better when public facilities are available and function effectively, or when private sector care is affordable. Thus, understanding how people seek care in a given setting and strengthening key health system components will be important strategies to improve access to medicines, especially for populations at high risk of poor access.
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6.

Community trust and household health: A spatially-based approach with evidence from rural Honduras.

Zarychta, Alan
| Idioma(s): Inglés
What is the relationship between community trust and household health? Scholars working to understand the effects of trust and social capital on human health tend to focus on individual characteristics or social environments, frequently without integrating these two dimensions. In light of this, the present paper makes contributions in both conceptualization and measurement. First, I develop a spatially-based approach for operationalizing community trust as the product of individual orientation and social environment. This approach highlights the need for a household to trust its neighbors and for those neighbors to reciprocate trust in order to constitute the psychological and material mechanisms critical for linking social context to individual health. Second, I illustrate the utility of this measure by evaluating the relationship between community trust and self-rated health status using an original population census survey from 2009 to 2010 for two municipalities in western Honduras (approximately 2800 households with a response rate of 94.9%). I implement spatial regression analysis and show that there is a positive and substantively meaningful relationship between community trust and household health; households that are trusting and surrounded by similarly trusting neighbors report better health status, while those in uncertain or mutually distrusting environments report worse health. The theory and results presented here suggest an important link between trust and social capital at the community level, which is particularly salient for rural regions in developing countries where health resources are scarce and community-based interventions are common.
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7.

Características de colecistectomía laparoscópica ambulatoria y hospitalaria, Instituto Hondureño de Seguridad Social, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 2012-2013/ Characteristics of outpatient and hospital laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Instituto Hondureño de Seguridad Social, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 2012-2013

Blanco Raudales, Ericka; Sierra, Rafael; Alger, Jackeline
| Idioma(s): Español
Antecedentes: Colecistectomía Laparoscópica Ambulatoria (CLA) es el procedimiento donde el tiempo entre ingreso y egreso del paciente es <12 horas. En el Hospital de Especialidades (HE) del Instituto Hondureño de Seguridad Social (IHSS), Tegucigalpa, se implementó desde 2007. Objetivo: Determinar las características de CLA y de Colecistectomía Laparoscópica Hospitalaria (CLH), IHSS, 2012-2013. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal en pacientes atendidos en Unidad de Cirugía Ambulatoria y HE IHSS, enero 2012­Enero 2013. Se identificaron características sociodemográficas y clínicas a partir de expedientes seleccionados aleatoriamente. Se estimó costo-beneficio en base a costo/intervención quirúrgica y días de hospitalización e incapacidad. Resultados se presentan como frecuencia y porcentaje, razones de disparidad (OR), intervalo de confianza 95% y valor de p<0.05. Resultados: Se analizaron 100 pacientes en cada grupo. Se asociaron a CLA edad ≤50 (3.8, 2.1
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8.

Social network targeting to maximise population behaviour change: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

Kim, David A; Hwong, Alison R; Stafford, Derek; Hughes, D Alex; O'Malley, A James; Fowler, James H; Christakis, Nicholas A
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Information and behaviour can spread through interpersonal ties. By targeting influential individuals, health interventions that harness the distributive properties of social networks could be made more effective and efficient than those that do not. Our aim was to assess which targeting methods produce the greatest cascades or spillover effects and hence maximise population-level behaviour change. METHODS: In this cluster randomised trial, participants were recruited from villages of the Department of Lempira, Honduras. We blocked villages on the basis of network size, socioeconomic status, and baseline rates of water purification, for delivery of two public health interventions: chlorine for water purification and multivitamins for micronutrient deficiencies. We then randomised villages, separately for each intervention, to one of three targeting methods, introducing the interventions to 5% samples composed of either: randomly selected villagers (n=9 villages for each intervention); villagers with the most social ties (n=9); or nominated friends of random villagers (n=9; the last strategy exploiting the so-called friendship paradox of social networks). Participants and data collectors were not aware of the targeting methods. Primary endpoints were the proportions of available products redeemed by the entire population under each targeting method. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01672580. FINDINGS: Between Aug 4, and Aug 14, 2012, 32 villages in rural Honduras (25-541 participants each; total study population of 5773) received public health interventions. For each intervention, nine villages (each with 1-20 initial target individuals) were randomised, using a blocked design, to each of the three targeting methods. In nomination-targeted villages, 951 (74·3%) of 1280 available multivitamin tickets were redeemed compared with 940 (66·2%) of 1420 in randomly targeted villages and 744 (61·0%) of 1220 in indegree-targeted villages. All pairwise differences in redemption rates were significant (p<0·01) after correction for multiple comparisons. Targeting nominated friends increased adoption of the nutritional intervention by 12·2% compared with random targeting (95% CI 6·9-17·9). Targeting the most highly connected individuals, by contrast, produced no greater adoption of either intervention, compared with random targeting. INTERPRETATION: Introduction of a health intervention to the nominated friends of random individuals can enhance that intervention's diffusion by exploiting intrinsic properties of human social networks. This method has the additional advantage of scalability because it can be implemented without mapping the network. Deployment of certain types of health interventions via network targeting, without increasing the number of individuals targeted or the resources used, could enhance the adoption and efficiency of those interventions, thereby improving population health. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Star Family Foundation, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
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9.

