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1.

Influencia del tiempo extendido por la Ley 20. 545 en el mantenimiento de la lactancia materna al retorno laboral, en funcionarias de un hospital público en Curanilahue, Región del Bío Bío, Chile./ Influence of the leave time extended by law 20. 545 in the maintenance of breastfeeding upon return to work, in female employees of a public hospital in Curanilahue, Bío Bío Region, Chile.

Rodríguez P, Vanessa; Ibarra P, Jacqueline
| Idioma(s): Español
RESUMEN Con el fin de fomentar una adecuada calidad de vida se han establecido diversas políticas públicas a nivel internacional y nacional, para lo cual Chile generó en el año 2011 la Ley 20.545 de Postnatal parental, que amplía el periodo de descanso materno con lo que se pretende, entre otras cosas, extender el tiempo de lactancia materna. Objetivo: Interpretar el impacto de la Ley 20.545, en el mantenimiento de la lactancia materna en funcionarias del Hospital Dr. Rafael Avaria Valenzuela, Curanilahue, en 2017. Material y métodos: Se utilizó metodología cualitativa con diseño fenomenológico. Como instrumento de recolección de datos se utilizó una entrevista semi-estructurada aplicada a 15 mujeres de acuerdo a los criterios de selección. Resultados: El tiempo de extensión otorgado por el postnatal parental permite efectivamente mantener la lactancia materna una vez se ha retornado al trabajo, siendo relevante para lo anterior contar con un espacio físico que permita el cuidado de los hijos en un lugar cercano al trabajo donde se desempeñan las madres. Conclusión: La influencia del tiempo extendido por de la Ley 20.545 genera que el amamantamiento sea posible de mantener al retorno a las actividades laborales principalmente, por el acceso a sala cuna. ABSTRACT In order to promote an adequate quality of life, several public policies have been established at the international and national levels. In 2011, Chile passed law 20,545 for Parental Postnatal Leave that extended the maternal leave period in order to, among other things, extend the duration of breastfeeding. Objective: To interpret the impact of law 20,545 in the maintenance of breastfeeding among female employees of the Dr. Rafael Avaria Valenzuela Hospital, Curanilahue, in 2017. Material and methods: We used a qualitative methodology with phenomenological design. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 15 women, chosen according to selection criteria. Results: The extended time given by the law regarding parental postnatal leave allowed for effectively maintaining breastfeeding when it was time to return to work. It was important that women have a place that allowed for the care of children, near their work space. Conclusion: The influence of extended time provided by law 20,545 makes maintaining breastfeeding possible when women return to work primarily because of access to nursery facilities.
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2.

Determinantes sociales de la salud de niños migrantes internacionales en Chile: evidencia cualitativa./ [Social determinants of the health of international migrant children in Chile: qualitative evidence.]

Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica; McIntyre, Ana María; Chepo, Macarena; Flaño, Javiera; Obach, Alexandra
| Idioma(s): Español
OBJECTIVE: To explore the social determinants of health (SDH) of international migrant children, from the perceptions of caregivers, health workers and local authorities in eight municipalities in Chile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A secondary analysis of data was conducted from a qualitative study that took place between 2014 and 2017. The original study involved semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The secondary thematic analysis of data included all emerging issues related to international migrant children and their living conditions, including use of health services. RESULTS: Findings were grouped according to the model of social determinants of health, which allow a reflection on living conditions of international migrant children and their health situation. CONCLUSIONS: This research shows the impact of SDH on international migrant children in Chile, highlighting relevant issues around this group.
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3.

