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1.

Políticas de zoonosis en Colombia: del Código Sanitario a la salud ambiental./ [Policies of zoonosis in Colombia: from health Code to environmental health].

Agudelo-Suárez, Ángela N; Villamil-Jiménez, Luis C
| Idioma(s): Español
OBJECTIVE : To analyze public policies of zoonosis in Colombia, in the period of 1975 to 2014, as State responses. METHODOLOGY : Used the policy cycle analysis approach or sequential approach. This analysis was carried out by means of the following aspects: content, processes, actors, and vertical and horizontal relationships between policies. RESULTS : Zoonosis policies were very different in scope, contents and forms, and results are part of a history of successes and failures, who have only managed to partially transform the general and regional overview of the zoonosis. CONCLUSIONS : The implementation of decisions that have operational scope is relatively slow and scattered in areas of zoonosis in the country. A major achievement has been the shift from policies that are individualized to the great policy of health environmental-PISA.
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2.

Effects of a strategy for the promotion of physical activity in students from Bogotá.

Gutiérrez-Martínez, Leidys; Martínez, Rocío Gámez; González, Silvia A; Bolívar, Manuel A; Estupiñan, Omaira Valencia; Sarmiento, Olga L
| Idioma(s): Inglés; Español
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the promotion of physical activity during recess on the levels of physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and adiposity of Colombian students. METHODS: Three schools were randomly selected by an intervention group in Bogotá, Colombia, in 2013: Intervention (Active Module of Active Recess - MARA) + Text Messages (SMS) (MARA+SMS group), intervention (MARA group), control (control group). Intervention was implemented for ten weeks. The duration and intensity of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were measured objectively using accelerometers Actigraph-GT3X+. Adiposity was measured by body mass index and fat percentage. We measured at baseline (T0) and during the tenth week of intervention (T1). We evaluated the effect of the intervention using a difference-in-difference analysis (DID). RESULTS: We included 120 students (57.5% girls; mean age = 10.5 years; standard deviation [SD] = 0.64). There was a significant increase in the mean daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity in the MARA group (Difference T1-T0 = 6.1 minutes, standard error [SE] = 3.49, p = 0.005) in relation to the control group. There were no significant changes in the minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity in the MARA+SMS group (Difference T1-T0 = -1.0 minute; SE = 3.06; p = 0.363). The minutes decreased in the control group (Difference T1-T0 = -7.7 minutes; SE = 3.15; p = 0.011). The minutes of sedentary behaviors decreased in the MARA and MARA+SMS groups and increased in the control group (MARA Difference T1-T0 = -15.8 minutes; SE = 10.05; p= 0.279; MARA+SMS Difference T1-T0 = -11.5 minutes; SE = 8.80; p= 0.869; Control Difference T1-T0 = 10.9 minutes; SE = 9.07; p = 0.407). There was a higher participation in the MARA group in relation to the MARA+SMS group (MARA group = 34.4%; MARA+SMS group = 12.1%). There were no significant changes in adiposity at 10 weeks according to difference-in-differences analysis (body mass index p: ΔMARA+SMS group versus Δcontrol group = 0.945, ΔMARA group versus Δcontrol group = 0.847, ΔMARA+SMS group versus ΔMARA group = 0.990; FP p ΔMARA+SMS group versus Δcontrol group = 0.788, ΔMARA group versus Δcontrol group = 0.915, ΔMARA+SMS group versus ΔMARA group = 0.975). CONCLUSIONS: The Active Module of Active Recess is a promising strategy to increase physical activity levels and decrease sedentary behavior in students. The addition of Text Messages was not associated with increased moderate to vigorous physical activity or changes in adiposity.
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3.

