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1.

Impacto económico del tabaquismo en los sistemas de salud de América Latina: un estudio en siete países y su extrapolación a nivel regional/ Financial impact of smoking on health systems in Latin America: A study of seven countries and extrapolation to the regional level

Pichon-Riviere, Andrés; Bardach, Ariel; Augustovski, Federico; Alcaraz, Andrea; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Pinto, Márcia Teixeira; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Torres, Esperanza Peña; Osorio, Diana Isabel; Huayanay, Leandro; Munarriz, César Loza; de Miera-Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Gallegos-Rivero, Verónica; Puente, Catherine De La; Navia-Bueno, María del Pilar; Caporale, Joaquín
| Idioma(s): Español
RESUMEN Objetivo Estimar los costos médicos directos atribuibles al tabaquismo en los sistemas de salud de América Latina. Métodos Se utilizó un modelo de microsimulación para cuantificar el impacto económico en enfermedad cardiovascular y cerebrovascular, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC), neumonía, cáncer de pulmón y otras nueve neoplasias. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de datos epidemiológicos y de costos de los eventos. El modelo se calibró y validó para Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Perú, países que representan el 78% de la población de América Latina; luego se extrapolaron los resultados a nivel regional. Resultados Cada año el tabaquismo es responsable de 33 576 millones de dólares en costos directos para el sistema de salud. Esto equivale a 0,7% del producto interno bruto (PIB) de la región y a 8,3% del presupuesto sanitario. La enfermedad cardiovascular, la EPOC y el cáncer fueron responsables de 30,3%, 26,9% y 23,7% de este gasto, respectivamente. El costo atribuible al tabaquismo varió entre 0,4% (México y Perú) y 0,9% (Chile) del PIB y entre 5,2% (Brasil) y 12,7% (Bolivia) del gasto en salud. En la región, la recaudación impositiva por la venta de cigarrillos apenas cubre 37% del gasto sanitario atribuible al tabaquismo (8,1% en Bolivia y 67,3% en Argentina). Conclusiones El tabaquismo es responsable de una importante proporción del gasto sanitario en América Latina, y la recaudación impositiva por la venta de cigarrillos está lejos de llegar a cubrirlo. La profundización de medidas como el aumento de impuestos al tabaco debería ser seriamente considerada por los países de la región. ABSTRACT Objective Estimate smoking-attributable direct medical costs in Latin American health systems. Methods A microsimulation model was used to quantify financial impact of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, lung cancer, and nine other neoplasms. A systematic search for epidemiological data and event costs was carried out. The model was calibrated and validated for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, countries that account for 78% of Latin America’s population; the results were then extrapolated to the regional level. Results Every year, smoking is responsible for 33 576 billion dollars in direct costs to health systems. This amounts to 0.7% of the region’s gross domestic product (GDP) and 8.3% of its health budget. Cardiovascular disease, COPD, and cancer were responsible for 30.3%, 26.9%, and 23.7% of these expenditures, respectively. Smoking-attributable costs ranged from 0.4% (Mexico and Peru) to 0.9% (Chile) of GDP and from 5.2% (Brazil) to 12.7% (Bolivia) of health expenditures. In the region, tax revenues from cigarette sales barely cover 37% of smoking-attributable health expenditures (8.1% in Bolivia and 67.3% in Argentina). Conclusions Smoking is responsible for a significant proportion of health spending in Latin America, and tax revenues from cigarette sales are far from covering it. The region’s countries should seriously consider stronger measures, such as an increase in tobacco taxes.
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2.