Is aging a problem?: Dependency, long-term care, and public policies in Chile

Villalobos Dintrans, Pablo
| Idioma(s): Inglés
[ABSTRACT]. Chile is facing changes associated with the demographic transition. So far, these challenges have been framed as age related. This has contributed to approaching a broad set of issues from a narrow perspective. The focus on aging has fragmented a multidisciplinary problem into different parts—particularly health and social policies—with different actors dealing with it from the perspective of their own sector. This process has generated an incomplete picture, preventing the definition and measurement of dependency and long-term care, and hindering a coordinated response to these issues. This article advocates for a change in the definition of the problem, by adopting the concept of long-term care, in order to gain a deeper and more comprehensive perspective on the issues arising from the situation that Chile is experiencing. [RESUMEN]. Chile está enfrentándose a cambios asociados con la transición demográfica. Hasta ahora, estos retos se han considerado como relacionados exclusivamente con la edad. Esto ha hecho que un conjunto amplio de problemas se aborde desde una perspectiva limitada. Al poner el énfasis en el envejecimiento, se ha dividido un problema multidisciplinario en diferentes partes —en particular, en políticas sociales y de salud—con diferentes actores que tratan el tema desde la perspectiva de su propio sector. Este proceso ha generado una imagen incompleta que no ha permitido definir ni medir la dependencia y la atención a largo plazo, y que ha impedido desarrollar una respuesta coordinada frente a estos temas. En este artículo se aboga por cambiar la definición del problema, adoptando el concepto de la atención a largo plazo, a fin de lograr una perspectiva más profunda e integral de los problemas que surgen de la situación por la que está pasando Chile. [RESUMO]. O Chile passa por mudanças associadas à transição demográfica. Até o momento, porém, estes desafios têm sido contextualizados como relacionados com a idade. Isso vem contribuindo para que uma grande variedade de questões seja contemplada de uma perspectiva restrita. O foco no envelhecimento reduziu um problema multidisciplinar a vários fragmentos (em particular, políticas sociais e de saúde) com atores de diversos setores lidando com a questão de um prisma distinto. Este processo criou um quadro incompleto que impossibilita definir e mensurar dependência e assistência a longo prazo e impede lidar com estas questões de maneira coordenada. Neste artigo, os autores defendem mudar a definição do problema e adotar o conceito de assistência a longo prazo para conferir uma perspectiva mais aprofundada e abrangente às questões decorrentes da situação pela qual o Chile atravessa.
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4.

Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias (ETESA) una visión global del concepto y de sus alcances/ Health Technology Assessment (HTA). An overview of the concept and its scope

Manterola, Carlos; Otzen, Tamara; Castro, Mayra; Grande, Luis
| Idioma(s): Español
La progresivas preocupación de los países para optimizar el acceso, la eficiencia y la calidad de la salud, han impulsado la utilización más apropiada de las intervenciones en salud. Por ende, el interés tanto de profesionales sanitarios como de tomadores de decisiones en salud, ha sido orientado hacia la medicina basada en la evidencia, la eficacia comparativa y la Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias (ETESA). Aunque los conceptos anteriormente señalados son convergentes en sus características, no son sinónimos. Sin embargo, todos estos, se basan en la orientación sistemática de pruebas y el enfoque en resultados relevantes para el paciente entre otras. Como consecuencia de todo esto, el interés no sólo implica los conceptos de eficacia, efectividad y eficiencia; sino que también en práctica clínica, costes y transparencia. En este artículo se resumen los conceptos de economía de la salud, evaluación económica, tecnología sanitaria (TS) y ETESA. Luego, se comenta el ciclo de vida de una TS, razones para implementar un programa de ETESA; para finalizar con algunos ejemplos de TS emergentes, comentarios respecto de la evidencia científica en la ETESA; y algunos ejemplos de estudios de ETESA en la práctica clínica cotidiana. The progressive concern of countries to optimize access, efficiency and quality of health have led to the most appropriate use of health interventions. Therefore, the interest of both health professionals and health decision makers has been oriented towards evidence-based policy, comparative efficacy and Health Technologies Assessment (HTA). Although the aforementioned concepts are converging in their characteristics, they are not synonymous. However, all these are based on systematic testing orientation and focus on relevant patient outcomes among others. As a consequence of all this, interest does not only imply the concepts of effectiveness, effectiveness and efficiency, but also in clinical practice, costs and transparency.This manuscript summarizes concepts of health economics, economic evaluation, health technology and HTA. Then, the life cycle of a health technology and the reasons for implementing an HTA program are discussed. Concluding with some examples of emerging health technologies, comments on the scientific evidence in HTA, and some examples of HTA studies in daily clinical practice.
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5.

