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1.

Impacto económico del tabaquismo en los sistemas de salud de América Latina: un estudio en siete países y su extrapolación a nivel regional./ [Financial impact of smoking on health systems in Latin America: A study of seven countries and extrapolation to the regional level].

Pichon-Riviere, Andrés; Bardach, Ariel; Augustovski, Federico; Alcaraz, Andrea; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Pinto, Márcia Teixeira; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Torres, Esperanza Peña; Osorio, Diana Isabel; Huayanay, Leandro; Munarriz, César Loza; de Miera-Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Gallegos-Rivero, Verónica; Puente, Catherine De La; Navia-Bueno, María Del Pilar; Caporale, Joaquín
| Idioma(s): Español
Objective: Estimate smoking-attributable direct medical costs in Latin American health systems. Methods: A microsimulation model was used to quantify financial impact of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, lung cancer, and nine other neoplasms. A systematic search for epidemiological data and event costs was carried out. The model was calibrated and validated for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, countries that account for 78% of Latin America's population; the results were then extrapolated to the regional level. Results: Every year, smoking is responsible for 33 576 billion dollars in direct costs to health systems. This amounts to 0.7% of the region's gross domestic product (GDP) and 8.3% of its health budget. Cardiovascular disease, COPD, and cancer were responsible for 30.3%, 26.9%, and 23.7% of these expenditures, respectively. Smoking-attributable costs ranged from 0.4% (Mexico and Peru) to 0.9% (Chile) of GDP and from 5.2% (Brazil) to 12.7% (Bolivia) of health expenditures. In the region, tax revenues from cigarette sales barely cover 37% of smoking-attributable health expenditures (8.1% in Bolivia and 67.3% in Argentina). Conclusions: Smoking is responsible for a significant proportion of health spending in Latin America, and tax revenues from cigarette sales are far from covering it. The region's countries should seriously consider stronger measures, such as an increase in tobacco taxes.
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2.

Individual health and the visibility of village economic inequality: Longitudinal evidence from native Amazonians in Bolivia.

Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nica, Veronica; Zhang, Rebecca; Mensah, Irene C; Godoy, Ricardo A
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Mounting evidence suggests that income inequality is associated with worse individual health. But does the visibility of inequality matter? Using data from a horticultural-foraging society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'), we examined whether village inequality in resources and behaviors with greater cultural visibility is more likely to bear a negative association with health than village inequality in less conspicuous resources. We draw on a nine-year annual panel (2002-2010) from 13 Tsimane' villages for our main analysis, and an additional survey to gauge the cultural visibility of resources. We measured inequality using the Gini coefficient. We tested the robustness of our results using a shorter two-year annual panel (2008-2009) in another 40 Tsimane' villages and an additional measure of inequality (coefficient of variation, CV). Behaviors with low cultural visibility (e.g., household farm area planted with staples) were less likely to be associated with individual health, compared to more conspicuous behaviors (e.g., expenditures in durable goods, consumption of domesticated animals). We find some evidence that property rights and access to resources matter, with inequality of privately-owned resources showing a larger effect on health. More inequality was associated with improved perceived health - maybe due to improved health prospects from increasing wealth - and worse anthropometric indicators. For example, a unit increase in the Gini coefficient of expenditures in durable goods was associated with 0.24 fewer episodes of stress and a six percentage-point lower probability of reporting illness. A one-point increase in the CV of village inequality in meat consumption was associated with a 4 and 3 percentage-point lower probability of reporting illness and being in bed due to illness, and a 0.05 SD decrease in age-sex standardized arm-muscle area. In small-scale, rural societies at the periphery of market economies, nominal economic inequality in resources bore an association with individual health, but did not necessarily harm perceived health. Economic inequalities in small-scale societies apparently matter, but a thick cultural tapestry of reciprocity norms and kinship ties makes their effects less predictable than in industrial societies.
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3.