Huella de carbono en Santa Marta, Colombia: Análisis desde el enfoque de los determinantes sociales de la salud - 2014/ Carbon footprint in Santa Marta, Colombia: An Analysis from social determinants of health approach - 2014

Alvarez-Miño, Lídice; Taboada-Montoya, Robinson; Trujillo-Montes, Andrés Camilo; Salazar-Ceballos, Alexander
| Idioma(s): Español
Objetivo. Se estableció como objetivo estimar la huella de carbono para la ciudad de Santa Marta- Colombia, a partir de las prácticas de consumo de alimentos, medios de transporte, servicios públicos y compra de bienes y servicios per cápita y relacionar dicha huella con aspectos determinantes de la salud como el nivel socio-económico y socio-demográfico de la población. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal de encuesta en Santa Marta-Colombia para 2014, con una muestra de 811 personas seleccionadas aleatoriamente. Los datos se analizaron en EpiInfo 7 a través de análisis bivariado con ANOVA y Ji2 para identificar dependencias y multivariado por OR para identificar asociaciones. Resultados. Se encontró que la huella de carbono estimada promedio fue de 29,95 tCO2e por prácticas de consumo. Se estableció que tener 35 años o menos, niveles educativo profesional universitario o superior, estrato socioeconómico medio alto y alto, e ingresos altos son aspectos que aumentan la probabilidad de tener una huella de carbono mayor o igual a 39,3tCO2e. Conclusión. El tamaño de la huella de carbono se relaciona inversamente con la edad, y directamente con los ingresos económicos, estrato y nivel educativo. Objective: The goal was to estimate the carbon footprint for Santa Marta by consumption per capita of food, transportation, goods and services, and housing, and to relate carbon footprint with the health determinants such as socio-economic status and socio-demographic characteristics of the population. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional study with survey design was conducted in Santa Marta-Colombia for 2014, with a sample of 811 randomly selected people. Data were analyzed in software EpiInfo 7. For bivariate analysis we used ANOVA and Chi2 to identify dependencies, and for multivariate analysis OR was used to identify associations. Result: The carbon footprint average by consumption patterns was 29.95 tCO2e. We found that people 35 years old or younger, professional or higher educational level, with medium-high and high socioeconomic status, and higher incomes have more probability to produce bigger carbon footprint (39.4 tCO2e or more). Conclusion: The size of the carbon footprint is inversely related to age but directly related with incomes, level of education and socioeconomic status.
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3.

Identificación de capacidades en salud ambiental de las autoridades ambientales en Colombia/ Identification of capacities in environmental health from environmental authorities in Colombia

Agudelo-Calderón, Carlos A; Vaca-Bohórquez, Martha L; García-Ubaque, Cesar A; Robledo-Martínez, Rocío; García-Ubaque, Juan C
| Idioma(s): Español
Objetivos Elaborar un diagnóstico rápido de capacidades de las autoridades ambientales y el Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible para asumir su rol en salud ambiental con base en el modelo de capacidades del Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo-PNUD. Método Se utilizaron los métodos de revisión documental, entrevista dirigida en aspectos clave y una encuesta comentada. Se seleccionaron 84 entidades a las cuales se les aplicó la encuesta de manera personalizada. Se obtuvo información completa de 76 instituciones. Resultados La valoración de favorabilidad del entorno se encontró entre las categorías aceptable y poco favorable, las capacidades en gestión del conocimiento se observaron precarias y la valoración de capacidades funcionales se reportó entre adecuadas o aceptables. La valoración de capacidades específicas tuvo una valoración de deficientes o apenas aceptables. Conclusión Se apreciaron dos problemas importantes: a. Las autoridades ambientales no conciben ni ponen en práctica estas capacidades desde el modelo del PNUD, sino desde el modelo convencional del Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible, y; b. Las autoridades ambientales muestran un nivel bajo de incorporación de las políticas de salud ambiental en su campo de acción específico. Objectives To diagnose the capabilities that environmental authorities and the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development have to assume their role in environmental health, based on the capacity model of the United Nations Program for Development UNDP. Method Document review, interviews on key issues and a commented survey were conducted. 84 entities were selected for a tailored survey; complete information was obtained from 76 institutions. Results The valuation of environment favorability was within the acceptable and unfavorable categories; knowledge management capabilities were found to be precarious and assessment of functional capabilities ranged between appropriate and acceptable. The assessment of specific capabilities had a rating of poor or barely acceptable. Conclusions Two major problems were found: a. The environmental authorities do not conceive or implement these capabilities based on the UNDP model but on the conventional model of the Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development; b. Environmental authorities show an incipient level of incorporation of environmental health policies in their field of action.
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4.