Determinantes sociais, condicionantes e desempenho dos serviços de saúde em países da América Latina, Portugal e Espanha/ Social Determinants, Conditions and Performance of Health Services in Latin American Countries, Portugal and Spain

Conill, Eleonor Minho; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Piola, Sérgio Francisco; Silva, Silvio Fernandes da; Barros, Heglaucio da Silva; Báscolo, Ernesto
| Idioma(s): Portugués
Resumo A comparação é um recurso importante para identificar tendências ou intervenções que melhorem a qualidade dos serviços. Os países ibero-americanos não têm sido objeto de estudos dessa ordem, embora Portugal e Espanha venham acumulando um conhecimento relevante na condução de sistemas nacionais orientados pela atenção primária. O trabalho apresenta os resultados da matriz analítica do Observatório Iberoamericano de Políticas e Sistemas de Saúde, discutindo aspectos que se destacaram no acompanhamento dos sistemas de serviços da Argentina, Brasil, Colômbia, Espanha, Paraguai, Peru e Portugal, ao longo da primeira década do século XXI. Foi feita a análise de séries temporais de quarenta e cinco indicadores que apresentavam maior grau de completitude, divididos em determinantes sociais, condicionantes e desempenho. Três tendências são comuns a quase todos os países: aumento de sobrepeso, desequilíbrio da balança comercial em produtos farmacêuticos e aumento nos gastos dos sistemas. Este padrão de convergência mostra a necessidade de mudanças no modo de regular, organizar e prestar serviços com práticas e políticas públicas que garantam um cuidado integral, mas incorporem ações intersetoriais e de promoção permitindo a sustentabilidade dos sistemas. Abstract Comparison can be an important resource for identifying trends or interventions that improve the quality of health services. Although Portugal and Spain have accumulated important knowledge in primary health care-PHC driven national systems, the Ibero-American countries have not been object of comparative studies. This paper presents an assessment using an analytical dashboard created by the Ibero-American Observatory on Policies and Health Systems. It discusses aspects that have stood out in monitoring the service systems of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Spain, Paraguay, Peru, and Portugal throughout the 21st century's first decade. Forty-five indicators and time series showing the highest completeness degree divided into social determinants, conditions and performance were analyzed. Three trends are common to almost all countries: overweight increase, negative trade balance for pharmaceutical products, and an increase in health system expenditure. This convergence trend reveals the need for changes in the way of regulating, organizing and delivering health services with public policies and practices that guarantee comprehensive care, including health promotion actions enabling systems sustainability.
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4.

Determinantes sociais, condicionantes e desempenho dos serviços de saúde em países da América Latina, Portugal e Espanha./ Determinantes sociais, condicionantes e desempenho dos serviços de saúde em países da América Latina, Portugal e Espanha./ Social Determinants, Conditions and Performance of Health Services in Latin American Countries, Portugal and Spain.

Conill, Eleonor Minho; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Piola, Sérgio Francisco; Silva, Silvio Fernandes da; Barros, Heglaucio da Silva; Báscolo, Ernesto
| Idioma(s): Portugués; Inglés
Comparison can be an important resource for identifying trends or interventions that improve the quality of health services. Although Portugal and Spain have accumulated important knowledge in primary health care-PHC driven national systems, the Ibero-American countries have not been object of comparative studies. This paper presents an assessment using an analytical dashboard created by the Ibero-American Observatory on Policies and Health Systems. It discusses aspects that have stood out in monitoring the service systems of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Spain, Paraguay, Peru, and Portugal throughout the 21st century's first decade. Forty-five indicators and time series showing the highest completeness degree divided into social determinants, conditions and performance were analyzed. Three trends are common to almost all countries: overweight increase, negative trade balance for pharmaceutical products, and an increase in health system expenditure. This convergence trend reveals the need for changes in the way of regulating, organizing and delivering health services with public policies and practices that guarantee comprehensive care, including health promotion actions enabling systems sustainability.
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5.

Patients' costs, socio-economic and health system aspects associated with malaria in pregnancy in an endemic area of Colombia.