The effects of community income inequality on health: Evidence from a randomized control trial in the Bolivian Amazon.

Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Leonard, William R; Godoy, Ricardo A
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Research suggests that poorer people have worse health than the better-off and, more controversially, that income inequality harms health. But causal interpretations suffer from endogeneity. We addressed the gap by using a randomized control trial among a society of forager-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Treatments included one-time unconditional income transfers (T1) to all households and (T2) only to the poorest 20% of households, with other villages as controls. We assessed the effects of income inequality, absolute income, and spillovers within villages on self-reported health, objective indicators of health and nutrition, and adults' substance consumption. Most effects came from relative income. Targeted transfers increased the perceived stress of participants in better-off households. Evidence suggests increased work efforts among better-off households when the lot of the poor improved, possibly due to a preference for rank preservation. The study points to new paths by which inequality might affect health.
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4.

Progress in reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn,' and child health in Latin America and the Caribbean: an unfinished agenda/ Avances en la reducción de las desigualdades en materia de salud reproductiva, materna, neonatal e infantil en América Latina y el Caribe: un programa inacabado

Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Requejo, Jennifer; Durán, Pablo; Serpa, Luis Andrés de Francisco; França, Giovanny V. A.; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To expand the "Countdown to 2015" analyses of health inequalities beyond the 75 countries being monitored worldwide to include all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) that have adequate data available. METHODS: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys were used to monitor progress in health intervention coverage and inequalities in 13 LAC countries, five of which are included in the Countdown (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Haiti, and Peru) and eight that are not (Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Suriname). The outcomes included neonatal and under-5 year mortality rates, child stunting prevalence, and the composite coverage index-a weighted average of eight indicators of coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. The slope index of inequality and concentration index were used to assess absolute and relative inequalities. RESULTS: The composite coverage index showed monotonic patterns over wealth quintiles, with lowest levels in the poorest quintile. Under-5 and neonatal mortality as well as stunting prevalence were highest among the poor. In most countries, intervention coverage increased, while under-5 mortality and stunting prevalence fell most rapidly among the poor, so that inequalities were reduced over time. However, Bolivia, Guatemala, Haiti, Nicaragua, and Peru still show marked inequalities. Brazil has practically eliminated inequalities in stunting. CONCLUSIONS: LAC countries presented substantial progress in terms of reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health interventions, child mortality, and nutrition. However, the poorest 20% of the population in most countries is still lagging behind, and renewed actions are needed to improve equity. OBJETIVO: Extender los análisis de la "Cuenta Regresiva para 2015" de las desigualdades en materia de salud más allá de los 75 países sometidos a vigilancia en todo el mundo para incluir a todos los países de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC) que disponen de datos adecuados. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron encuestas de demografía y salud y encuestas agrupadas de indicadores múltiples para vigilar el progreso de la cobertura de las intervenciones de salud y de las desigualdades en 13 países de ALC, 5 de ellos incluidos en la Cuenta Regresiva (Bolivia, Brasil, Guatemala, Haití y Perú) y 8 no incluidos (Belice, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, República Dominicana y Suriname). Los resultados incluyeron las tasas de mortalidad neonatal y en menores de 5 años, la prevalencia del retraso del crecimiento en niños y el índice compuesto de cobertura (un promedio ponderado de 8 indicadores de cobertura en materia de salud reproductiva, materna, neonatal e infantil. Para evaluar las desigualdades absolutas y relativas, se emplearon el índice de desigualdad de la pendiente y el índice de concentración. RESULTADOS: El índice compuesto de cobertura mostró patrones monotónicos en función de los quintiles de riqueza, con los niveles más bajos en el quintil más pobre. La mortalidad neonatal y en menores de 5 años, así como la prevalencia del retraso del crecimiento, fueron más elevadas entre los pobres. En la mayor parte de los países aumentó la cobertura de las intervenciones, mientras que la mortalidad en menores de 5 años y la prevalencia del retraso del crecimiento disminuyeron más rápidamente entre los pobres, de manera que las desigualdades se redujeron con el transcurso del tiempo. Sin embargo, en Bolivia, Guatemala, Haití, Nicaragua y Perú aún se observan marcadas desigualdades. Brasil prácticamente ha eliminado las desigualdades en cuanto a retraso del crecimiento. CONCLUSIONES: Los países de ALC mostraron avances considerables en la reducción de las desigualdades con respecto a las intervenciones de salud reproductiva, materna, neonatal e infantil, y en materia de mortalidad y nutrición infantil. Sin embargo, el 20% más pobre de la población en la mayor parte de los países sigue quedándose a la zaga, y son necesarias iniciativas renovadas para mejorar la equidad.
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5.