Experiencia del síndrome de Guillain-Barré en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos neurológicos./ Experiencia del síndrome de Guillain-Barré en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos neurológicos./ Experience with Guillain-Barré syndrome in a neurological Intensive Care Unit.

González, P; García, X; Guerra, A; Arango, J C; Delgado, H; Uribe, C S; Sará, J; López de Mesa, J C; Hernández, O
| Idioma(s): Inglés; Español
INTRODUCTION: Guillain-Barré syndrome, an acute polyradiculoneuropathy that presents with weakness and areflexia, is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis. In certain patients, respiratory failure is secondary to this disorder, eventually causing patients to require mechanical ventilation and experience additional complications due to diminished respiratory support and related mobility limitations. Prognoses for most of these cases are positive; treatment consists of basic support combined with plasmapheresis or administration of immunoglobulins. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory and neurophysiological characteristics of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome who were hospitalised in the Intensive Care Unit of the Neurological Institute of Colombia between 2006 and 2012. METHODOLOGY: This study presents a case series. RESULTS: We surveyed 25 patients (32% female and 68% male) with Guillain-Barré syndrome and an average age of 54 years. Sixty per cent of these patients were admitted between days 3 and 7 after symptom onset; 64% had a history of respiratory infection and 20% had a history of intestinal infection. In addition, 84% of the patients presented with albuminocytological dissociation. We observed the following clinical subtypes of Guillain-Barré syndrome: inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in 32%, acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy in 28%, acute motor axonal neuropathy in 28%, and Miller Fisher syndrome in 12%. CONCLUSIONS: In this descriptive study of a group of critical care patients with GBS, results depended on patients' clinical severity at time of admission. Our findings are similar to results published in the international literature.
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5.

Factores de riesgo total en familias migrantes en Soledad, Atlántico/ Fatores de risco total em famílias migrantes em Soledad, Atlântico/ Total risk factors in migrant families in Soledad, Atlántico

Sánchez Isaza, Dora Cecilia; Cataño Ordoñez, Nhora
| Idioma(s): Español
Introducción: Colombia vive hoy por hoy uno de sus más grandes problemas sociales como es la migración de familias a nivel inter-municipales e inter-departamentales, lo que hace necesario la caracterización del factor de riesgo total en estas familias para su intervención. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo descriptivo transversal donde se seleccionaron 70 familias migrantes constituidas por 344 individuos, que viven aledaños a un barrio del municipio de Soledad, y se utilizó el instrumento Riesgo Familiar total (RFT 5-33) de Pilar Amaya, con las categorías: socio-demográfico, factores de riesgo y riesgo total. Resultados: Dentro de todos los factores de riesgo familiar que pone en un riesgo alto a estas familias migrantes son: condiciones de vivienda y vecindario con un 59%, situación económica con un 24% y condiciones afectivas con un 14%, menor frecuencia se da en servicios y practica de salud con un 10% y manejo de menores con 10%. Discusión: La problemática que viene afectando a las poblaciones rurales, aun cuando el gobierno viene desarrollando planes direccionados hacia las familias migrantes, los problemas de infraestructura de las viviendas y la situación socio-económica en ellos se refleja en su salud. Y más aun cuando algunas investigaciones han demostrado como se les ha venido vulnerando sus derechos. Conclusiones: Sobre el predominio de las familias migrantes con riesgo alto, se aprecia que estadísticamente los componentes de estas variables son independientes, pero el comportamiento observado puede ser el resultado de efectos causales similares. Introdução: Colômbia hoje está passando por um dos seus maiores problemas sociais, tais como a migração das famílias para nível inter-municipal e inter-departamental, tornando-se necessário caracterizar o fator de risco global nessas famílias para a sua intervenção. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo transversal quantitativo onde foram selecionados 70 famílias migrantes que consistem de 344 indivíduos que vivem ao lado de um bairro do município de Soledad, eo instrumento de risco familiar total (RFT 5-33) de Pilar Amaya foi utilizado, com a Categorias: sociodemográficas, fatores de risco e risco global. Resultados: Dentre todos os fatores de risco familiar que os colocam em alto risco para essas famílias migrantes são as condições de habitação e vizinhança com 59% situação económica com 24% e condições emocionais com 14% ocorre com menos frequência e prática nos serviços de saúde com 10% e gestão 10% menor. Discussão: O problema que está afetando as populações rurais, mesmo quando o governo está desenvolvendo planos voltados para famílias migrantes, os problemas de infra-estrutura habitacional e da situação sócio-económica neles se reflete na sua saúde. E ainda mais quando algumas pesquisas têm mostrado como foram violando seus direitos. Conclusões: Com predomínio de famílias migrantes de alto risco, mostra que estatisticamente os componentes dessas variáveis são independentes, mas o comportamento observado pode ser o resultado de efeitos causais semelhantes. Introduction: Colombia today is experiencing one of its greatest social problems such as the migration of families to inter-municipal and inter-departmental level, making it necessary to characterize the total risk factor in these families in order to be intervened. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional quantitative study, where 70 migrant families were selected, the sample was formed by 344 individuals, who lived adjacent to a neighborhood at the Soledad municipality. Total Family Risk Instrument (TFR 5-33) from Pilar Amaya was used. The categories were: socio-demographic, risk factors and total risk. Results: The main risk factors that contribute to situate the migrant family in high risk were: housing conditions and neighborhood with 59%, economic situation with 24% and emotional conditions with 14%, finally. Risk factors with low frequently were health service and practice with 10% and child breeding with 10%. Discussion: Although government is developing plans directed toward migrant families, they have been affected by housing infrastructure problems and socio-economic situation, which are reflected in their health. Conclusions: Migrant families with high risk show that components of these variables are independent statistically, but the observed behavior may be the result or similar causal effects.
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6.