Chile: nuevos desafíos sanitarios e institucionales en un país en transición

Forascepi Crespo, Constanza
| Idioma(s): Español
[RESUMEN]. En Chile, desde 1950, las políticas públicas sanitarias se transformaron en un tema prioritario. Se lograron importantes avances en aspectos sanitarios básicos –como cobertura de agua potable – y priorización de la atención primaria de salud, lo que permitió controlar enfermedades transmisibles, reducir la mortalidad materno-infantil y eliminar la desnutrición. Chile, con un modelo mixto de salud, logró el cometido de la Declaración Alma-Ata de “alcanzar un mejor nivel de salud de los pueblos” y obtuvo los mejores índices sanitarios y socioeconómicos de América Latina. Sin embargo, proveer un mejor nivel de salud a la población es una meta que nunca llega a su fin y pareciera ser que Chile quedó estancado. En este contexto, el desafío es plantearse las nuevas metas sanitarias que tiene el país, ya no como un país de ingresos bajos, sino como un país de ingresos medios-altos, cuyas problemáticas de salud son otras. En concreto, Chile debe avanzar en perfeccionar la atención y cuidado de la salud de las personas, con políticas sanitarias enfocadas en enfermedades no transmisibles -como afecciones cardiovasculares y el cáncer y enfocadas en la prevención y promoción de la salud. Para ello, el Ministerio de Salud debe modernizar su gestión y retomar su rol de gestor de metas sanitarias, que ha sido absorbido por tareas administrativas. Todo ello sin perder la complementariedad alcanzada entre los sectores público y privado, de modo de aminorar las limitaciones que tiene hoy el sistema público. [ABSTRACT]. Public health policies have been a priority issue in Chile since 1950. Major progress has been made in basic aspects of public health, such as drinking water coverage and the prioritization of primary health care, leading to communicable disease control, the reduction of maternal and child mortality, and the elimination of malnutrition. Through a mixed health care model, Chile has met the commitment in the Declaration of Alma-Ata to the attainment of an “acceptable level of health for all the people,” achieving the best health and socioeconomic indicators in Latin America. However, attaining an acceptable level of health in the population is an open-ended goal, and progress in this direction appears to have stalled in Chile. The challenge is therefore to define the new health goals for the country, which is no longer a low-income country but an upper middle‑income country with a different profile of health problems. Specifically, Chile must continue to improve health care for its population through health policies focused on non‑communicable diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and cancer), health promotion, and disease prevention. To accomplish this, the Ministry of Health must modernize its management and resume its role as the overseer of health objectives, a role that has been eclipsed by its administrative responsibilities. It must do so without losing the complementarity achieved between the public and private sector in order to minimize the current limitations of the public system. [RESUMO]. A partir dos anos 1950, as políticas públicas de saúde passaram a ser uma questão prioritária no Chile. Um grande progresso foi alcançado nos aspectos básicos da saúde, como o abastecimento de água potável, e na priorização da atenção primária à saúde, que permitiu controlar doenças transmissíveis, reduzir a mortalidade maternoinfantil e eliminar a desnutrição. Com um modelo misto de saúde, o Chile cumpriu a missão da Declaração Alma-Ata de “atingir o mais alto grau de saúde dos povos” e obteve os melhores índices socioeconômicos e de saúde da América Latina. Proporcionar um nível melhor de saúde à população é uma meta permanente e parece que o Chile ficou estagnado. O desafio neste contexto é estabelecer novas metas em saúde, não como uma nação de baixa renda, mas como um país de renda média a alta com outros problemas de saúde. O Chile precisa progredir para atingir um nível superior de atenção e assistência de saúde às pessoas com políticas de saúde dirigidas a doenças não transmissíveis, como as doenças cardiovasculares e o câncer, com ênfase na prevenção e promoção da saúde. O Ministério da Saúde do Chile precisa de uma gestão mais moderna e retomar o papel de gestor das metas de saúde, que se perdeu em meio ao trabalho administrativo, preservando a complementariedade entre os setores público e privado a fim de diminuir as limitações atuais do sistema público.
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6.

