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Identifying the social and environmental determinants of plague endemicity in Peru: insights from a case study in Ascope, La Libertad.

Rivière-Cinnamond, Ana; Santandreu, Alain; Luján, Anita; Mertens, Frederic; Espinoza, John Omar; Carpio, Yesenia; Bravo, Johnny; Gabastou, Jean-Marc
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Plague remains a public health problem in specific areas located in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Its prevention and control encompasses adequate clinical management and timely laboratory diagnosis. However, understanding communities' interaction with its surrounding ecosystem as well as the differences between community members and institutional stakeholders regarding the root causes of plague might contribute to understand its endemicity. We aim at bridging the traditionally separate biological and social sciences by elucidating communities' risk perception and identifying knowledge gaps between communities and stakeholders. This approach has been used in other areas but never in understanding plague endemicity, nor applied in the Latin American plague context. The objectives were to identify (i) plague risk perception at community level, (ii) perceived social and environmental determinants of plague endemicity, and (iii) institutions that need to be involved and actions needed to be taken as proposed by stakeholders and community members. The study was performed in 2015 and took place in Ascope rural province, La Libertad Region, in Peru, where the study areas are surrounded by intensive private sugarcane production. METHODS: We propose using a multi-level discourse analysis. Community households were randomly selected (n = 68). Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were applied. A stakeholder analysis was used to identify policy makers (n = 34). In-depth interviews were performed, recorded and transcribed. Descriptive variables were analyzed with SPSS®. Answers were coded following variables adapted from the Commission on Social Determinants of Health and analyzed with the assistance of ATLAS.ti®. RESULTS: Results showed that risk perception was low within the community. Policy-makers identified agriculture and sugarcane production as the root cause while community answers ranked the hygiene situation as the main cause. Stakeholders first ranked governmental sectors (education, housing, agriculture and transport) and the community prioritized the health sector. Social surveillance and improving prevention and control were first cited by policy-makers and community members, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The determinants of plague endemicity identified by the two groups differed. Similarly, actions and sectors needed to be involved in solving the problem varied. The gaps in understanding plague root causes between these two groups might hinder the efficiency of current plague prevention and control strategies.
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Role of health determinants in a measles outbreak in Ecuador: a case-control study with aggregated data.

Rivadeneira, María F; Bassanesi, Sérgio L; Fuchs, Sandra C
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: In 2011-2012, an outbreak of measles occurred in Ecuador. This study sought to ascertain which population characteristics were associated. METHODS: Case-control study of aggregate data. The unit of analysis was the parish (smallest geographic division). The national communicable disease surveillance database was used to identify 52 case parishes (with at least one confirmed case of measles) and 972 control parishes (no cases of measles). A hierarchical model was used to determine the association of measles with population characteristics and access to health care. RESULTS: Case parishes were mostly urban and had a higher proportion of children under 1 year of age, heads of household with higher educational attainment, larger indigenous population, lower rates of measles immunization, and lower rates of antenatal care visit attendance. On multivariate analysis, associations were found with educational attainment of head of household ≥8 years (OR: 0.29; 95%CI 0.15-0.57) and ≥1.4% indigenous population (OR: 3.29; 95%CI 1.63-6.68). Antenatal care visit attendance had a protective effect against measles (OR: 0.98; 95%CI 0.97-0.99). Measles vaccination was protective of the outbreak (OR: 0.97; 95%CI 0.95-0.98). The magnitude of these associations was modest, but represents the effect of single protective factors, capable of acting at the population level regardless of socioeconomic, biological, and environmental confounding factors. CONCLUSION: In Ecuador, the parishes with the highest percentage of indigenous populations and those with the lowest vaccination coverage were the most vulnerable during the measles outbreak.
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Applying the results based management framework to the CERCA multi-component project in adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a retrospective analysis.

Cordova-Pozo, Kathya; Hoopes, Andrea J; Cordova, Freddy; Vega, Bernardo; Segura, Zoyla; Hagens, Arnold
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH), problems such as unplanned pregnancies are complex and multifactorial, thus requiring multifaceted prevention interventions. Evaluating the impact of such interventions is important to ensure efficiency, effectiveness and accountability for project funders and community members. In this study, we propose Results Based Management (RBM) as a framework for project management, using the Community Embedded Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents (CERCA) as a case study for RBM. The CERCA Project (2010-2014) tested interventions to reduce adolescent pregnancy in three Latin American countries, Bolivia, Ecuador and Nicaragua. Activities were designed to increase adolescent SRH behaviors in four domains: communication with parents, partners and peers; access to SRH information; access to SRH services; and use of contraception. When the project ended, the outcome evaluation showed limited impact with concerns about accuracy of monitoring and attrition of participants. METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed a series of CERCA documents and related data sources. Key findings from these documents were organized within an RBM framework (planning, monitoring, and impact evaluation) to understand how CERCA methodology and performance might have reaped improved results. RESULTS: Strengths and weaknesses were identified in all three elements of the RBM framework. In Planning, the proposed Theory of Change (ToC) differed from that which was carried out in the intervention package. Each country implemented a different intervention package without articulated assumptions on how the activities of intervention would bring about change. In Monitoring, the project oversight was mainly based on administrative and financial requirements rather than monitoring fidelity and quality of intervention activities. In Impact Evaluation, the original CERCA evaluation assessed intervention effects among adolescents, without identifying success and failure factors related to the outcomes, the nature of the outcomes, or cost-effectiveness of interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis showed that multi-country projects are complex, entail risks in execution and require robust project management. RBM can be a useful tool to ensure a systematic approach at different phases within a multi-country setting.
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Comparison of two cash transfer strategies to prevent catastrophic costs for poor tuberculosis-affected households in low- and middle-income countries: An economic modelling study.

