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1.

Efecto Antibacteriano de enjuagues bucales pediátricos comercializados en el Ecuador sobre cepas de Streptococcus Mutans: Estudio in vitro/ Efeito antibacteriano de colutórios pediátricos comercializados no Equador sobre ce-pas de Streptococcus Mutans: Estudo in vitro/ Antibacterial effect of pediatric mouthwashes marketed in Ecuador on Streptococcus Mutans strains: In vitro study

Lema Tabango, Vanessa; Reyes Chacón, Jorge Aníbal; Aillón Ayala, Elena; Tello, Gustavo
| Idioma(s): Español
La caries dental es considerada un problema de salud pública, siendo los niños la población más vulnerable por presentar hábitos alimentarios e higiene bucal inadecuados. Objetivo: Determinar y comparar el efecto antibacteriano de enjuagues bucales pediátricos a base de Cloruro de Cetilpiridinio (0,075%) y Xilitol (10%), sobre cepas de Streptococcus Mutans. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio experimental in vitro, conformado por 20 cepas de S. mutans obtenidas del repositorio del Instituto Nacional de Investigación en Salud Pública (INSPI) que fueron sembradas en medio agar tripticasa soya. Las 60 Placas Petri (N=60) fueron divididas en tres grupos experimentales (N=20 cada uno) de 10µL, 15µL y 20µL para cada enjuague, en cada placa se colocaron 5 discos de papel impregnados con la solucion de los grupos siendo: G1=Colgate Plax (Cloruro de Cetilpiridinio 0,075%), G2=Denture kids (Xilitol 10%), G3=Blendy (Xilitol 10%) C+= Control Positivo (Clor-hexidina 0,12%) C-= Control Negativo (Agua Destilada). Las placas fueron llevadas a incubación a temperatura de 37°C con baja presión de oxígeno. Luego de 48 horas se observaron para medir los halos de inhibición. Fue realizado el análisis estadístico de Kruskal Wallis y U Mann Whitney con nivel de significancia del 5%. Resultados: Las cantidades de 10, 15 y 20µL de Cloruro de Cetilpiridinio mostraron aumento significativo del halo > 14mm (p= 0,001) altamente sensible. Los enjuagues con Xilitol mostraron menor halo de inhibición ≥ 8mm (p=0,1) sensibilidad intermedia. La cantidad de 20µL de cloruro de cetilpiridinio no mostró diferencias significativas al compararlo con 15µL de Clorhexidina (p=1,0) Conclusio-nes: Los enjuagues bucales a base de Xilitol mostraron sensibilidad intermedia, siendo su efecto menor al compararlo con el Cloruro de Cetilpiridinio que se mostró altamente sensible. Dental caries is considered a public health problem, children being the most vulnerable population due to inadequate eating habits and oral hygiene. Objective: To determine and compare the antibacterial effect of pediatric mouthwashes based on Cetilpiridinium Chloride (0.075%) and Xylitol (10%), on strains of StreptococcusMutans. MaterialsandMethods: In vi-tro experimental study, consisting of 20 strains of S. mutans obtained from the repository of the National Institute of Public Health Research (INSPI), which were planted in agar trypticase soy agar. The 60 Petri dishes (N = 60) were divided into three experimental groups (N = 20 each) of 