Controlling congenital and paediatric chagas disease through a community health approach with active surveillance and promotion of paediatric awareness.

Soriano-Arandes, Antoni; Basile, Luca; Ouaarab, Hakima; Clavería, Isabel; Gómez i Prat, Jordi; Cabezos, Juan; Ciruela, Pilar; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Jané, Mireia
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is endemic in countries of continental Latin America. Congenital transmission is a major concern worldwide. In 2010, the Public Health Agency of Catalonia (ASPCAT) launched a screening protocol for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in pregnant women and their newborns. In 2012, ASPCAT detected appropriate follow-up of pregnant women but incomplete information about their offspring. METHODS: The PROSICS community health team carried out active surveillance and community health action in target populations. These activities included active case searches, group awareness workshops and visualization campaigns as well as investigation of all lost children born from pregnant women with CD and their families. RESULTS: Overall, 42/179 (23.5%) cases were included in the study: 35/42 (83.3%) children were born in Hospitalet de Llobregat (Catalonia, Spain); 4/42 (16.7%) were born in Latin America; two were miscarried and one was stillborn. The mean age of pregnant women was 31.3 years (SD 5.52; range: 21-44): 90.5% were Bolivian, of whom 74% were diagnosed with CD during pregnancy. Of the 35 newborns, 31 were recovered by community health action; 12/31 were correctly controlled at Hospitalet de Llobregat and 19/31 were controlled at a primary health centre. Of these 19 (73.7%) cases, 14 were not tested for CD by family paediatricians and were recovered by the PROSICS community health team. Finally, two (6.9%) of the 29 newborns tested with serology were positive. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to implement active surveillance, education and information activities at paediatric primary care and community levels to avoid the loss of CD-infected mothers and their newborns. Training sessions addressed to paediatricians and other involved health professionals would consolidate surveillance and care reference circuits, improving the control of congenital CD.
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6.

Aspectos interculturales de la reforma del sistema de salud en Bolivia/ Intercultural aspects of the health system reform in Bolivia

Ramírez Hita, Susana
| Idioma(s): Español
Este artículo es una reflexión sobre cómo la interculturalidad entendida como el camino para mejorar la salud de la población boliviana, unida al concepto de vivir bien, no está contribuyendo a la mejora de la calidad de vida y de salud de las poblaciones más vulnerables del país. El discurso va unido a la intención de salvar la vida en su más amplio sentido, sin embargo, para ello es necesario la toma de decisiones sobre la salud ambiental y la política extractivista que no son tomados en cuenta en los problemas de salud que afectan a las pueblos indígenas, población a la que se dirigen los aspectos interculturales de la reforma de salud. This article is a reflection on how interculturality, understood as the way to improve the health of the Bolivian population and coupled with the concept of living well, is not contributing to improving the quality of life and health of the most vulnerable populations in the country. The discourse is coupled with the intention of saving lives in its broadest sense; however, for this it is necessary to make decisions about environmental health and extractivist policies that are not taken into account in the health issues affecting indigenous communities, a population targeted by the intercultural aspects of the health reform.
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7.