Rudgard, William E; Evans, Carlton A; Sweeney, Sedona; Wingfield, Tom; Lönnroth, Knut; Barreira, Draurio; Boccia, Delia
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Illness-related costs for patients with tuberculosis (TB) ≥20% of pre-illness annual household income predict adverse treatment outcomes and have been termed "catastrophic." Social protection initiatives, including cash transfers, are endorsed to help prevent catastrophic costs. With this aim, cash transfers may either be provided to defray TB-related costs of households with a confirmed TB diagnosis (termed a "TB-specific" approach); or to increase income of households with high TB risk to strengthen their economic resilience (termed a "TB-sensitive" approach). The impact of cash transfers provided with each of these approaches might vary. We undertook an economic modelling study from the patient perspective to compare the potential of these 2 cash transfer approaches to prevent catastrophic costs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Model inputs for 7 low- and middle-income countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, Tanzania, and Yemen) were retrieved by literature review and included countries' mean patient TB-related costs, mean household income, mean cash transfers, and estimated TB-specific and TB-sensitive target populations. Analyses were completed for drug-susceptible (DS) TB-related costs in all 7 out of 7 countries, and additionally for drug-resistant (DR) TB-related costs in 1 of the 7 countries with available data. All cost data were reported in 2013 international dollars ($). The target population for TB-specific cash transfers was poor households with a confirmed TB diagnosis, and for TB-sensitive cash transfers was poor households already targeted by countries' established poverty-reduction cash transfer programme. Cash transfers offered in countries, unrelated to TB, ranged from $217 to $1,091/year/household. Before cash transfers, DS TB-related costs were catastrophic in 6 out of 7 countries. If cash transfers were provided with a TB-specific approach, alone they would be insufficient to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs in 4 out of 6 countries, and when increased enough to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs would require a budget between $3.8 million (95% CI: $3.8 million-$3.8 million) and $75 million (95% CI: $50 million-$100 million) per country. If instead cash transfers were provided with a TB-sensitive approach, alone they would be insufficient to prevent DS TB-related catastrophic costs in any of the 6 countries, and when increased enough to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs would require a budget between $298 million (95% CI: $219 million-$378 million) and $165,367 million (95% CI: $134,085 million-$196,425 million) per country. DR TB-related costs were catastrophic before and after TB-specific or TB-sensitive cash transfers in 1 out of 1 countries. Sensitivity analyses showed our findings to be robust to imputation of missing TB-related cost components, and use of 10% or 30% instead of 20% as the threshold for measuring catastrophic costs. Key limitations were using national average data and not considering other health and social benefits of cash transfers. CONCLUSIONS: A TB-sensitive cash transfer approach to increase all poor households' income may have broad benefits by reducing poverty, but is unlikely to be as effective or affordable for preventing TB catastrophic costs as a TB-specific cash transfer approach to defray TB-related costs only in poor households with a confirmed TB diagnosis. Preventing DR TB-related catastrophic costs will require considerable additional investment whether a TB-sensitive or a TB-specific cash transfer approach is used.
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Edentulism and its relationship with self-rated health: secondary analysis of the SABE Ecuador 2009 study

