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1.

Edentulism and its relationship with self-rated health: secondary analysis of the SABE Ecuador 2009 study

Borda, Miguel Germán; Castellanos Perilla, Nicolás; Patiño, Judy Andrea; Castelblanco, Sandra; Cano, Carlos Alberto; Chavarro Carvajal, Diego; Pérez Zepeda, Mario
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Edentulism is related to a number of conditions in older adults, impacting their overall health status and thus their quality of life and relationship with the environment. At the same time, selfrated health has been shown to be an accurate marker of overall health status. However there is little information on how edentulism relates to selfrated health in older adults of Hispanic origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of edentulism on selfrated health in older adults. We analyzed data from SABE Ecuador 2009, a crosssectional study that included a probabilistic representative sample of 5,235 communitydwelling older adults aged 60 years or older. The dependent variable was selfrated health and the independent variable was edentulism, with age, sex and comorbidities as confounding variables.In order to test the independent association of edentulism with selfrated health, a logistic regression model was fitted. Out of the whole sample,77.13% of older adults reported having fair/poor selfrated health. We found an independent association between edentulism and selfrated health with incremental risk according to number of missingteeth,ranging from OR 1.35 (CI 95% 0.75 2.43) p 0.32 for less than 4 missing teeth to OR 1.88(1.06 3.32) p 0.029 for more than half of teeth missing. Even though oral health has long been considered separately from the rest of the body and mind, it is clear from our results that oral health is a very important component of global health status in the elderly (AU) El edentulismo se ha asociado con una gran variedad de condiciones en los adultos mayores afectando el estado general de su salud. Por lo tanto, afecta la calidad de vida de la persona y su relación con el medio ambiente. Por otro lado, la autoevaluación de la salud ha demostrado ser un marcador preciso del estado general de la salud. Sin embargo, hay escasa información sobre cómo estas dos condiciones se relacionan entre sí en adultos mayores de origen hispano. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto del edentulismo en la autoevaluación de la salud en adultos mayores. Se analizaron los datos de SABE Ecuador 2009, un estudio transversal que incluyó una muestra probabilística y representativa de 5.235 personas de 60 años de edad o más. La variable dependiente fue la salud autoevaluada y edentulismo fue la variable independiente, teniendo edad, sexo y comorbilidades como variables de confusión. Con el fin de probar la asociación independiente de edentulismo con la autoevaluación de la salud un modelo de regresión logística se ajustó. De la muestra entera, un 77,13% de los adultos mayores reportaron tener salud autoevaluada regular / pobre. Se encontró una asociación independiente entre edentulismo y salud autoevaluada con un riesgo incremental dependiendo del número de dientes ausentes de OR 1,35 (IC 95% 0,75 2,43) p 0,32, en adultos mayores con menos de 4 dientes ausentes hasta OR 1,88 (1,06 3,32) p 0,029, con más de la mitad de dientes ausentes. La salud oral se ha considerado de forma independiente del resto del cuerpo y la mente, es claro por nuestros resultados que la salud oral es un componente muy importante del estado de salud global en las personas mayores (AU)
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3.

Elasticidad precio de la demanda de cigarrillos y alcohol en Ecuador con datos de hogares/ Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and alcohol in Ecuador, based on household data