Lessons learned in evaluating the Familias Fuertes program in three countries in Latin America/ Lecciones aprendidas al evaluar el programa Familias Fuertes en tres países de América Latina

Orpinas, Pamela; Ambrose, Ashley; Maddaleno, Matilde; Vulanovic, Lauren; Mejia, Martha; Butrón, Betzabé; Gutierrez, Gonzalo Sosa; Soriano, Ismael
| Idioma(s): Inglés
This report describes 1) the evaluation of the Familias Fuertes primary prevention program in three countries (Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador) and 2) the effect of program participation on parenting practices. Familias Fuertes was implemented in Bolivia (10 groups, 96 parents), Colombia (12 groups, 173 parents), and Ecuador (five groups, 42 parents) to prevent the initiation and reduce the prevalence of health-compromising behaviors among adolescents by strengthening family relationships and enhancing parenting skills. The program consists of seven group sessions (for 6-12 families) designed for parents/caregivers and their 10-14-year-old child. Parents/caregivers answered a survey before the first session and at the completion of the program. The survey measured two important mediating constructs: "positive parenting" and "parental hostility." The Pan American Health Organization provided training for facilitators. After the program, parents/caregivers from all three countries reported significantly higher mean scores for "positive parenting" and significantly lower mean scores for "parental hostility" than at the pre-test. "Positive parenting" practices paired with low "parental hostility" are fundamental to strengthening the relationship between parents/caregivers and the children and reducing adolescents' health-compromising behaviors. More research is needed to examine the long-term impact of the program on adolescent behaviors. Este informe describe 1) la evaluación del programa de prevención primaria Familias Fuertes en tres países (Bolivia, Colombia y Ecuador) y 2) el efecto de la participación en el programa sobre las prácticas de crianza. El programa Familias Fuertes se llevó a cabo en Bolivia (10 grupos, 96 padres), Colombia (12 grupos, 173 padres) y Ecuador (5 grupos, 42 padres) para prevenir el inicio y reducir la prevalencia de comportamientos que constituyen un riesgo para la salud de los adolescentes, mediante el fortalecimiento de las relaciones familiares y la mejora de las habilidades de crianza. El programa consta de siete sesiones de grupo (para 6 a 12 familias) dirigidas a padres o cuidadores y sus hijos de 10 a 14 años de edad. Los padres o cuidadores respondieron a una encuesta antes de la primera sesión y al término del programa. La encuesta midió dos conceptos importantes: la "crianza positiva" y la "hostilidad parental". La Organización Panamericana de la Salud capacitó a los facilitadores. Después del programa, los padres o cuidadores de los tres países presentaron puntuaciones ­ medias significativamente mayores en "crianza positiva" y significativamente menores en "hostilidad parental" que en la encuesta previa. La prácticas de "crianza positiva" asociadas con una baja "hostilidad parental" son fundamentales para fortalecer la relación entre los padres o cuidadores y los niños, y reducen los comportamientos que constituyen un riesgo para la salud de los adolescentes. Es necesaria una investigación más amplia para analizar la repercusión a largo plazo del programa sobre los comportamientos de los adolescentes.
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8.

Salud, globalización e interculturalidad: una mirada antropológica a la situación de los pueblos indígenas de Sudamérica/ Health, globalization and interculturalism: an anthropological approach to the situation of indigenous peoples in South America