Sicuri, Elisa; Bardají, Azucena; Sanz, Sergi; Alonso, Sergi; Fernandes, Silke; Hanson, Kara; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Menéndez, Clara
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Malaria in pregnancy threatens birth outcomes and the health of women and their newborns. This is also the case in low transmission areas, such as Colombia, where Plasmodium vivax is the dominant parasite species. Within the Colombian health system, which underwent major reforms in the 90s, malaria treatment is provided free of charge to patients. However, patients still incur costs, such as transportation and value of time lost due to the disease. We estimated such costs among 40 pregnant women with clinical malaria (30% Plasmodium falciparum, 70% Plasmodium vivax) in the municipality of Tierralta, Northern Colombia. In a cross-sectional study, women were interviewed after an outpatient or inpatient laboratory confirmed malaria episode. Women were asked to report all types of cost incurred before (including prevention), during and immediately after the contact with the health facility. Median total cost was over 16US$ for an outpatient visit, rising to nearly 30US$ if other treatments were sought before reaching the health facility. Median total inpatient cost was 26US$ or 54US$ depending on whether costs incurred prior to admission were excluded or included. For both outpatients and inpatients, direct costs were largely due to transportation and indirect costs constituted the largest share of total costs. Estimated costs are likely to represent only one of the constraints that women face when seeking treatment in an area characterized, at the time of the study, by armed conflict, displacement, and high vulnerability of indigenous women, the group at highest risk of malaria. Importantly, the Colombian peace process, which culminated with the cease-fire in August 2016, may have a positive impact on achieving universal access to healthcare in conflict areas. The current study can inform malaria elimination initiatives in Colombia.
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6.

Políticas de zoonosis en Colombia: del Código Sanitario a la salud ambiental/ Policies of zoonosis in Colombia: from health Code to environmental health

Agudelo-Suárez, Ángela N.; Villamil-Jiménez, Luis C.
| Idioma(s): Español
RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar las políticas públicas de zoonosis en Colombia, en el período de 1975 a 2014, como respuestas estatales. Metodología Se utilizó el enfoque de análisis de ciclo de política o enfoque secuencial. Este análisis se llevó a cabo por medio de los siguientes aspectos: contenidos, procesos, actores y relaciones verticales y horizontales entre las políticas. Resultados Las políticas de zoonosis son muy diversas en su alcance, contenidos y formas, y hacen parte de una historia de éxitos y fracasos, que sólo han logrado transformar de manera parcial el panorama general y regional de las zoonosis. Conclusiones La implementación de las decisiones que tienen alcance operacional es relativamente lenta y dispersa en las zonas de zoonosis del país. Ha sido un logro importante el viraje desde las políticas individualizadas a la gran política de salud ambiental-PISA. ABSTRACT Objective To analyze public policies of zoonosis in Colombia, in the period of 1975 to 2014, as State responses. Methodology Used the policy cycle analysis approach or sequential approach. This analysis was carried out by means of the following aspects: content, processes, actors, and vertical and horizontal relationships between policies. Results Zoonosis policies were very different in scope, contents and forms, and results are part of a history of successes and failures, who have only managed to partially transform the general and regional overview of the zoonosis. Conclusions The implementation of decisions that have operational scope is relatively slow and scattered in areas of zoonosis in the country. A major achievement has been the shift from policies that are individualized to the great policy of health environmental-PISA.
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7.

Determinantes sociales de la salud asociados con el exceso de peso en la población infantil/ Social determinants of health associated with overweight in children

Acosta Romo, María Fernanda; Cabrera Bravo, Nancy; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira
| Idioma(s): Español
Introducción: El exceso de peso en la población infantil se presenta como consecuencia de una serie de determinantes sociales de la salud. Objetivo: Analizar la asociación entre los determinantes sociales de la salud y el exceso de peso en niños menores de seis años. Métodos: Estudio de casos (exceso de peso) y controles (normopeso) en niños menores de seis años atendidos por consulta externa en el Hospital Infantil los Ángeles 2013-2015. La muestra quedó conformada por 175 casos seleccionados por números aleatorios de una base de datos de la institución de salud y 175 controles. Resultados: Los niños menores de dos años tenían menor riesgo de exceso de peso (OR= 0,15 IC95 por ciento 0,092- 0,27), que los de dos a seis años. En los menores que permanecieron en casa aumentó el riesgo de padecer el evento en estudio (OR= 10,4 IC95 por ciento 4,11-26,5). En los niños que fueron alimentados simultáneamente con formula y leche materna durante los primeros seis meses de vida acrecentó el riesgo de exceso de peso (OR= 13,0 IC 95 por ciento 2,17-76,1). Conclusiones: Determinantes sociales de la salud, como la edad, la permanencia en casa y la alimentación combinada con formula y leche materna en los primeros seis meses de vida, son factores importantes que se asocian con el exceso de peso en menores de 6 años(AU) Introduction: Overweight in children is a consequence of a series of social determinants of health. Objective: To analyze the relation between the social determinants of health and overweight in children. Methods: Cases study (overweight) and check-ups (normal weight) in children under six years old attended in the external consultations at Los Angeles Children's Hospital from 2013 to 2015. The sample consisted in 175 cases selected by random numbers from a database of the health institution and 175 check-ups. Results: Children under two years old had a lower risk of overweight (OR= 0.15 IC95 percent 0.092-0.27) than those in the ages from two to six years old. In the children who stayed at home increased the risk of suffering the event under study (OR= 10.4 IC95 percent 4.11-26.5). In children who were fed with formula and breast milk simultaneously during the first six months of life increased the risk of overweight (OR= 13.0 IC95 percent 2.17-76.1). These variables were associated with overweight. Conclusions: Social determinants of health, such as age, stay at home, and combined diet with formula and breast milk in the first six months of life are important factors associated with overweight in children under 6 years old(AU)
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8.