10µL, 15µL and 20µL for each mouthwash, in each petri dishes were placed 5 paper discs impregnated with the solution of the groups being: G1= Colgate Plax (Cetylpyridinium Chloride 0.075%), G2= Denture kids (Xylitol 10%), G3= Blendy (Xylitol 10%) C+= Positive Control (Chlorhexidine 0.12%) C-= Negative Control (Distilled Water). Petri dishes were incubated at 37° C with low oxygen pressure. After 48 hours they were observed to measure the inhibition zones. The statistical analysis of Kruskal Wallis and U Mann Whitney with a level of significance of 5% was carried out. Results: The amounts of 10, 15 and 20µL of Cetilpiridinium Chloride showed a significant increase of halo > 14mm (p = 0.001) highly sensitive. The rinses with Xylitol showed a lower inhibition halo ≥ 8mm (p = 0.1) inter-mediate sensitivity. The amount of 20µL of cetylpyridinium chloride did not show significant differences when compared to 15µL of Chlorhexidine (p = 1.0). Conclusions: Mouthwashes based on Xylitol showed intermediate sensitivity, its effect being lower when compared to the Cetylpyridinium chloride that was highly sensitive. Cárie dentária é considerada um problema de saúde pública, sendo as crianças a população mais vulneráveis por apresentar hábitos alimentários e higiene oral inadequados. Objectivo: Determinar e comparar o efeito antibacteriano de colutórios pediátricos de cloreto de cetilpiridínio (0,075%) e xilitol (10%), sob cepas de Streptococcus mutans. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo experimental in vitro, constituído por 20 cepas de S. mutans obtidas no repositório do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa em Saúde Pública (INSPI), que foram semeadas em ágar tripticase de soja. 60 placas de Petri (N = 60) foram divididos em três grupos experimentais (n = 20 cada) 10 µL, 15µL e 20µL para cada colutório, em cada placa de petri 5 discos de papel impregnados com cada solução foram impregnados sendo os grupos: G1 = Colgate Plax (cloreto de cetilpiridínio 0,075%), G2 = Denture Kids (Xilitol 10%), G3 = Blendy (Xilitol 10%), C+= Controle positivo (0,12% de clorohexidina)e C-= Controle Negativo (Água Destilada). As placas de petri foram incubadas a 37° C com baixa pressão de oxigênio. Após 48 horas eles foram observados para medir as zonas de inibição. Foi realizada a análise estatística de Kruskal Wallis e Mann Whitney com um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: As quantidades de 10, 15 e 20µL de cloreto de cetilpiridínio mostraram um incremento do halo de inibição > 14 mm (p = 0,001) sendo altamente sensível. Os colutórios com xilitol mostrou um menor halo de inibição ≥ 8 mm (p = 0,1) sensibilidade intermediária. A quantidade de 20µL de cloreto de cetilpiridínio não mostrou nenhuma diferença significativa quando comparado com 15µL de clorexidina (p = 1,0). Conclusão: Colutórios com xilitol mostraram sensibilidade intermediária, sendo menor o efeito quando comparado com Cloreto de cetilpiridínio que mostrou-se altamente sensível.
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3.