Las capacidades de investigación en Determinantes Sociales de la Salud de grupos Registrados en Colciencias, Colombia (2012-2014)/ The research capabilities on social determinants of health of research groups registered in Colciencias, Colombia (2012-2014)/ As capacidades de pesquisa em Determinantes Sociais da Saúde de grupos Registrados em Colciencias, Colômbia (2012-2014)

Morales-Borrero, Carolina
| Idioma(s): Español
Objetivo: actualizar la información obtenida del estudio "Las capacidades de investigación en Determinantes Sociales de la Salud de grupos registrados en Colciencias, Colombia (2005-2012)" tomando como fuente de estudio la información registrada en la plataforma Scienti de Colciencias en el periodo comprendido 2013 y 2014 y aportes de líderes de grupos de investigación. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo apoyado en información registrada en la base de datos de Colciencias, sobre los grupos de investigación y la producción científica en determinantes sociales de la salud, "DSS". Se revisó el contexto histórico y político que atraviesa la producción científica nacional en salud con el fin de identificar las razones por las cuales las capacidades de investigación en DSS se debilitan. Resultados: De los 65 grupos existentes con registro en el Programa de Ciencias de la Salud de Colciencias para el año 2012, 3 de ellos (4,61%) ya no se encuentran vinculados a Colciencias. La producción de los grupos restantes en artículo científico logró 17 productos entre 2013-2014, 11 de estos, (64,7%) en idioma español y sólo 6 en inglés (35,3%). En general los grupos continúan privilegiando los estudios sobre Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Sistemas de Salud y Atención Primaria en Salud, con énfasis en desigualdades en salud, estrés y cáncer . Ha surgido el estudio del agua como un tema esencial entre los grupos de salud , y se ha continuado el desarrollo de proyectos en red de carácter nacional. Conclusiones: Predominan los estudios realizados bajo el enfoque propuesto por la Comisión de Determinantes Sociales de la Salud en 2005. Los criterios para la distribución de recursos para investigar privilegian los grupos reconocidos por Colciencias y con larga trayectoria, lo cual fortalece solo una parte de la investigación pues al mismo tiempo se generan desigualdades entre los grupos por ubicación institucional y regional, por tema de investigación y tamaño de los equipos de los investigadores. Se precisa de estudios que comparen las capacidades de investigación en Latinoamérica, y estudios que expliquen el predominio de temas y enfoques en la investigación en salud. Objective: to update the information obtained from the study entitled "the research capabilities on Social Determinants of Health of research groups registered in Colciencias, Colombia (2005-2012)" using the information recorded in the Scienti Colciencias platform in the period between 2013 and 2014 and the contributions from leading research groups as a source of study. Methodology: a descriptive, observational study based on information recorded in the Colciencias database of research groups and scientific production on social determinants of health, "SDH". The historical and political context affecting national health-related research was reviewed in order to identify the reasons behind the weakening of the SDH research capabilities. Results: of the 65 existing groups that are registered in the Health Sciences Program in Colciencias for 2012, 3 (4.61%) are no longer linked to Colciencias. The remaining