Parental perceptions of impact of oral disorders on Colombian preschoolers´oral health-related quality of life

Díaz Cárdenas, Shyrley; Mandol, María; Peñate, Angélica; Puerta, Guillermina; Bonecker, Marcelo; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abanto, Jenny
| Idioma(s): Inglés
There is no study assessing the impact of dental caries (DC), traumatic dental injuries (TDI) and dental malocclusions (DM) on the oral healthrelated quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschool children from Spanishspeaking countries in populationbased samples. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of DC, TDI and DM, on Colombian preschool children's OHRQoL through a crosssectional study. The clinical setting included private and public preschools in Cartagena,Colombia. The sample included 643 preschool children aged 15 years and their parents, who answered the Colombian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (CECOHIS) and socioeconomic questionnaire. Three calibrated examiners performed clinical assessment of severity of DC according to decayed, missing and filled primary teeth index, TDI and DM. Poisson regression associated clinical and socio economic conditions to the outcome. Overall, 48.2% of parents reported children's oral impacts (total CECOHIS score ≥1). The mean (standard deviation) CECOHIS scores were 2.20 (0.15). The multivariate adjusted model showed that children from nonnuclear families (RR=1.51; p=0.003),with low and high DC severity (RR=1.51, p=0.003; RR=1.53, p=0.009) and TDI (RR=1.56, p=0.003), were more likely to experience negative impact on total CECOHIS scores. DC and TDI have negative impact on Colombian preschool children's OHRQoL. Children from nonnuclear families have worse OHRQoL at this age, independently of the presence of oral conditions (AU) No existen estudios que evalúen el impacto de la caries dental (CD), el trauma dentoalveolar (TDA) y las maloclusiones dentales (MD) sobre la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud bucal (CVRSB) en niños preescolares en muestras de poblaciones de países hispanohablantes. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto de CD, TDA y MD sobre la CVRSB en niños colombianos en edad preescolar a través de un estudio transversal. Las evaluaciones clínicas se realizaron en colegios privados y públicos de Cartagena, Colombia, en una muestra de 643 niños en edad de 15 años y sus padres quienes respondieron la versión colombiana de la Escala Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (CECOHIS) y un cuestionario socioeconómico. Tres examinadores calibrados realizaron la evaluación clínica de la severidad de CD acorde con el Indice ceod para dentición decidua, TDA y MD. La regresión de Poisson asoció las condiciones clínicas y socioeconómicas al puntaje total del CECOHIS y sus dominios. En general, el 48,2% de los padres reportaron impactos orales de los niños (puntuación CECOHIS total ≥1). La media (DE) del CECOHIS fué de 2,20 (0,15). El modelo multivariado ajustado mostró que los niños de familias no nucleares (RR = 1,51; p = 0,003), que tienen baja y alta severidad de CD (RR = 1,51, p = 0,003; RR = 1,53, p = 0,009) y TDA(RR = 1,56, p = 0,003) tuvieron mayor probabilidad de experimentar un impacto negativo en las puntuaciones totales de CECOHIS. La CD y la TDA tienen un impacto negativo sobre la CVRSB en niños preescolares colombianos. Los niños de familias no nucleares tienen peor CVRSB a esta edad, independientemente de la presencia de las condiciones orales (AU)
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9.