Asequibilidad de cerveza y bebidas azucaradas para 15 países de América Latina

Paraje, Guillermo; Pincheira, Pablo
| Idioma(s): Español
[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la evolución de la asequibilidad de la cerveza y de las gaseosas para quince países de América Latina. Métodos. Los datos corresponden a estadísticas oficiales de índices de precios de cerveza y gaseosas/refrescos, índice de precios al consumidor e índice de salarios nominales en frecuencia mensual. El método se basa en realizar un análisis econométrico, mediante series temporales, para medir el valor esperado de la tasa de crecimiento del indicador de asequibilidad absoluta (utilizando salarios nominales) o relativa (usando precios generales) de las gaseosas y de las cervezas. Resultados. En nueve de los quince países analizados, la asequibilidad (absoluta o relativa), ya sea de bebidas azucaradas o cervezas, ha aumentado de forma estadísticamente significativa. En el caso de las bebidas azucaradas, la asequibilidad absoluta aumentó en cinco países (Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador y Uruguay) y disminuyó en México. En el caso de la cerveza, aumentó en Colombia y Ecuador, se mantuvo inalterada en Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica y Uruguay, y se redujo en México. Conclusiones. A pesar de que la mayoría de los países poseen impuestos a la cerveza y a las bebidas azucaradas, su efecto en los precios no ha sido suficiente para reducir su asequibilidad en todos los países de la muestra. Los impuestos deberían modificarse para reducir la asequibilidad de estas bebidas y afectar su consumo. [ABSTRACT]. Objective. The objective of this study was to look at trends in the affordability of beer and soft drinks in 15 Latin American countries. Methods. The data correspond to government statistics pertaining to price indices for beer and soft drinks, the consumer price index, and the nominal wage index based on monthly frequency. The methods involved the performance of an econometric analysis, using time series, to measure the expected rate of increase in the absolute affordability indicator (using nominal prices) or the relative affordability indicator (using general prices) for soft drinks and beers. Results. In nine of the 15 countries analyzed, the affordability of soft drinks or beer (whether absolute or relative) has shown a statistically significant increase. In the case of soft drinks, absolute affordability increased in five countries (Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Uruguay) and decreased in Mexico. In the case of beer, it increased in Colombia and Ecuador, remained unchanged in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, and Uruguay, and dropped in Mexico. Conclusions. Although most countries levy taxes on beer and soft drinks, the effect of such taxes on price has not been enough to reduce the affordability of these products in all countries in the sample. Taxes should be modified to make these beverages less affordable and have an impact on their consumption. [RESUMO]. Objetivos. Analisar a evolução da acessibilidade a cervejas e refrigerantes em 15 países da América Latina. Métodos. Os dados representam estatísticas oficiais dos índices de preços de cervejas e refrigerantes, índice de preços ao consumidor e índice mensal do salário nominal. A metodologia do estudo foi uma análise econométrica com séries temporais para avaliar a taxa esperada de crescimento do indicador de acessibilidade absoluta (com base no salário nominal) ou relativa (com base nos preços gerais) de cervejas e refrigerantes. Resultados. Houve um aumento significativo da acessibilidade (absoluta ou relativa) a cervejas ou refrigerantes em 9 dos 15 países analisados. Com relação aos refrigerantes, houve um aumento da acessibilidade absoluta em cinco países (Chile, Colômbia, Costa Rica, Equador e Uruguai), com uma redução observada no México. Com relação às cervejas, houve um aumento da acessibilidade na Colômbia e Equador, não se observou mudança na Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica e Uruguai e ocorreu uma redução no México. Conclusões. Embora exista tributação para cervejas e refrigerantes na maioria dos países, o efeito nos preços não tem sido suficiente para reduzir a acessibilidade a estes produtos em todos os países da amostra estudada. É preciso reformar a tributação a fim de reduzir a acessibilidade e o consumo destas bebidas.
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7.