Borda, Miguel Germán; Castellanos Perilla, Nicolás; Patiño, Judy Andrea; Castelblanco, Sandra; Cano, Carlos Alberto; Chavarro Carvajal, Diego; Pérez Zepeda, Mario
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Edentulism is related to a number of conditions in older adults, impacting their overall health status and thus their quality of life and relationship with the environment. At the same time, selfrated health has been shown to be an accurate marker of overall health status. However there is little information on how edentulism relates to selfrated health in older adults of Hispanic origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of edentulism on selfrated health in older adults. We analyzed data from SABE Ecuador 2009, a crosssectional study that included a probabilistic representative sample of 5,235 communitydwelling older adults aged 60 years or older. The dependent variable was selfrated health and the independent variable was edentulism, with age, sex and comorbidities as confounding variables.In order to test the independent association of edentulism with selfrated health, a logistic regression model was fitted. Out of the whole sample,77.13% of older adults reported having fair/poor selfrated health. We found an independent association between edentulism and selfrated health with incremental risk according to number of missingteeth,ranging from OR 1.35 (CI 95% 0.75 2.43) p 0.32 for less than 4 missing teeth to OR 1.88(1.06 3.32) p 0.029 for more than half of teeth missing. Even though oral health has long been considered separately from the rest of the body and mind, it is clear from our results that oral health is a very important component of global health status in the elderly (AU) El edentulismo se ha asociado con una gran variedad de condiciones en los adultos mayores afectando el estado general de su salud. Por lo tanto, afecta la calidad de vida de la persona y su relación con el medio ambiente. Por otro lado, la autoevaluación de la salud ha demostrado ser un marcador preciso del estado general de la salud. Sin embargo, hay escasa información sobre cómo estas dos condiciones se relacionan entre sí en adultos mayores de origen hispano. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto del edentulismo en la autoevaluación de la salud en adultos mayores. Se analizaron los datos de SABE Ecuador 2009, un estudio transversal que incluyó una muestra probabilística y representativa de 5.235 personas de 60 años de edad o más. La variable dependiente fue la salud autoevaluada y edentulismo fue la variable independiente, teniendo edad, sexo y comorbilidades como variables de confusión. Con el fin de probar la asociación independiente de edentulismo con la autoevaluación de la salud un modelo de regresión logística se ajustó. De la muestra entera, un 77,13% de los adultos mayores reportaron tener salud autoevaluada regular / pobre. Se encontró una asociación independiente entre edentulismo y salud autoevaluada con un riesgo incremental dependiendo del número de dientes ausentes de OR 1,35 (IC 95% 0,75 2,43) p 0,32, en adultos mayores con menos de 4 dientes ausentes hasta OR 1,88 (1,06 3,32) p 0,029, con más de la mitad de dientes ausentes. La salud oral se ha considerado de forma independiente del resto del cuerpo y la mente, es claro por nuestros resultados que la salud oral es un componente muy importante del estado de salud global en las personas mayores (AU)
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Policy windows for school-based health education about nutrition in Ecuador.

Torres, Irene
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The aim of this study is to identify opportunities in policy framing for critical health education (CHE) about food and nutrition in Ecuadorian schools. The research engages in a dialogue between the perspectives of critical nutrition and political ecology, as it seeks to clarify and develop a critical perspective on health promotion and health education. Critical nutrition studies and political ecology highlight the need to consider and also act upon the broader connections of, and influences on, food and nutrition. In a CHE approach, students learn to address the wider determinants of health through critical, democratic and collaborative processes, anchored in and supported by the local community. Based on a textual analysis of health, food and education policy documents, the study finds that concrete norms endorse a biomedical stance. Consequently, focus remains on prescribing individual behavior, and schools are regarded as intervention settings, rather than a site for generating change as would be the case of health promotion using a CHE viewpoint. However, the study finds the possibility for developing a CHE perspective in the overarching rationale of 'good living', which reaffirms a holistic understanding of health, the need for critical and plural participation and the importance of the community. It is possible that the notion of community participation could facilitate introducing a CHE approach in Ecuadorian schools.
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A Community-Based Positive Deviance/Hearth Infant and Young Child Nutrition Intervention in Ecuador Improved Diet and Reduced Underweight.

Roche, Marion L; Marquis, Grace S; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Blouin, Brittany; Sarsoza, Julieta; Kuhnlein, Harriet V
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: Underweight and stunting are serious problems in Ecuador that require interventions in the first 2 years of life. The researchers assessed the effectiveness of a Positive Deviance (PD)/Hearth community-based intervention using local foods to improve infant and young children's nutrition. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental nonrandomized study was conducted between March and October, 2009. SETTING: The intervention and study were implemented in the Ecuadorian highlands provinces of Chimborazo and Tungurahua. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty mother-child pairs in 6 intervention communities and 184 mother-child pairs in 9 comparison communities. INTERVENTION: Mothers met in participatory peer-led PD/Hearth cooking and nutrition education sessions for 12 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intake and nutritional status were collected at baseline and 6-month follow-up. ANALYSIS: Multiple linear and logistic regression were used for growth outcomes, and ANCOVA for mean dietary intakes. RESULTS: Mothers in the intervention were 1.3-5.7 times more likely to feed their children the promoted foods (P < .05). Children in the intervention consumed a higher percentage of recommended intakes for iron, zinc, vitamin A, protein, and energy (P < .05) at follow-up and had improvements in weight-for-age z-score (ß = .17; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.31). Likelihood of underweight was reduced for children in the intervention (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.96) CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The PD/Hearth interventions support mothers to improve infant and young children's nutrition practices and reduce underweight.
Resultados  1-10 de 699