Asequibilidad de cerveza y bebidas azucaradas para 15 países de América Latina

Paraje, Guillermo; Pincheira, Pablo
| Idioma(s): Español
[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la evolución de la asequibilidad de la cerveza y de las gaseosas para quince países de América Latina. Métodos. Los datos corresponden a estadísticas oficiales de índices de precios de cerveza y gaseosas/refrescos, índice de precios al consumidor e índice de salarios nominales en frecuencia mensual. El método se basa en realizar un análisis econométrico, mediante series temporales, para medir el valor esperado de la tasa de crecimiento del indicador de asequibilidad absoluta (utilizando salarios nominales) o relativa (usando precios generales) de las gaseosas y de las cervezas. Resultados. En nueve de los quince países analizados, la asequibilidad (absoluta o relativa), ya sea de bebidas azucaradas o cervezas, ha aumentado de forma estadísticamente significativa. En el caso de las bebidas azucaradas, la asequibilidad absoluta aumentó en cinco países (Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador y Uruguay) y disminuyó en México. En el caso de la cerveza, aumentó en Colombia y Ecuador, se mantuvo inalterada en Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica y Uruguay, y se redujo en México. Conclusiones. A pesar de que la mayoría de los países poseen impuestos a la cerveza y a las bebidas azucaradas, su efecto en los precios no ha sido suficiente para reducir su asequibilidad en todos los países de la muestra. Los impuestos deberían modificarse para reducir la asequibilidad de estas bebidas y afectar su consumo. [ABSTRACT]. Objective. The objective of this study was to look at trends in the affordability of beer and soft drinks in 15 Latin American countries. Methods. The data correspond to government statistics pertaining to price indices for beer and soft drinks, the consumer price index, and the nominal wage index based on monthly frequency. The methods involved the performance of an econometric analysis, using time series, to measure the expected rate of increase in the absolute affordability indicator (using nominal prices) or the relative affordability indicator (using general prices) for soft drinks and beers. Results. In nine of the 15 countries analyzed, the affordability of soft drinks or beer (whether absolute or relative) has shown a statistically significant increase. In the case of soft drinks, absolute affordability increased in five countries (Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Uruguay) and decreased in Mexico. In the case of beer, it increased in Colombia and Ecuador, remained unchanged in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, and Uruguay, and dropped in Mexico. Conclusions. Although most countries levy taxes on beer and soft drinks, the effect of such taxes on price has not been enough to reduce the affordability of these products in all countries in the sample. Taxes should be modified to make these beverages less affordable and have an impact on their consumption. [RESUMO]. Objetivos. Analisar a evolução da acessibilidade a cervejas e refrigerantes em 15 países da América Latina. Métodos. Os dados representam estatísticas oficiais dos índices de preços de cervejas e refrigerantes, índice de preços ao consumidor e índice mensal do salário nominal. A metodologia do estudo foi uma análise econométrica com séries temporais para avaliar a taxa esperada de crescimento do indicador de acessibilidade absoluta (com base no salário nominal) ou relativa (com base nos preços gerais) de cervejas e refrigerantes. Resultados. Houve um aumento significativo da acessibilidade (absoluta ou relativa) a cervejas ou refrigerantes em 9 dos 15 países analisados. Com relação aos refrigerantes, houve um aumento da acessibilidade absoluta em cinco países (Chile, Colômbia, Costa Rica, Equador e Uruguai), com uma redução observada no México. Com relação às cervejas, houve um aumento da acessibilidade na Colômbia e Equador, não se observou mudança na Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica e Uruguai e ocorreu uma redução no México. Conclusões. Embora exista tributação para cervejas e refrigerantes na maioria dos países, o efeito nos preços não tem sido suficiente para reduzir a acessibilidade a estes produtos em todos os países da amostra estudada. É preciso reformar a tributação a fim de reduzir a acessibilidade e o consumo destas bebidas.
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4.

Desarrollo y Aplicación de Nanopartículas en la Anticoncepción del Nuevo Milenio/ Development and Application of Nanoparticles in the Contraception of the New Millennium

Naranjo Logroño, Iván Enrique; Cuzco Macías, Leslie Gricel; Cepeda Auquilla, Nataly Gissela; Cabay Cepeda, Lidia Monserrath
| Idioma(s): Español
Introducción: La nanotecnología es un nuevo campo de estudio y de exploración en la Medicina que además nos ofrece grandes oportunidades y aplicaciones en Anticoncepción evitando además de los embarazos, la propagación de infecciones de transmisión sexual y las complicaciones asociadas a corto y a largo plazo en la población vulnerable. Método: El presente trabajo es una revisión de la literatura. Los artículos revisados se obtuvieron de Pubmed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Scielo, Elsevier, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Medigraphic. Resultados y discusión: La nanotecnología aplicada en la anticoncepción reproductiva tiene como finalidad evitar la fecundación del óvulo, ya que hoy en día no es un método exclusivo de las mujeres, si bien es cierto la población cuenta con mayor variedad de los mismos. Conclusiones: La nanotecnología se está convirtiendo en una herramienta cada vez más esencial en el campo de la medicina, al participar en la anticoncepción, y al combatir enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Background: Nanotechnology is a new field of study and exploration in medicine that also offers us great opportunities and applications in contraception, preventing the spread of sexually transmitted infections and the associated short and long-term complications in the vulnerable population. Objective: To know about the advances of nanotechnology in contraception, achieved in the last decade. Methodology: he present work is a literature review. Reviewed articles were obtained from Pubmed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Scielo, Elsevier, Virtual Health Library, Medigraphic. Results and discusión:Applied nanotechnology in reproductive contraception has the purpose of avoiding fertilization of the ovule, since nowadays it is not an exclusive method for women, although it is true that the population has a greater variety of them. Conclusions: Nanotechnology is becoming an increasingly essential tool in the field of medicine, by participating in contraception, and by combating sexually transmitted diseases.
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5.