groups produced 17 scientific papers between 2013 and 2014, 11 of which (64.7%) were written in Spanish and the remaining 6 (35.3%) in English. In general, groups continue to favor the studies on Social Determinants of Health, Health Systems and Primary Health Care; emphasis on health inequalities, stress and cancer was observed. The study of water has emerged as a key issue among health research groups, and the development of networked projects at the national level has continued. Conclusions: studies using the approach proposed by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health in 2005 are prevalent. The criteria for allocating resources to research favor groups recognized by Colciencias and with broad experience. This strengthens only a part of the field of research because it also generates inequalities between groups due to institutional and geographic location, research topics, group size and research project scope. Studies comparing research capabilities in Latin America are required, as are those explaining the predominance of topics and approaches in health research. Objetivo: atualizar informação obtida na pesquisa "As capacidades de pesquisa em Determinantes Sociais da Saúde de grupos registrados Em Colciencias, Colômbia (2005-2012)", utilizando como fonte de estudo a informação registrada na plataforma Scienti de Colciencias no período entre 2013 e 2014 e contribuições proporcionadas por líderes de grupos de pesquisa. Metodologia: realizou-se um estudo observacional descritivo, apoiado em informação registrada na base de dados de Colciencias, sobre os grupos de pesquisa e sobre a produção científica em determinantes sociais da saúde, "DSS". Revisou-se o contexto histórico e político da produção científica nacional relacionada com saúde, visando identificar os motivos pelos quais as capacidades de pesquisa em DSS enfraquecem-se. Resultados : Dos 65 grupos registrados no Programa de Ciências da Saúde de Colciencias no ano 2012, 3 (4,61%) estão agora desvinculados de Colciencias. Os outros grupos conseguiram publicar 17 artigos científicos entre 2013-2014, 11 dos quais (64,7%) estão em espanhol e somente 6 em inglês (35,3%). Em geral, os grupos privilegiam estudos sobre Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde e Atenção Primária à Saúde, com ênfase em desigualdades em saúde, estresse e câncer . O estudo da água tem surgido como temática essencial para os grupos de saúde, e continua o desenvolvimento de projetos em rede a nível nacional. Conclusões: Dominam as pesquisas realizadas sob o enfoque proposto pela Comissão de Determinantes Sociais da Saúde em 2005. Os critérios para a distribuição de recursos para pesquisa privilegiam os grupos reconhecidos por Colciencias e com longa trajetória. Isso fortalece só uma parte da pesquisa e ao mesmo tempo gera desigualdade entre grupos institucionais e regionais, pelas temáticas de pesquisa, o tamanho das equipes de pesquisadores e o alcance das pesquisas. São necessários estudos comparando capacidades de pesquisa na América Latina, e estudos explicando a dominância de temáticas e enfoques de pesquisa em saúde. Recomendações: Desenvolver estratégias para fortalecer as capacidades de estudo, de acordo com agendas e prioridades de pesquisa, visando intervir a inequidade em saúde. Incluir enfoques críticos na formação de pesquisadores em saúde.
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7.

Whole-Genome Sequencing of Two Latin American-Mediterranean Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates from Medellín, Colombia.