Hita, Susana Ramírez
| Idioma(s): Español
Este artículo es un ensayo sobre la incidencia que tiene la globalización y la interculturalidad en las condiciones de vida de las poblaciones indígenas de Sudamérica. A través de dos ejemplos - Bolivia y Argentina - se plantea como la interculturalidad en salud ha devenido en un discurso y una práctica que han utilizado, tanto los organismos globales como la mayoría de países latinoamericanos, para asimilar y seducir a las comunidades indígenas. Se revaloriza la medicina tradicional, sin proponer cambios en la mejora de las condiciones de vida de estas poblaciones. Sobre todo en aquellas zonas en las que se están expropiando las tierras o contaminándolas: con la extracción de gas, petróleo, minerales, construcción de represas, junto con la deforestación indiscriminada de la selva. La salud/enfermedad no puede separarse de las condiciones territoriales de estos pueblos ya que la salud ambiental es fundamental para su supervivencia. This article reflects upon the impact of globalization and interculturalism on the living conditions of indigenous peoples in South America. Through two examples - Bolivia and Argentina - it is seen how health interculturalism has transformed into a discourse and a practice that both global organizations and most Latin American countries have used to assimilate and attract indigenous communities. Traditional medicine is respected and valued without proposing changes to improve the living conditions of these population groups. This is especially true in those areas where land is being expropriated or contaminated with the extraction of gas, oil, minerals and the construction of dams, along with indiscriminate deforestation of the rainforest. Health/illness cannot be separated from the territorial conditions of these peoples since environmental health is critical for their survival.
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9.

Saúde e ambiente nos seringais do Acre boliviano (1870-1903): o papel de fatores e processos exógenos/ Health and environment in the rubber-tree plantations in the Bolivian Acre (1870-1903): the role of exogenous factors and processes

Almeida Neto, Domingos José de; Heller, Léo
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Situação particular marca as condições da saúde humana e do ambiente no primeiro surto da produção gomífera na Amazônia Ocidental, região do Acre, sendo que a maior parte dele (1870-1903) ocorreu em território ainda pertencente à Bolívia. Com base nesse quadro histórico, o trabalho busca descrever e compreender como fatores e processos exógenos a esses dois campos de análise mediavam os riscos, com origem no ambiente, para o adoecimento e a morte nas populações dos seringais "brasileiros" em território boliviano. Explora-se, assim, a inter-relação entre saúde e ambiente, a partir das configurações historicamente específicas das condições físico-naturais, socioeconômicas, políticas e culturais. O trabalho evidencia que esses fatores e processos extrínsecos às atividades produtivas exerceram não só influência, tanto em seu aspecto organizativo quanto funcional, como determinaram as condições insalubres que se observaram nas regiões produtoras. Aponta, ainda, que a infraestrutura então existente era suficiente para a produção e a reprodução extrativista. A peculiar situation marks the conditions of human and environmental health in the first major cycle of rubber production in the Acre region of the Western Amazon, whereby the bulk of the boom (1870-1903) occurred in the territory that at that time still belonged to Bolivia. Based on this historical background, this work seeks to describe and comprehend how these factors and processes, which are exogenous to these two fields of analysis mediated the risks that originated in the environment, gave rise to sickness and death in the population of the "Brazilian" rubber-tree plantations established in Bolivian territory. In this manner, the inter-relations between health and environment linked to historically specific configurations of the physical-natural, socioeconomic, political, and cultural conditions, are examined. The work shows that these extrinsic factors and processes to the productive activities exerted an influence not only on its organizational but also functional aspects, while also resulting in the unhealthy conditions observed in the productive regions. It further highlights the fact that the extant infrastructure of the time was sufficient for extractive production and reproduction.
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10.

The right to health in Paraguay.

Torales, Julio; Villalba-Arias, Jorge; Ruiz-Díaz, César; Chávez, Emilia; Riego, Viviana
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Access to facilities, services and opportunities designed to meet the needs of health is a fundamental human right and is the key for people to enjoy other human rights. However, in Paraguay, this right is still far from becoming reality. The status of the country is the most disadvantaged when compared to the average condition of the Mercosur (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela). Health, as a human right, expands as a social, economic, and political matter. Inequality, poverty, exploitation, violence and injustice are at the root of its poor quality and the consequent shortcomings that emerge from it. Access to health in Paraguay must be further developed using a human rights framework linking it with improving quality of life for all citizens. Such an approach means that potentially powerful barriers and interests must be questioned and contested wherever appropriate and that political and economic priorities must change drastically.
Resultados  1-10 de 2.196