Physical inactivity and obesity: What are the implications for diabetes expenditures in Chile?/ Inactividad física y obesidad ¿Cuál es su repercusión en el gasto económico de diabetes mellitus 2 en Chile?

Petermann, Fanny; Leiva, Ana María; Martínez, María Adela; Salas, Carlos; Garrido-Méndez, Alex; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Díaz, Ximena; Cuadrado, Cristóbal; Celis-Morales, Carlos
| Idioma(s): Inglés
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8.

Implementación de la vacunación contra el virus papiloma humano en Chile: una mirada desde los determinantes sociales de la salud "ingreso" y "género"/ HPV vaccine implementation in Chile: an appraisal from the social determinants of health model

Fernández González, Loreto
| Idioma(s): Español
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common neoplasm in women worldwide and its incidence is associated with profound social inequities. In Chile, it is the second cause of death in women of reproductive age. The Chilean clinical guideline identifies the vaccine against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) as the main preventive measure. Since 2014, the Ministry of Health has implemented free immunization against HPV for girls and female adolescents. This article critically analyzes this public policy from the viewpoint of health equity, using as framework the Social Determinants of Health Model. Specifically, we address the structural determinants of income and gender, which act as material and social barriers for achieving immunization, affecting protection against cervical cancer. These barriers correspond to the high cost of the vaccine, and social attitudes/cultural beliefs towards sexual behavior in Latin America and Chile that affect the acceptability of vaccination. The Social Determinants of Health Model constitutes a useful tool for identifying health inequities and understanding public policy from an equity viewpoint that complements the biomedical and epidemiological understanding of disease. In this topic, the initiative aims to strengthen the idea of health as a human right and health promotion as an essential function of public health policy.
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9.

"Freud para todos": psicoanálisis y cultura de masas en Chile, 1920-1950./ "Freud para todos": psicoanálisis y cultura de masas en Chile, 1920-1950./ "Freud for all:" psychoanalysis and mass culture in Chile, 1920-1950.

Ruperthuz Honorato, Mariano
| Idioma(s): Español; Inglés
This article deals with the circulation and early spread of Freudianism in mass culture in Chilean society at the turn of the twentieth century. It documents the first references to Sigmund Freud in the Chilean media, the announcement of Freudian-style self-help classes, the appearance of psychoanalysts as characters in some fantasy novels, and the open lectures on psychoanalysis given by the first juvenile court judge in Santiago, the lawyer Samuel Gajardo Contreras. It explores the expectations projected onto Freudianism by the Chilean elite, and how Freud's theories contributed to a rethinking of childhood, the family and emotional life in Chile from 1920-1950.
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10.

Trail Making Test: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish-speaking pediatric population.

Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Rivera, D; Ramos-Usuga, D; Vergara-Moragues, E; Montero-López, E; Adana Díaz, L A; Aguayo Arelis, A; García-Guerrero, C E; García de la Cadena, C; Llerena Espezúa, X; Lara, L; Padilla-López, A; Rodriguez-Irizarry, W; Alcazar Tebar, C; Irías Escher, M J; Llibre Guerra, J J; Torales Cabrera, N; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Ferrer-Cascales, R
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To generate normative data for the Trail Making Test (TMT) in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. METHOD: The sample consisted of 3,337 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the TMT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. The TMT-A and TMT-B scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. RESULTS: The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age on both scores, such that as children needed less time to complete the test while they become older. TMT-A scores were affected by age2 for all countries except, Cuba, Guatemala, and Puerto. TMT-B scores were affected by age2 for all countries except, Guatemala and Puerto Rico. Models indicated that children whose parent(s) had a MLPE >12 years of education needed less time to complete the test compared to children whose parent(s) had a MLPE ≤12 years for Mexico and Paraguay in TMT-A scores; and Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, and Spain for TMT-B scores. Sex affected TMT-A scores for Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru, in that boys needed less time to complete the test than girls. Sex did not affect TMT-B scores. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate approach to interpret the TMT in pediatric populations.
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