Alvarez, N; Haft, D; Hurtado, U A; Robledo, J; Rouzaud, F
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Colombia, with a tuberculosis incidence of 33 cases per 100,000 population, is one of the countries that have reported extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (XDR-TB). We report the high-quality draft genome sequences of two Latin American-Mediterranean XDR-TB clinical isolates (TBR-152 and TBR-175), comprising 4,303,775 bp and 4,330,115 bp, respectively.
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8.

IL18 Gene Variants Influence the Susceptibility to Chagas Disease.

Leon Rodriguez, Daniel A; Carmona, F David; Echeverría, Luis Eduardo; González, Clara Isabel; Martin, Javier
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Chagas disease is a parasitic disorder caused by the infection with the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. According to the World Health Organization, more than six million people are currently infected in endemic regions. Genetic factors have been proposed to influence predisposition to infection and development of severe clinical phenotypes like chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). Interleukin 18 (IL18) encodes a proinflammatory cytokine that has been proposed to be involved in controlling T. cruzi infection. In this study, we analyzed the possible role of six IL18 gene variants (rs5744258, rs360722, rs2043055, rs187238, rs1946518 and rs360719), which cover most of the variation within the locus, in the susceptibility to infection by T. cruzi and/or CCC. In total, 1,171 individuals from a Colombian region endemic for Chagas disease, classified as seronegative (n = 595), seropositive asymptomatic (n = 175) and CCC (n = 401), were genotyped using TaqMan probes. Significant associations with T. cruzi infection were observed when comparing seronegative and seropositive individuals for rs187238 (P = 2.18E-03, OR = 0.77), rs360719 (P = 1.49E-03, OR = 0.76), rs2043055 (P = 2.52E-03, OR = 1.29), and rs1946518 (P = 0.0162, OR = 1.22). However, dependence analyses suggested that the association was mainly driven by the polymorphism rs360719. This variant is located within the promoter region of the IL18 gene, and it has been described that it creates a binding site for the transcription factor OCT-1 affecting IL-18 expression levels. In addition, no evidence of association was observed between any of the analyzed IL18 gene polymorphisms and the development of CCC. In summary, our data suggest that genetic variation within the promoter region of IL18 is directly involved in the susceptibility to infection by T. cruzi, which provides novel insight into disease pathophysiology and adds new perspectives to achieve a more effective disease control.
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9.

Factors associated with length of hospital stay in minor and moderate burns at Popayan, Colombia. Analysis of a cohort study.

Sierra Zúñiga, Marco Fidel; Castro Delgado, Oscar Eduardo; Merchán-Galvis, Angela María; Caicedo, Juan Carlos Caicedo; Calvache, Jose Andrés; Delgado-Noguera, Mario
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To determine the independent contribution of prognostic factors to length of hospital stay of minor and moderate burn victims at the Hospital Universitario San José (HUSJ), Popayán, Colombia, 2000-2010. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of minor and moderate burn victims admitted between 2000 and 2010, at the burn unit (HUSJ). This is a further analysis of a same cohort previously published in Burns. The following variables were recorded and analyzed: age, gender, origin, depth and extent of burn, causal agent, length of hospital stay and mortality. The main outcome under study was length of stay. Survival analysis was done to explore the association of covariates and length of hospital stay and Cox regression model to adjust the effect of covariates in the outcome. RESULTS: During the study period 2000-2010, 842 of 921 (91.5%) patients treated at the Burn Unit of HUSJ that had complete data were included. There were 520 (61.8%) males and 322 (38.2%) females with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. Their median age was 9 years (IQR 3-28). The median of percent total body surface area burned (TBSA) was 12% (IQR 7-21) and the most common degree of burn was 2nd degree with 58% (488 patients). There were 12 deaths (censored data) and 830 patients were discharged alive. After multivariate adjustment, significant associations with length of hospital stay remained for age group, burn degree and extension of the burn. The strongest relationship found was for burn degree (2nd degree superficial vs. 3rd degree hazard ratio=2.66 CI 95% [2.13-3.33]). CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted with mild and moderate burns at HUSJ, the main predictors of length of stay were age, burn degree and extension of the burn.
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10.