Chávez, Ricardo
| Idioma(s): Español
Objetivo. Estimar la elasticidad precio de la demanda de cigarrillos y alcohol en Ecuador mediante la utilización de datos de corte transversal de la Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de Hogares Urbanos y Rurales (ENIGHUR) 2011-2012. Métodos. Se utilizaron datos de la ENIGHUR 2011-2012. Se aplicó la metodología desarrollada por Deaton (1, 2) para estimar la elasticidad precio de la demanda de cigarrillos y alcohol con información sobre gasto y cantidades. Además, se incluyeron variables socioeconómicas de los hogares. Resultados. La elasticidad precio de la demanda de cigarrillos es de 0,87. Esto significa que, si los precios se incrementaran 10%, el consumo podría disminuir 8,7%. Los resultados de elasticidades precio cruzadas del alcohol sobre la demanda de cigarrillos muestran el signo esperado, es decir negativo, lo que indicaría que son bienes complementarios; sin embargo, no son significativos desde el punto de vista estadístico. Además, se halló que la elasticidad precio de la demanda de alcohol es –0,44, por lo que un incremento de 10% en el precio del alcohol generaría una reducción en su consumo de 4,4%. Conclusiones. Una política de incremento de precios, por ejemplo, con un alza de impuestos aplicada tanto a los cigarrillos como al alcohol, podría tener un efecto positivo sobre la salud pública mediante la disminución del consumo de ambos bienes. Sin embargo, esta medida no sería suficiente para reducir las brechas en las medidas de prevalencia y resultados de salud entre género y otros grupos poblacionales, dada la diferencia observada en la sensibilidad del consumo a variaciones del precio. Objective. Estimate price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and alcohol in Ecuador using cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Urban and Rural Household Income and Expenditures (ENIGHUR is the acronym in Spanish) 2011-2012. Methods. ENIGHUR 2011-2012 data were used with Deaton’s (1, 2) methodology to estimate price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and alcohol with expenditure and quantity information. Household socioeconomic variables were also included. Results. Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes is –0.87, meaning that a 10% price increase could lead to an 8.7% decrease in consumption. Results for cross-price elasticities of alcohol on cigarette demand are negative, as expected, indicating that they are complementary goods; however, the results are not statistically significant. Furthermore, it was found that price elasticity of demand for alcohol is – 0.44, meaning that a 10% increase in the price of alcohol would produce a 4.4% decrease in consumption. Conclusions. A policy of price increases, for example, with a tax increase, applied to both cigarettes and alcohol, could have a positive effect on public health through reductions in consumption of both goods. However, this measure would not be sufficient to bridge gaps in prevalence measures and health outcomes between sex and other population groups, given the observed difference in the sensitivity of consumption to price variations.
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4.

Climate change and agricultural workers' health in Ecuador: occupational exposure to UV radiation and hot environments.

Harari Arjona, Raul; Piñeiros, Jessika; Ayabaca, Marcelo; Harari Freire, Florencia
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Climate change is a global concern but little is known about its potential health effects in workers from non-industrialized countries. Ecuadorian workers from the coast (hot environments) and Andean region (elevated UV radiation) might be at particular risk of such effects. In the Andean region, measurements of UV index show maximum levels exceeding 11, a level considered being extreme according to the WHO. Also, an increased incidence of skin cancer was reported the last decennium, this being the second most common cancer type in men and women. In the coast, a high reported prevalence of kidney disease in agricultural workers is suggested to be related to exposure to hot temperatures. The scarce data available on occupational health in Ecuadorian agricultural workers raise the need for further investigation. Data worldwide shows an increasing prevalence of UV radiation- and heat stress-related illnesses in agricultural workers and urges the adoption of preventive measures.
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5.

Los incentivos y actores de los Sistemas de Salud de Costa Rica, Estados Unidos, Canadá, Chile y Ecuador - 2015/ Incentives and actors of Health Systems in Costa Rica, The United States of America, Canada, Chile and Ecuador - 2015

Camargo-García, Samantha Carolina; Cortés-Bermeo, Aura Maritza; Abreu-Flechas, Andrea Katherine; Suárez-Rativa, Manuel Eliecer; Jiménez-Barbosa, Wilson Giovanni
| Idioma(s): Español
Ante los diferentes sistemas de salud propuestos en cada país surge la necesidad de analizar la participación de cada uno de los elementos que lo componen. Este análisis se realiza con el fin de identificar y analizar los actores que intervienen en los sistemas de salud, especialmente, el uso de incentivos y la relación intersectorial que entre estos existe. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo descriptivo, mediante una revisión bibliográfica de los sistemas implementados en Costa Rica, Estados Unidos, Canadá, Chile y Ecuador. Se tuvieron en cuenta dos factores: el sistema de salud, definido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud como la suma de todas las organizaciones, instituciones y recursos empleados, cuyo objetivo consiste en mejorar la salud. El segundo, los incentivos, que brindan una motivación a los trabajadores, mejorando sus expectativas frente al trabajo y la manera de ejecutarlo, favoreciendo el cumplimiento de metas establecidas por las empresas. Como resultado, se encontró que en los sistemas de salud expuestos, si bien existen similitudes en relación con su desarrollo e implementación, también hay profundas diferencias, en especial, en la participación de actores públicos y privados. Conclusión: los incentivos existentes en los sistemas de salud estudiados no tienen un enfoque estratégico que articule a los actores en pro de la salud y el bienestar de la población. Before the different systems of health proposed in every country there arises the need to analyze the participation of each one of the elements that compose it. This analysis is realized in order identify and to analyze the actors who intervene in the systems of health, especially, the use of incentives and the intersectorial relation that between these exists. For it, there was carried out a qualitative descriptive study, by means of a bibliographical review of the systems implemented in Costa Rica, The United States, Canada, Chile and Ecuador. Two factors were born in mind: the system of health, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) like the sum of all the organizations, institutions and used resources, which aim consists of improving the health. The second one, the incentives, that offer a motivation to the workers, improving his expectations opposite to the work and the way of executing it, favoring the fulfillment of goals established by the companies. As result, one found that, in the systems of health exposed, though similarities exist in relation with his development and implementation, also there are deep differences, especially, in the participation of public and private actors. Conclusion, incentives in health care systems do not have strategic perspective so that there are many problems to obtain wellbeing for all citizens.
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6.

