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1.

Impacto económico del tabaquismo en los sistemas de salud de América Latina: un estudio en siete países y su extrapolación a nivel regional/ Financial impact of smoking on health systems in Latin America: A study of seven countries and extrapolation to the regional level

Pichon-Riviere, Andrés; Bardach, Ariel; Augustovski, Federico; Alcaraz, Andrea; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Pinto, Márcia Teixeira; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Torres, Esperanza Peña; Osorio, Diana Isabel; Huayanay, Leandro; Munarriz, César Loza; de Miera-Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Gallegos-Rivero, Verónica; Puente, Catherine De La; Navia-Bueno, María del Pilar; Caporale, Joaquín
| Idioma(s): Español
RESUMEN Objetivo Estimar los costos médicos directos atribuibles al tabaquismo en los sistemas de salud de América Latina. Métodos Se utilizó un modelo de microsimulación para cuantificar el impacto económico en enfermedad cardiovascular y cerebrovascular, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC), neumonía, cáncer de pulmón y otras nueve neoplasias. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de datos epidemiológicos y de costos de los eventos. El modelo se calibró y validó para Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Perú, países que representan el 78% de la población de América Latina; luego se extrapolaron los resultados a nivel regional. Resultados Cada año el tabaquismo es responsable de 33 576 millones de dólares en costos directos para el sistema de salud. Esto equivale a 0,7% del producto interno bruto (PIB) de la región y a 8,3% del presupuesto sanitario. La enfermedad cardiovascular, la EPOC y el cáncer fueron responsables de 30,3%, 26,9% y 23,7% de este gasto, respectivamente. El costo atribuible al tabaquismo varió entre 0,4% (México y Perú) y 0,9% (Chile) del PIB y entre 5,2% (Brasil) y 12,7% (Bolivia) del gasto en salud. En la región, la recaudación impositiva por la venta de cigarrillos apenas cubre 37% del gasto sanitario atribuible al tabaquismo (8,1% en Bolivia y 67,3% en Argentina). Conclusiones El tabaquismo es responsable de una importante proporción del gasto sanitario en América Latina, y la recaudación impositiva por la venta de cigarrillos está lejos de llegar a cubrirlo. La profundización de medidas como el aumento de impuestos al tabaco debería ser seriamente considerada por los países de la región. ABSTRACT Objective Estimate smoking-attributable direct medical costs in Latin American health systems. Methods A microsimulation model was used to quantify financial impact of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, lung cancer, and nine other neoplasms. A systematic search for epidemiological data and event costs was carried out. The model was calibrated and validated for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, countries that account for 78% of Latin America’s population; the results were then extrapolated to the regional level. Results Every year, smoking is responsible for 33 576 billion dollars in direct costs to health systems. This amounts to 0.7% of the region’s gross domestic product (GDP) and 8.3% of its health budget. Cardiovascular disease, COPD, and cancer were responsible for 30.3%, 26.9%, and 23.7% of these expenditures, respectively. Smoking-attributable costs ranged from 0.4% (Mexico and Peru) to 0.9% (Chile) of GDP and from 5.2% (Brazil) to 12.7% (Bolivia) of health expenditures. In the region, tax revenues from cigarette sales barely cover 37% of smoking-attributable health expenditures (8.1% in Bolivia and 67.3% in Argentina). Conclusions Smoking is responsible for a significant proportion of health spending in Latin America, and tax revenues from cigarette sales are far from covering it. The region’s countries should seriously consider stronger measures, such as an increase in tobacco taxes.
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2.

Individual health and the visibility of village economic inequality: Longitudinal evidence from native Amazonians in Bolivia.

Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nica, Veronica; Zhang, Rebecca; Mensah, Irene C; Godoy, Ricardo A
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Mounting evidence suggests that income inequality is associated with worse individual health. But does the visibility of inequality matter? Using data from a horticultural-foraging society of native Amazonians in Bolivia (Tsimane'), we examined whether village inequality in resources and behaviors with greater cultural visibility is more likely to bear a negative association with health than village inequality in less conspicuous resources. We draw on a nine-year annual panel (2002-2010) from 13 Tsimane' villages for our main analysis, and an additional survey to gauge the cultural visibility of resources. We measured inequality using the Gini coefficient. We tested the robustness of our results using a shorter two-year annual panel (2008-2009) in another 40 Tsimane' villages and an additional measure of inequality (coefficient of variation, CV). Behaviors with low cultural visibility (e.g., household farm area planted with staples) were less likely to be associated with individual health, compared to more conspicuous behaviors (e.g., expenditures in durable goods, consumption of domesticated animals). We find some evidence that property rights and access to resources matter, with inequality of privately-owned resources showing a larger effect on health. More inequality was associated with improved perceived health - maybe due to improved health prospects from increasing wealth - and worse anthropometric indicators. For example, a unit increase in the Gini coefficient of expenditures in durable goods was associated with 0.24 fewer episodes of stress and a six percentage-point lower probability of reporting illness. A one-point increase in the CV of village inequality in meat consumption was associated with a 4 and 3 percentage-point lower probability of reporting illness and being in bed due to illness, and a 0.05 SD decrease in age-sex standardized arm-muscle area. In small-scale, rural societies at the periphery of market economies, nominal economic inequality in resources bore an association with individual health, but did not necessarily harm perceived health. Economic inequalities in small-scale societies apparently matter, but a thick cultural tapestry of reciprocity norms and kinship ties makes their effects less predictable than in industrial societies.
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3.

Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico.

Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Wilson, Leslie; Novelo-Garza, Barbara; Valiente-Banuet, Leopoldo; Ramsey, Janine M
| Idioma(s): Inglés
An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American countries, Mexico only finally included mandatory serological screening nationwide in official Norms in 2012. Most recent regulatory changes and segmented blood services in Mexico may affect compliance of mandatory screening guidelines. The objective of this study was to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for total compliance of current guidelines from both Mexican primary healthcare and regular salaried worker health service institutions: the Secretary of Health and the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We developed a bi-modular model to analyze compliance using a decision tree for the most common screening algorithms for each health institution, and a Markov transition model for the natural history of illness and care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio based on life-years gained is US$ 383 for the Secretary of Health, while the cost for an additional life-year gained is US$ 463 for the Social Security Institute. The results of the present study suggest that due to incomplete compliance of Mexico's national legislation during 2013 and 2014, the MoH has failed to confirm 15,162 T. cruzi infections, has not prevented 2,347 avoidable infections, and has lost 333,483 life-years. Although there is a vast difference in T. cruzi prevalence between Bolivia and Mexico, Bolivia established mandatory blood screening for T.cruzi in 1996 and until 2002 detected and discarded 11,489 T. cruzi -infected blood units and prevented 2,879 potential infections with their transfusion blood screening program. In the first two years of Mexico's mandated program, the two primary institutions failed to prevent due to incomplete compliance more potential infections than those gained from the first five years of Bolivia's program. Full regulatory compliance should be clearly understood as mandatory for the sake of blood security, and its monitoring and analysis in Mexico should be part of the health authority's responsibility.
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4.

Different Patterns in Health Care Use Among Immigrants in Spain.

Villarroel, Nazmy; Artazcoz, Lucía
| Idioma(s): Inglés
This study aims to analyze the differences in the use of primary care (PC), hospital, and emergency services between people born in Spain and immigrants. Data were obtained from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. The sample was composed of individuals aged 16-64 years from Spain and the seven countries with most immigrants in Spain (n = 22,224). Hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Romanian men were less likely to use health care at all levels compared to men from other countries. Women from Argentina, Bolivia and Ecuador reported a lower use of PC. Among women, there were no differences in emergency visits or hospitalizations between countries. Bolivian men reported more hospitalizations than Spanish men, whereas Argentinean men reported more emergency visits than their Spanish counterparts. In Spain, most immigrants made less than, or about the same use of health care services as the native Spanish population.
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5.

The effects of community income inequality on health: Evidence from a randomized control trial in the Bolivian Amazon.

Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Leonard, William R; Godoy, Ricardo A
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Research suggests that poorer people have worse health than the better-off and, more controversially, that income inequality harms health. But causal interpretations suffer from endogeneity. We addressed the gap by using a randomized control trial among a society of forager-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Treatments included one-time unconditional income transfers (T1) to all households and (T2) only to the poorest 20% of households, with other villages as controls. We assessed the effects of income inequality, absolute income, and spillovers within villages on self-reported health, objective indicators of health and nutrition, and adults' substance consumption. Most effects came from relative income. Targeted transfers increased the perceived stress of participants in better-off households. Evidence suggests increased work efforts among better-off households when the lot of the poor improved, possibly due to a preference for rank preservation. The study points to new paths by which inequality might affect health.
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6.

Progress in reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn,' and child health in Latin America and the Caribbean: an unfinished agenda/ Avances en la reducción de las desigualdades en materia de salud reproductiva, materna, neonatal e infantil en América Latina y el Caribe: un programa inacabado

Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Requejo, Jennifer; Durán, Pablo; Serpa, Luis Andrés de Francisco; França, Giovanny V. A.; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To expand the "Countdown to 2015" analyses of health inequalities beyond the 75 countries being monitored worldwide to include all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) that have adequate data available. METHODS: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys were used to monitor progress in health intervention coverage and inequalities in 13 LAC countries, five of which are included in the Countdown (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Haiti, and Peru) and eight that are not (Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Suriname). The outcomes included neonatal and under-5 year mortality rates, child stunting prevalence, and the composite coverage index-a weighted average of eight indicators of coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. The slope index of inequality and concentration index were used to assess absolute and relative inequalities. RESULTS: The composite coverage index showed monotonic patterns over wealth quintiles, with lowest levels in the poorest quintile. Under-5 and neonatal mortality as well as stunting prevalence were highest among the poor. In most countries, intervention coverage increased, while under-5 mortality and stunting prevalence fell most rapidly among the poor, so that inequalities were reduced over time. However, Bolivia, Guatemala, Haiti, Nicaragua, and Peru still show marked inequalities. Brazil has practically eliminated inequalities in stunting. CONCLUSIONS: LAC countries presented substantial progress in terms of reducing inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health interventions, child mortality, and nutrition. However, the poorest 20% of the population in most countries is still lagging behind, and renewed actions are needed to improve equity. OBJETIVO: Extender los análisis de la "Cuenta Regresiva para 2015" de las desigualdades en materia de salud más allá de los 75 países sometidos a vigilancia en todo el mundo para incluir a todos los países de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC) que disponen de datos adecuados. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron encuestas de demografía y salud y encuestas agrupadas de indicadores múltiples para vigilar el progreso de la cobertura de las intervenciones de salud y de las desigualdades en 13 países de ALC, 5 de ellos incluidos en la Cuenta Regresiva (Bolivia, Brasil, Guatemala, Haití y Perú) y 8 no incluidos (Belice, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, República Dominicana y Suriname). Los resultados incluyeron las tasas de mortalidad neonatal y en menores de 5 años, la prevalencia del retraso del crecimiento en niños y el índice compuesto de cobertura (un promedio ponderado de 8 indicadores de cobertura en materia de salud reproductiva, materna, neonatal e infantil. Para evaluar las desigualdades absolutas y relativas, se emplearon el índice de desigualdad de la pendiente y el índice de concentración. RESULTADOS: El índice compuesto de cobertura mostró patrones monotónicos en función de los quintiles de riqueza, con los niveles más bajos en el quintil más pobre. La mortalidad neonatal y en menores de 5 años, así como la prevalencia del retraso del crecimiento, fueron más elevadas entre los pobres. En la mayor parte de los países aumentó la cobertura de las intervenciones, mientras que la mortalidad en menores de 5 años y la prevalencia del retraso del crecimiento disminuyeron más rápidamente entre los pobres, de manera que las desigualdades se redujeron con el transcurso del tiempo. Sin embargo, en Bolivia, Guatemala, Haití, Nicaragua y Perú aún se observan marcadas desigualdades. Brasil prácticamente ha eliminado las desigualdades en cuanto a retraso del crecimiento. CONCLUSIONES: Los países de ALC mostraron avances considerables en la reducción de las desigualdades con respecto a las intervenciones de salud reproductiva, materna, neonatal e infantil, y en materia de mortalidad y nutrición infantil. Sin embargo, el 20% más pobre de la población en la mayor parte de los países sigue quedándose a la zaga, y son necesarias iniciativas renovadas para mejorar la equidad.
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7.