Abordaje de problemas de salud pública desde la responsabilidad social empresarial/ Addressing public health problems from corporate social responsibility/ Abordagem de problemas de saúde pública a partir da responsabilidade social empresarial

Rincón Meléndez, Magda Liliana
| Idioma(s): Español
Histórica y teóricamente se ha planteado que la responsabilidad social empresarial debe tener un impacto social. Sin embargo, se observa que la tendencia de los programas de responsabilidad empresarial de muchas organizaciones, se orienta a desarrollar acciones que mejoren su reputación ante la sociedad, cuando deberían centrarse en la gene- ración de políticas público-privadas para el bienestar de la población. Este trabajo pretende conocer la forma en que los programas de responsabilidad social empresarial de tres empresas privadas vienen abordando las problemáticas de salud pública, con el fin de evidenciar si existen estrategias claras que permitan incidir de forma positiva en la solución de estos problemas. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de carácter cualitativo y documental. La muestra fue por conveniencia, en donde se incluyeron tres empresas del sector privado ubicadas en Bogotá, que para el periodo 2010-2012 contaban con información documental virtual publicada, de libre acceso, relacionada con los objetivos, acciones y estrategias en responsabilidad social empresarial. Las tres empresas estudiadas demuestran interés en generar un impacto positivo en la solución de problemas de salud pública desde sus programas de responsabilidad social empresarial, evidenciando estrategias y acciones de abordaje para cada una de las categorías de análisis definidas, relacionadas con las funciones esenciales de salud pública y los objetivos de desarrollo. Es evidente la necesidad de generar líneas de investigación que fortalezcan el estudio del papel del sector privado en el mejoramiento de la salud pública, que indaguen por el desarrollo del tema en Colombia y en Latinoamérica, y que logren definir nuevas vías de trabajo en el sector empresarial, para el beneficio tanto de la organización como de la sociedad. Historically and at least theoretically it has been known the crucial impact of corporate social responsibility programs in a society. However, for some corporations these programs have the tendency of generating actions oriented to improve their reputation within the society, instead of generating public and private policies for the well-being of the general population. Therefore, this paper aims to know the way in which the corporate social responsibility programs of three private companies have been addressing public health issues, showing if they have clear strategies that allow to impact in a positive way for the solution of these problems. To perform this task, a descriptive study and a qualitative and documentary review was carried out. A convenience sample was conformed, which it included three compa- nies from the private sector, located in Bogotá for the 2010-2012 period. As requirement, all three companies must have open-access to published virtual document information related to objectives, actions and strategies for corporate social responsibility programs. The three studied companies have shown interest in gene- rating a positive impact on public health problems with their corporate social responsibility programs, revealing strategies and actions for each of their essential public health functions and objectives related to the Millennium development goals and defined as categories of analysis. Despite the positive interest shown by the companies, it is evident the need for generating lines of research to stren- gthen the role of the private sector, improving, therefore, the general public health. As a result, the development of these improvements in Colombia, as well as in Latin America, can be developed, allowing to reach new ways of working in the business sector, and beneficiating at the end both, the Organization and the society. Os programas de responsabilidade social empresarial teoricamente geram impacto social, no entanto as ações de tais programas visam mais melhorar sua reputação perante a sociedade, do que gerar ações público-privadas em procura do bem-estar das populações. Este artigo pretende mostrar o arranjo que fazem os programas de responsabilidade social de três empresas privadas de Bogotá, cujos programas abordam problemas de Saúde Pública, para estabelecer até que ponto as estratégias por eles propostas efetivamente lhes permitem incidir positivamente no bem-estar. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo qualitativo, a amostra foi realizada por conve-niência e conformada por empresas que entre 2010 e 2012 tivessem informações públicas de livre aceso descrevendo objetivos, ações e estratégias dos seus programas de Responsabilidade Social Empresarial com implicações em Saúde Pública.É evidente a necessidade de gerar linhas de pesquisa que estudem o papel do setor privado na Saúde Pública na Colômbia e na América Latina para definir vias de trabalho que efetivas do setor empresarial.
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