Two years of school-based intervention program could improve the physical fitness among Ecuadorian adolescents at health risk: subgroups analysis from a cluster-randomized trial.

Andrade, Susana; Lachat, Carl; Cardon, Greet; Ochoa-Avilés, Angélica; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Van Camp, John; Ortiz, Johana; Ramirez, Patricia; Donoso, Silvana; Kolsteren, Patrick
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Adolescents with overweight and poor physical fitness have an increased likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases during adulthood. In Ecuador, a health promotion program improved the muscular strength and speed-agility, and reduced the decline of the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity of adolescents after 28 months. We performed a sub-group analysis to assess the differential effect of this intervention in overweight and low-fit adolescents. METHODS: We performed a cluster-randomized pair matched trial in schools located in Cuenca-Ecuador. In total 20 schools (clusters) were pair matched, and 1440 adolescents of grade 8 and 9 (mean age of 12.3 and 13.3 years respectively) participated in the trial. For the purposes of the subgroup analysis, the adolescents were classified into groups according to their weight status (body mass index) and aerobic capacity (scores in the 20 m shuttle run and FITNESSGRAM standards) at baseline. Primary outcomes included physical fitness (vertical jump, speed shuttle run) and physical activity (proportion of students achieving over 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day). For these primary outcomes, we stratified analysis by weight (underweight, normal BMI and overweight/obese) and fitness (fit and low fitness) groups. Mixed linear regression models were used to assess the intervention effect. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity, underweight and poor physical fitness was 20.3 %, 5.8 % and 84.8 % respectively. A higher intervention effect was observed for speed shuttle run in overweight (ß = -1.85 s, P = 0.04) adolescents compared to underweight (ß = -1.66 s, P = 0.5) or normal weight (ß = -0.35 s, P = 0.6) peers. The intervention effect on vertical jump was higher in adolescents with poor physical fitness (ß = 3.71 cm, P = 0.005) compared to their fit peers (ß = 1.28 cm, P = 0.4). The proportion of students achieving over 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day was not significantly different according to weight or fitness status. CONCLUSION: Comprehensive school-based interventions that aim to improve diet and physical activity could improve speed and strength aspects of physical fitness in low-fit and overweight/obese adolescents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01004367 . Registered October 28, 2009.
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7.

Familias Unidas for high risk adolescents: Study design of a cultural adaptation and randomized controlled trial of a U.S. drug and sexual risk behavior intervention in Ecuador.

Jacobs, Petra; Estrada, Yannine A; Tapia, Maria I; Quevedo Terán, Ana M; Condo Tamayo, Cecilia; Albán García, Mónica; Valenzuela Triviño, Gilda M; Pantin, Hilda; Velazquez, Maria R; Horigian, Viviana E; Alonso, Elizabeth; Prado, Guillermo
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Developing, testing and implementing evidence-based prevention interventions are important in decreasing substance use and sexual risk behavior among adolescents. This process requires research expertise, infrastructure, resources and decades of research testing, which might not always be feasible for low resource countries. Adapting and testing interventions proven to be efficacious in similar cultures might circumvent the time and costs of implementing evidence-based interventions in new settings. This paper describes the two-phase study, including training and development of the research infrastructure in the Ecuadorian university necessary to implement a randomized controlled trial. METHODS/DESIGN: Familias Unidas is a multilevel parent-centered intervention designed in the U.S. to prevent drug use and sexual risk behaviors in Hispanic adolescents. The current study consisted of Phase 1 feasibility study (n=38) which adapted the intervention and study procedures within a single-site school setting in an area with a high prevalence of drug use and unprotected sexual behavior among adolescents in Ecuador, and Phase 2 randomized controlled trial of the adapted intervention in two public high schools with a target population of families with adolescents from 12 to 14 years old. DISCUSSION: The trial is currently in Phase 2. Study recruitment was completed with 239 parent-youth dyads enrolling. The intervention phase and the first follow-up assessment have been completed. The second and third follow-up assessments will be completed in 2016. This project has the potential of benefitting a large population of families in areas of Ecuador that are disproportionally affected by drug trafficking and its consequences. TRIAL REGISTRATION: MSP-DIS-2015-0055-0, Ministry of Public Health (MSP), Quito, Ecuador.
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8.