Aspectos interculturales de la reforma del sistema de salud en Bolivia/ Intercultural aspects of the health system reform in Bolivia

Ramírez Hita, Susana
| Idioma(s): Español
Este artículo es una reflexión sobre cómo la interculturalidad entendida como el camino para mejorar la salud de la población boliviana, unida al concepto de vivir bien, no está contribuyendo a la mejora de la calidad de vida y de salud de las poblaciones más vulnerables del país. El discurso va unido a la intención de salvar la vida en su más amplio sentido, sin embargo, para ello es necesario la toma de decisiones sobre la salud ambiental y la política extractivista que no son tomados en cuenta en los problemas de salud que afectan a las pueblos indígenas, población a la que se dirigen los aspectos interculturales de la reforma de salud. This article is a reflection on how interculturality, understood as the way to improve the health of the Bolivian population and coupled with the concept of living well, is not contributing to improving the quality of life and health of the most vulnerable populations in the country. The discourse is coupled with the intention of saving lives in its broadest sense; however, for this it is necessary to make decisions about environmental health and extractivist policies that are not taken into account in the health issues affecting indigenous communities, a population targeted by the intercultural aspects of the health reform.
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8.

Lessons learned in evaluating the Familias Fuertes program in three countries in Latin America/ Lecciones aprendidas al evaluar el programa Familias Fuertes en tres países de América Latina

Orpinas, Pamela; Ambrose, Ashley; Maddaleno, Matilde; Vulanovic, Lauren; Mejia, Martha; Butrón, Betzabé; Gutierrez, Gonzalo Sosa; Soriano, Ismael
| Idioma(s): Inglés
This report describes 1) the evaluation of the Familias Fuertes primary prevention program in three countries (Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador) and 2) the effect of program participation on parenting practices. Familias Fuertes was implemented in Bolivia (10 groups, 96 parents), Colombia (12 groups, 173 parents), and Ecuador (five groups, 42 parents) to prevent the initiation and reduce the prevalence of health-compromising behaviors among adolescents by strengthening family relationships and enhancing parenting skills. The program consists of seven group sessions (for 6-12 families) designed for parents/caregivers and their 10-14-year-old child. Parents/caregivers answered a survey before the first session and at the completion of the program. The survey measured two important mediating constructs: "positive parenting" and "parental hostility." The Pan American Health Organization provided training for facilitators. After the program, parents/caregivers from all three countries reported significantly higher mean scores for "positive parenting" and significantly lower mean scores for "parental hostility" than at the pre-test. "Positive parenting" practices paired with low "parental hostility" are fundamental to strengthening the relationship between parents/caregivers and the children and reducing adolescents' health-compromising behaviors. More research is needed to examine the long-term impact of the program on adolescent behaviors. Este informe describe 1) la evaluación del programa de prevención primaria Familias Fuertes en tres países (Bolivia, Colombia y Ecuador) y 2) el efecto de la participación en el programa sobre las prácticas de crianza. El programa Familias Fuertes se llevó a cabo en Bolivia (10 grupos, 96 padres), Colombia (12 grupos, 173 padres) y Ecuador (5 grupos, 42 padres) para prevenir el inicio y reducir la prevalencia de comportamientos que constituyen un riesgo para la salud de los adolescentes, mediante el fortalecimiento de las relaciones familiares y la mejora de las habilidades de crianza. El programa consta de siete sesiones de grupo (para 6 a 12 familias) dirigidas a padres o cuidadores y sus hijos de 10 a 14 años de edad. Los padres o cuidadores respondieron a una encuesta antes de la primera sesión y al término del programa. La encuesta midió dos conceptos importantes: la "crianza positiva" y la "hostilidad parental". La Organización Panamericana de la Salud capacitó a los facilitadores. Después del programa, los padres o cuidadores de los tres países presentaron puntuaciones ­ medias significativamente mayores en "crianza positiva" y significativamente menores en "hostilidad parental" que en la encuesta previa. La prácticas de "crianza positiva" asociadas con una baja "hostilidad parental" son fundamentales para fortalecer la relación entre los padres o cuidadores y los niños, y reducen los comportamientos que constituyen un riesgo para la salud de los adolescentes. Es necesaria una investigación más amplia para analizar la repercusión a largo plazo del programa sobre los comportamientos de los adolescentes.
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9.