Quantification of the Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses during the slaughter of Campylobacter positive flocks in semi-industrialized slaughterhouses.

Vinueza-Burgos, Christian; Cevallos, María; Cisneros, Marco; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses has been little studied in semi-industrialized slaughterhouses in developing countries, where several steps are carried out manually or with limited technology. In this study, we performed quantification of the Campylobacter contamination on carcasses at four steps in the slaughter process in three Ecuadorian slaughterhouses. Therefore, 15 Campylobacter positive batches were sampled in three commercial slaughterhouses. For every batch, caecal content and five samples of breast skin were taken and examined for Campylobacter counts at the following steps: after plucking, after evisceration, after final washing and after water chilling. Slaughterhouse C was the only slaughterhouse in which Campylobacter counts increased significantly after evisceration. No significant differences were found between counts after evisceration and after final washing (P > 0.05). In all slaughterhouses, a significant reduction of Campylobacter counts (0.11 to 2.55 log CFU/g) was found after the chilling step. The presence of chlorine in the chilling water was associated with the highest reduction in Campylobacter counts on the carcasses. A high variability of Campylobacter counts was found within and between batches slaughtered in the same slaughterhouse. Campylobacter counts in caecal content samples were not correlated with counts on carcasses after plucking nor after evisceration.
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8.

Tendencias de los accidentes de tránsito en Ecuador: 2000-2015/ Trends in Traffic Accidents in Ecuador: 2000-2015/ Tendências em acidentes de trânsito no Equador: 2000-2015

Algora-Buenafé, Alfonso Francisco; Russo-Puga, Marcel; Suasnavas-Bermúdez, Pablo Roberto; Merino-Salazar, Pamela; Gómez-García, Antonio Ramón
;
| Idioma(s): Español
Resumen Introducción: Los accidentes de tránsito constituyen un problema prioritario en salud pública a escala mundial, principalmente en los países de Latinoamérica, por ser una de las primeras causas de mortalidad en la región. Objetivo: Estudiar la evolución y tendencia de los accidentes de tránsito en Ecuador en el periodo del 2000 al 2015. Método: Estudio ecológico a partir de fuentes secundarias de información oficiales. Se presentan los resultados de las tasas de mortalidad poblacional por accidentes de tránsito y los índices de motorización, accidentabilidad, lesividad y letalidad, con el objeto de comparar las variaciones temporales en el periodo de estudio. Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad poblacional presentó una tendencia al aumento en el periodo de estudio y correlacionada con los índices de motorización y lesividad (p<0.01). Conclusiones: Se requiere un mayor esfuerzo para optimizar las actividades destinadas al cumplimiento de las normas legales de tránsito y educación vial para la población ecuatoriana. Abstract Introduction: Traffic accidents are a priority problem in public health worldwide, mainly in Latin American countries, as it is one of the leading mortality causes in the region. Objective: To study the evolution and trend of traffic accidents in Ecuador in the period from 2000 to 2015. Method: An ecological study based on secondary official information sources. The results of the population mortality rates due to traffic accidents are presented, as well as motorization, accident, harmfulness, and fatality rates, in order to compare the temporal variations in the study period. Results: The population mortality rate showed an increasing tendency in the study period and correlated with motorization and harmfulness indexes (p <0.01). Conclusions: A greater effort is required to optimize the activities aimed at the compliance of the legal traffic laws and towards road safety education for the Ecuadorian population. Resumo Introdução: Os acidentes de trânsito constituem um problema prioritário em saúde pública na escala mundial, principalmente nos países de Latino-américa, como uma das primeiras causas de mortalidade na região. Objetivo: Estudar a evolução e tendência dos acidentes de trânsito no Equador no 2000 a 2015. Método: Estudo ecológico a partir de fontes secundárias de informação oficiais. Apresentam-se resultados das taxas de mortalidade populacional por acidentes de trânsito e os índices de motorização, acidentalidade, lesividade e letalidade, com o objeto de comparar as variações temporais no período de estudo. Resultados: A taxa de mortalidade populacional apresentou tendência a aumentar no período de estudo e correlacionada com os índices de motorização e lesividade (p<0.01). Conclusões: Requere-se maior esforço para otimizar as atividades destinadas ao cumprimento das regulamentações legais de trânsito e educação para a população equatoriana.
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9.