Bananas, pesticides and health in southwestern Ecuador: A scalar narrative approach to targeting public health responses.

Brisbois, Benjamin
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Public health responses to agricultural pesticide exposure are often informed by ethnographic or other qualitative studies of pesticide risk perception. In addition to highlighting the importance of structural determinants of exposure, such studies can identify the specific scales at which pesticide-exposed individuals locate responsibility for their health issues, with implications for study and intervention design. In this study, an ethnographic approach was employed to map scalar features within explanatory narratives of pesticides and health in Ecuador's banana-producing El Oro province. Unstructured observation, 14 key informant interviews and 15 in-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out during 8 months of fieldwork in 2011-2013. Analysis of interview data was informed by human geographic literature on the social construction of scale. Individual-focused narratives of some participants highlighted characteristics such as carelessness and ignorance, leading to suggestions for educational interventions. More structural explanations invoked farm-scale processes, such as uncontrolled aerial fumigations on plantations owned by elites. Organization into cooperatives helped to protect small-scale farmers from 'deadly' banana markets, which in turn were linked to the Ecuadorian nation-state and actors in the banana-consuming world. These scalar elements interacted in complex ways that appear linked to social class, as more well-off individuals frequently attributed the health problems of other (poorer) people to individual behaviours, while providing more structural explanations of their own difficulties. Such individualizing narratives may help to stabilize inequitable social structures. Research implications of this study include the possibility of using scale-focused qualitative research to generate theory and candidate levels for multi-level models. Equity implications include a need for public health researchers planning interventions to engage with scale-linked inequities, such as disparities within nation-states. Finally, the prominence of the global North in explanatory narratives is a useful reminder that 'structural factors' prominently include inequities related to the legacies of colonialism.
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9.

A qualitative exploration of the impact of the economic recession in Spain on working, living and health conditions: reflections based on immigrant workers' experiences.

Ronda, Elena; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Galon, Tanyse; García, Ana M; Benavides, Fernando G; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyse how immigrant workers in Spain experienced changes in their working and employment conditions brought about Spain's economic recession and the impact of these changes on their living conditions and health status. METHOD: We conducted a grounded theory study. Data were obtained through six focus group discussions with immigrant workers (n = 44) from Colombia, Ecuador and Morocco, and two individual interviews with key informants from Romania living in Spain, selected by theoretical sample. RESULTS: Three categories related to the crisis emerged--previous labour experiences, employment consequences and individual consequences--that show how immigrant workers in Spain (i) understand the change in employment and working conditions conditioned by their experiences in the period prior to the crisis, and (ii) experienced the deterioration in their quality of life and health as consequences of the worsening of employment and working conditions during times of economic recession. CONCLUSION: The negative impact of the financial crisis on immigrant workers may increase their social vulnerability, potentially leading to the failure of their migratory project and a return to their home countries. Policy makers should take measures to minimize the negative impact of economic crisis on the occupational health of migrant workers in order to strengthen social protection and promote health and well-being.
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10.

Different Patterns in Health Care Use Among Immigrants in Spain.

Villarroel, Nazmy; Artazcoz, Lucía
| Idioma(s): Inglés
This study aims to analyze the differences in the use of primary care (PC), hospital, and emergency services between people born in Spain and immigrants. Data were obtained from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. The sample was composed of individuals aged 16-64 years from Spain and the seven countries with most immigrants in Spain (n = 22,224). Hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Romanian men were less likely to use health care at all levels compared to men from other countries. Women from Argentina, Bolivia and Ecuador reported a lower use of PC. Among women, there were no differences in emergency visits or hospitalizations between countries. Bolivian men reported more hospitalizations than Spanish men, whereas Argentinean men reported more emergency visits than their Spanish counterparts. In Spain, most immigrants made less than, or about the same use of health care services as the native Spanish population.
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