Salud, globalización e interculturalidad: una mirada antropológica a la situación de los pueblos indígenas de Sudamérica/ Health, globalization and interculturalism: an anthropological approach to the situation of indigenous peoples in South America

Hita, Susana Ramírez
| Idioma(s): Español
Este artículo es un ensayo sobre la incidencia que tiene la globalización y la interculturalidad en las condiciones de vida de las poblaciones indígenas de Sudamérica. A través de dos ejemplos - Bolivia y Argentina - se plantea como la interculturalidad en salud ha devenido en un discurso y una práctica que han utilizado, tanto los organismos globales como la mayoría de países latinoamericanos, para asimilar y seducir a las comunidades indígenas. Se revaloriza la medicina tradicional, sin proponer cambios en la mejora de las condiciones de vida de estas poblaciones. Sobre todo en aquellas zonas en las que se están expropiando las tierras o contaminándolas: con la extracción de gas, petróleo, minerales, construcción de represas, junto con la deforestación indiscriminada de la selva. La salud/enfermedad no puede separarse de las condiciones territoriales de estos pueblos ya que la salud ambiental es fundamental para su supervivencia. This article reflects upon the impact of globalization and interculturalism on the living conditions of indigenous peoples in South America. Through two examples - Bolivia and Argentina - it is seen how health interculturalism has transformed into a discourse and a practice that both global organizations and most Latin American countries have used to assimilate and attract indigenous communities. Traditional medicine is respected and valued without proposing changes to improve the living conditions of these population groups. This is especially true in those areas where land is being expropriated or contaminated with the extraction of gas, oil, minerals and the construction of dams, along with indiscriminate deforestation of the rainforest. Health/illness cannot be separated from the territorial conditions of these peoples since environmental health is critical for their survival.
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10.

Saúde e ambiente nos seringais do Acre boliviano (1870-1903): o papel de fatores e processos exógenos/ Health and environment in the rubber-tree plantations in the Bolivian Acre (1870-1903): the role of exogenous factors and processes

Almeida Neto, Domingos José de; Heller, Léo
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Situação particular marca as condições da saúde humana e do ambiente no primeiro surto da produção gomífera na Amazônia Ocidental, região do Acre, sendo que a maior parte dele (1870-1903) ocorreu em território ainda pertencente à Bolívia. Com base nesse quadro histórico, o trabalho busca descrever e compreender como fatores e processos exógenos a esses dois campos de análise mediavam os riscos, com origem no ambiente, para o adoecimento e a morte nas populações dos seringais "brasileiros" em território boliviano. Explora-se, assim, a inter-relação entre saúde e ambiente, a partir das configurações historicamente específicas das condições físico-naturais, socioeconômicas, políticas e culturais. O trabalho evidencia que esses fatores e processos extrínsecos às atividades produtivas exerceram não só influência, tanto em seu aspecto organizativo quanto funcional, como determinaram as condições insalubres que se observaram nas regiões produtoras. Aponta, ainda, que a infraestrutura então existente era suficiente para a produção e a reprodução extrativista. A peculiar situation marks the conditions of human and environmental health in the first major cycle of rubber production in the Acre region of the Western Amazon, whereby the bulk of the boom (1870-1903) occurred in the territory that at that time still belonged to Bolivia. Based on this historical background, this work seeks to describe and comprehend how these factors and processes, which are exogenous to these two fields of analysis mediated the risks that originated in the environment, gave rise to sickness and death in the population of the "Brazilian" rubber-tree plantations established in Bolivian territory. In this manner, the inter-relations between health and environment linked to historically specific configurations of the physical-natural, socioeconomic, political, and cultural conditions, are examined. The work shows that these extrinsic factors and processes to the productive activities exerted an influence not only on its organizational but also functional aspects, while also resulting in the unhealthy conditions observed in the productive regions. It further highlights the fact that the extant infrastructure of the time was sufficient for extractive production and reproduction.
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