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2.

Desarrollo y Aplicación de Nanopartículas en la Anticoncepción del Nuevo Milenio/ Development and Application of Nanoparticles in the Contraception of the New Millennium

Naranjo Logroño, Iván Enrique; Cuzco Macías, Leslie Gricel; Cepeda Auquilla, Nataly Gissela; Cabay Cepeda, Lidia Monserrath
| Idioma(s): Español
Introducción: La nanotecnología es un nuevo campo de estudio y de exploración en la Medicina que además nos ofrece grandes oportunidades y aplicaciones en Anticoncepción evitando además de los embarazos, la propagación de infecciones de transmisión sexual y las complicaciones asociadas a corto y a largo plazo en la población vulnerable. Método: El presente trabajo es una revisión de la literatura. Los artículos revisados se obtuvieron de Pubmed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Scielo, Elsevier, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Medigraphic. Resultados y discusión: La nanotecnología aplicada en la anticoncepción reproductiva tiene como finalidad evitar la fecundación del óvulo, ya que hoy en día no es un método exclusivo de las mujeres, si bien es cierto la población cuenta con mayor variedad de los mismos. Conclusiones: La nanotecnología se está convirtiendo en una herramienta cada vez más esencial en el campo de la medicina, al participar en la anticoncepción, y al combatir enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Background: Nanotechnology is a new field of study and exploration in medicine that also offers us great opportunities and applications in contraception, preventing the spread of sexually transmitted infections and the associated short and long-term complications in the vulnerable population. Objective: To know about the advances of nanotechnology in contraception, achieved in the last decade. Methodology: he present work is a literature review. Reviewed articles were obtained from Pubmed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Scielo, Elsevier, Virtual Health Library, Medigraphic. Results and discusión:Applied nanotechnology in reproductive contraception has the purpose of avoiding fertilization of the ovule, since nowadays it is not an exclusive method for women, although it is true that the population has a greater variety of them. Conclusions: Nanotechnology is becoming an increasingly essential tool in the field of medicine, by participating in contraception, and by combating sexually transmitted diseases.
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3.

Quantification of the Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses during the slaughter of Campylobacter positive flocks in semi-industrialized slaughterhouses.

Vinueza-Burgos, Christian; Cevallos, María; Cisneros, Marco; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses has been little studied in semi-industrialized slaughterhouses in developing countries, where several steps are carried out manually or with limited technology. In this study, we performed quantification of the Campylobacter contamination on carcasses at four steps in the slaughter process in three Ecuadorian slaughterhouses. Therefore, 15 Campylobacter positive batches were sampled in three commercial slaughterhouses. For every batch, caecal content and five samples of breast skin were taken and examined for Campylobacter counts at the following steps: after plucking, after evisceration, after final washing and after water chilling. Slaughterhouse C was the only slaughterhouse in which Campylobacter counts increased significantly after evisceration. No significant differences were found between counts after evisceration and after final washing (P > 0.05). In all slaughterhouses, a significant reduction of Campylobacter counts (0.11 to 2.55 log CFU/g) was found after the chilling step. The presence of chlorine in the chilling water was associated with the highest reduction in Campylobacter counts on the carcasses. A high variability of Campylobacter counts was found within and between batches slaughtered in the same slaughterhouse. Campylobacter counts in caecal content samples were not correlated with counts on carcasses after plucking nor after evisceration.
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6.

Revealing the Diversity of Introduced Germplasm in Ecuador: Towards a National Strategy to Improve Robusta.

Loor Solórzano, Rey Gastón; De Bellis, Fabien; Leroy, Thierry; Plaza, Luis; Guerrero, Hilton; Subia, Cristian; Calderón, Darío; Fernández, Fabián; Garzón, Iván; Lopez, Diana; Vera, Danilo
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Genetic resources of have been introduced in several tropical countries with potential for crop development. In Ecuador, the species has been cultivated since the mid-20th century. However, little is known about the diversity and genetic structure of introduced germplasm. This paper provides an overview of the genetic and phenotypic diversity of in Ecuador and some proposals for implementing a breeding program. Twelve SSR markers were used to analyze 1491 plants of grown in different living collections in Ecuador, compared to 29 genotypes representing the main genetic and geographic diversity groups identified within the species. Results indicated that most of the genotypes introduced are of Congolese origin, with accessions from both main subgroups, SG1 and SG2. Some genotypes were classed as hybrids between both subgroups. Substantial phenotypic diversity was also found, and correlations were observed with genetic diversity. Ecuadorian Robusta coffee displays wide genetic diversity and we propose some ways of improving Robusta in Ecuador. A breeding program could be based on three operations: the choice of elite clones, the introduction of new material from other countries (Ivory Coast, Uganda), and the creation of new hybrid material using genotypes from the different diversity groups.
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7.

Trail Making Test: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish-speaking pediatric population.

Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Rivera, D; Ramos-Usuga, D; Vergara-Moragues, E; Montero-López, E; Adana Díaz, L A; Aguayo Arelis, A; García-Guerrero, C E; García de la Cadena, C; Llerena Espezúa, X; Lara, L; Padilla-López, A; Rodriguez-Irizarry, W; Alcazar Tebar, C; Irías Escher, M J; Llibre Guerra, J J; Torales Cabrera, N; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Ferrer-Cascales, R
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To generate normative data for the Trail Making Test (TMT) in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. METHOD: The sample consisted of 3,337 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the TMT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. The TMT-A and TMT-B scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. RESULTS: The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age on both scores, such that as children needed less time to complete the test while they become older. TMT-A scores were affected by age2 for all countries except, Cuba, Guatemala, and Puerto. TMT-B scores were affected by age2 for all countries except, Guatemala and Puerto Rico. Models indicated that children whose parent(s) had a MLPE >12 years of education needed less time to complete the test compared to children whose parent(s) had a MLPE ≤12 years for Mexico and Paraguay in TMT-A scores; and Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, and Spain for TMT-B scores. Sex affected TMT-A scores for Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru, in that boys needed less time to complete the test than girls. Sex did not affect TMT-B scores. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate approach to interpret the TMT in pediatric populations.
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8.

Edentulism and its relationship with self-rated health: secondary analysis of the SABE Ecuador 2009 study

Borda, Miguel Germán; Castellanos Perilla, Nicolás; Patiño, Judy Andrea; Castelblanco, Sandra; Cano, Carlos Alberto; Chavarro Carvajal, Diego; Pérez Zepeda, Mario
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Edentulism is related to a number of conditions in older adults, impacting their overall health status and thus their quality of life and relationship with the environment. At the same time, selfrated health has been shown to be an accurate marker of overall health status. However there is little information on how edentulism relates to selfrated health in older adults of Hispanic origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of edentulism on selfrated health in older adults. We analyzed data from SABE Ecuador 2009, a crosssectional study that included a probabilistic representative sample of 5,235 communitydwelling older adults aged 60 years or older. The dependent variable was selfrated health and the independent variable was edentulism, with age, sex and comorbidities as confounding variables.In order to test the independent association of edentulism with selfrated health, a logistic regression model was fitted. Out of the whole sample,77.13% of older adults reported having fair/poor selfrated health. We found an independent association between edentulism and selfrated health with incremental risk according to number of missingteeth,ranging from OR 1.35 (CI 95% 0.75 2.43) p 0.32 for less than 4 missing teeth to OR 1.88(1.06 3.32) p 0.029 for more than half of teeth missing. Even though oral health has long been considered separately from the rest of the body and mind, it is clear from our results that oral health is a very important component of global health status in the elderly (AU) El edentulismo se ha asociado con una gran variedad de condiciones en los adultos mayores afectando el estado general de su salud. Por lo tanto, afecta la calidad de vida de la persona y su relación con el medio ambiente. Por otro lado, la autoevaluación de la salud ha demostrado ser un marcador preciso del estado general de la salud. Sin embargo, hay escasa información sobre cómo estas dos condiciones se relacionan entre sí en adultos mayores de origen hispano. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto del edentulismo en la autoevaluación de la salud en adultos mayores. Se analizaron los datos de SABE Ecuador 2009, un estudio transversal que incluyó una muestra probabilística y representativa de 5.235 personas de 60 años de edad o más. La variable dependiente fue la salud autoevaluada y edentulismo fue la variable independiente, teniendo edad, sexo y comorbilidades como variables de confusión. Con el fin de probar la asociación independiente de edentulismo con la autoevaluación de la salud un modelo de regresión logística se ajustó. De la muestra entera, un 77,13% de los adultos mayores reportaron tener salud autoevaluada regular / pobre. Se encontró una asociación independiente entre edentulismo y salud autoevaluada con un riesgo incremental dependiendo del número de dientes ausentes de OR 1,35 (IC 95% 0,75 2,43) p 0,32, en adultos mayores con menos de 4 dientes ausentes hasta OR 1,88 (1,06 3,32) p 0,029, con más de la mitad de dientes ausentes. La salud oral se ha considerado de forma independiente del resto del cuerpo y la mente, es claro por nuestros resultados que la salud oral es un componente muy importante del estado de salud global en las personas mayores (AU)
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10.

Genomic diversity in Onchocerca volvulus and its Wolbachia endosymbiont.

Choi, Young-Jun; Tyagi, Rahul; McNulty, Samantha N; Rosa, Bruce A; Ozersky, Philip; Martin, John; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Unnasch, Thomas R; Norice, Carmelle T; Nutman, Thomas B; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U; Mitreva, Makedonka
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Ongoing elimination efforts have altered the global distribution of Onchocerca volvulus, the agent of river blindness, and further population restructuring is expected as efforts continue. Therefore, a better understanding of population genetic processes and their effect on biogeography is needed to support elimination goals. We describe O. volvulus genome variation in 27 isolates from the early 1990s (before widespread mass treatment) from four distinct locales: Ecuador, Uganda, the West African forest and the West African savanna. We observed genetic substructuring between Ecuador and West Africa and between the West African forest and savanna bioclimes, with evidence of unidirectional gene flow from savanna to forest strains. We identified forest:savanna-discriminatory genomic regions and report a set of ancestry informative loci that can be used to differentiate between forest, savanna and admixed isolates, which has not previously been possible. We observed mito-nuclear discordance possibly stemming from incomplete lineage sorting. The catalogue of the nuclear, mitochondrial and endosymbiont DNA variants generated in this study will support future basic and translational onchocerciasis research, with particular relevance for ongoing control programmes, and boost efforts to characterize drug, vaccine and diagnostic targets.
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