Oral health-related quality of life in Colombian children with molar-incisor hypomineralization

Velandia, Lina M; Alvarez, Laura V; Mejía, Lofthy P; Rodríguez, Martha Juliana
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of MolarIncisor Hypomineralization (MIH) on Oral HealthRelated Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in schoolchildren from a public educational institution in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Eightyeight 7to 10yearolds took part in the study; of whom half had MIH. The translated and adapted version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ 810) was applied by means of an inter view. The dependent variable was OHRQoL and explanatory variables were presence and severity of MIH, sex, age, socioeconomic status and social security. Frequencies and proportions were calculated for qualitative variables, and measures of central tendency, dispersion and position were calculated for quantitative variables. Chisquare, Fisher's Exact Test, MannWhitney U Test and KruskalWallis tests were used, as appropriate. A pvalue <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Parents or caregivers of participating children signed informed consent, and children signed an assent. A statistically significant difference was found for age groups (p<0.001), socioeconomic status (p=0.015) and social security (p=0.045) according to the presence of MIH. Likewise, statistically significant differences were found for each of the four domains of the questionnaire and for the overall CPQ 810 score (p<0.0001) according to the presence of MIH. The presence of the MolarIncisor Hypomineralization may have negative impact on the Oral HealthRelated Quality of Life of the participating children (AU) El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el impacto de la Hipomineralización Inciso Molar sobre la Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud Oral (CVRSO) en escolares vinculados con una institución educativa pública de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Ochenta y ocho menores de 7 a 10 años hicieron parte del estudio, la mitad presentaba HIM; a todos se les aplicó la versión traducida y adaptada del Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ 810) mediante entrevista. La variable de salida fue la CVRSO y las variables explicatorias, la presencia y severidad de HIM, el género, la edad, el estrato socioeconómico y la seguridad social. Se calcularon frecuencias y proporciones para las variables cualitativas, y medidas de tendencia central, dispersión y posición para las cuantitativas. Se utilizaron las pruebas Chi2, Test Exacto de Fisher, U. de Mann Whitney y KruskalWallis según fuera apropiado. Un valor de p<0,05 fue considerado estadísticamente significativo. Los padres o cuidadores de los menores participantes firmaron un consentimiento informado y los niños y niñas, un asentimiento. Se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en los grupos de edad (p<0,001), el estrato socioeconómico (p=0,015), y la seguridad social (p=0,045) según la presencia de HIM. Así mismo, se obtuvo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en cada uno de los cuatro dominios del cuestionario y en el puntaje global del CPQ 810 (p<0,0001) de acuerdo con la presencia de HIM. Según las percepciones de los participantes al responder al CPQ 810, se podría sugerir la presencia de la Hipomineralización Inciso Molar influye de forma negativa sobre la Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud Oral en los niños participantes (AU)
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10.

High excess costs of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in an endemic region.

Vargas-Alzate, Carlos Andrés; Higuita-Gutiérrez, Luis Felipe; López-López, Lucelly; Cienfuegos-Gallet, Astrid Vanessa; Jiménez Quiceno, Judy Natalia
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The financial burden of antibiotic resistance is a serious concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the excess costs associated with pneumonia, bacteraemia, surgical site infections and intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in Medellín, Colombia, an endemic region for carbapenem resistance. A cohort study was conducted in a third-level hospital from 2014-2015. All patients with carbapenem-resistant and carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative bacterial infections were included. Pharmaceutical, medical and surgical direct costs were described from the health system perspective. Excess costs were estimated from generalised linear models with gamma distribution and adjusted for variables that could affect the cost difference. A total of 218 patients were enrolled, 48 (22.0%) of whom were infected with carbapenem-resistant bacteria. IAIs were the most frequent. The adjusted total excess cost was US$3966 [95% confidence interval (CI) US$1684-6249], with a significantly higher cost for antibiotics, followed by hospital stay, laboratory tests and interconsultation. The highest excess cost was attributed mainly to the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (US$1827, 95% CI US$1005-2648), followed by length of hospital stay (US$1015, 95% CI US$163-1867). The results of this study highlight the importance of designing antimicrobial stewardship programmes and infection control strategies in endemic regions to reduce the financial threat of antimicrobial resistance to health systems.
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