Revealing the Diversity of Introduced Germplasm in Ecuador: Towards a National Strategy to Improve Robusta.

Loor Solórzano, Rey Gastón; De Bellis, Fabien; Leroy, Thierry; Plaza, Luis; Guerrero, Hilton; Subia, Cristian; Calderón, Darío; Fernández, Fabián; Garzón, Iván; Lopez, Diana; Vera, Danilo
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Genetic resources of have been introduced in several tropical countries with potential for crop development. In Ecuador, the species has been cultivated since the mid-20th century. However, little is known about the diversity and genetic structure of introduced germplasm. This paper provides an overview of the genetic and phenotypic diversity of in Ecuador and some proposals for implementing a breeding program. Twelve SSR markers were used to analyze 1491 plants of grown in different living collections in Ecuador, compared to 29 genotypes representing the main genetic and geographic diversity groups identified within the species. Results indicated that most of the genotypes introduced are of Congolese origin, with accessions from both main subgroups, SG1 and SG2. Some genotypes were classed as hybrids between both subgroups. Substantial phenotypic diversity was also found, and correlations were observed with genetic diversity. Ecuadorian Robusta coffee displays wide genetic diversity and we propose some ways of improving Robusta in Ecuador. A breeding program could be based on three operations: the choice of elite clones, the introduction of new material from other countries (Ivory Coast, Uganda), and the creation of new hybrid material using genotypes from the different diversity groups.
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10.

Trail Making Test: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish-speaking pediatric population.

Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Rivera, D; Ramos-Usuga, D; Vergara-Moragues, E; Montero-López, E; Adana Díaz, L A; Aguayo Arelis, A; García-Guerrero, C E; García de la Cadena, C; Llerena Espezúa, X; Lara, L; Padilla-López, A; Rodriguez-Irizarry, W; Alcazar Tebar, C; Irías Escher, M J; Llibre Guerra, J J; Torales Cabrera, N; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Ferrer-Cascales, R
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To generate normative data for the Trail Making Test (TMT) in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. METHOD: The sample consisted of 3,337 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the TMT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. The TMT-A and TMT-B scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. RESULTS: The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age on both scores, such that as children needed less time to complete the test while they become older. TMT-A scores were affected by age2 for all countries except, Cuba, Guatemala, and Puerto. TMT-B scores were affected by age2 for all countries except, Guatemala and Puerto Rico. Models indicated that children whose parent(s) had a MLPE >12 years of education needed less time to complete the test compared to children whose parent(s) had a MLPE ≤12 years for Mexico and Paraguay in TMT-A scores; and Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, and Spain for TMT-B scores. Sex affected TMT-A scores for Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru, in that boys needed less time to complete the test than girls. Sex did not affect TMT-B scores. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate approach to interpret the TMT in pediatric populations.
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