Costs and financing of routine immunization: Approach and selected findings of a multi-country study (EPIC).

Brenzel, Logan; Young, Darwin; Walker, Damian G
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Few detailed facility-based costing studies of routine immunization (RI) programs have been conducted in recent years, with planners, managers and donors relying on older information or data from planning tools. To fill gaps and improve quality of information, a multi-country study on costing and financing of routine immunization and new vaccines (EPIC) was conducted in Benin, Ghana, Honduras, Moldova, Uganda and Zambia. METHODS: This paper provides the rationale for the launch of the EPIC study, as well as outlines methods used in a Common Approach on facility sampling, data collection, cost and financial flow estimation for both the routine program and new vaccine introduction. Costing relied on an ingredients-based approach from a government perspective. Estimating incremental economic costs of new vaccine introduction in contexts with excess capacity are highlighted. The use of more disaggregated System of Health Accounts (SHA) coding to evaluate financial flows is presented. RESULTS: The EPIC studies resulted in a sample of 319 primary health care facilities, with 65% of facilities in rural areas. The EPIC studies found wide variation in total and unit costs within each country, as well as between countries. Costs increased with level of scale and socio-economic status of the country. Governments are financing an increasing share of total RI financing. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a wealth of high quality information on total and unit costs and financing for RI, and demonstrates the value of in-depth facility approaches. The paper discusses the lessons learned from using a standardized approach, as well as proposes further areas of methodology development. The paper discusses how results can be used for resource mobilization and allocation, improved efficiency of services at the country level, and to inform policies at the global level. Efforts at routinizing cost analysis to support sustainability efforts would be beneficial.
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10.

Examining the cost of delivering routine immunization in Honduras.

Janusz, Cara Bess; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; Molina Aguilera, Ida Berenice; Felix Garcia, Ana Gabriela; Mendoza, Lourdes; Díaz, Iris Yolanda; Resch, Stephen C
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Many countries have introduced new vaccines and expanded their immunization programs to protect additional risk groups, thus raising the cost of routine immunization delivery. Honduras recently adopted two new vaccines, and the country continues to broaden the reach of its program to adolescents and adults. In this article, we estimate and examine the economic cost of the Honduran routine immunization program for the year 2011. METHODS: The data were gathered from a probability sample of 71 health facilities delivering routine immunization, as well as 8 regional and 1 central office of the national immunization program. Data were collected on vaccinations delivered, staff time dedicated to the program, cold chain equipment and upkeep, vehicle use, infrastructure, and other recurrent and capital costs at each health facility and administrative office. Annualized economic costs were estimated from a modified societal perspective and reported in 2011 US dollars. RESULTS: With the addition of rotavirus and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the total cost for routine immunization delivery in Honduras for 2011 was US$ 32.5 million. Vaccines and related supplies accounted for 23% of the costs. Labor, cold chain, and vehicles represented 54%, 4%, and 1%, respectively. At the facility level, the non-vaccine system costs per dose ranged widely, from US$ 25.55 in facilities delivering fewer than 500 doses per year to US$ 2.84 in facilities with volume exceeding 10,000 doses per year. Cost per dose was higher in rural facilities despite somewhat lower wage rates for health workers in these settings; this appears to be driven by lower demand for services per health worker in sparsely populated areas, rather than increased cost of outreach. CONCLUSIONS: These more-precise estimates of the operational costs to deliver routine immunizations provide program managers with important information for mobilizing resources to help sustain the program and for improving annual planning and budgeting as well as longer-term resource allocation decisions.
Resultados  1-10 de 272