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1.

Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare: A Latin American Perspective.

Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Uruguay. The tolls of disease-related malnutrition are high in both human and financial terms-increased infectious complications, higher incidence of pressure ulcers, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, greater costs of care, and increased risk of death. In an effort to draw attention to malnutrition in Latin American healthcare, a feedM.E. Latin American Study Group was formed to extend the reach and support the educational efforts of the feedM.E. Global Study Group. In this article, the feedM.E. Latin American Study Group shows that malnutrition incurs excessive costs to the healthcare systems, and the study group also presents evidence of how appropriate nutrition care can improve patients' clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. To achieve the benefits of nutrition for health throughout Latin America, the article presents feedM.E.'s simple and effective Nutrition Care Pathway in English and Spanish as a way to facilitate its use.
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2.

High-Dose Magnesium Sulfate Infusion for Severe Asthma in the Emergency Department: Efficacy Study.

Irazuzta, Jose E; Paredes, Fatima; Pavlicich, Viviana; Domínguez, Sara L
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a high-dose prolonged magnesium sulfate infusion in patients with severe, noninfectious-mediated asthma. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, open-label study. SETTING: Twenty-nine-bed pediatric emergency department located in a children's hospital in Asuncion, Paraguay. PATIENTS: All patients of 6-16 years old who failed to improve after 2 hours of standard therapy for asthma. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomized to receive magnesium sulfate, 50 mg/kg over 1 hour (bolus) or high-dose prolonged magnesium sulfate infusion of 50 mg/kg/hr for 4 hours (max, 8.000 mg/4 hr). Patients were monitored for cardiorespiratory complications. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Asthma severity was assessed via asthma scores and peak expiratory flow rates at 0-2-6 hours. The primary outcome was discharge to home at 24 hours. An analysis of the hospital length of stay and costs was a secondary outcome. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled, 19 in each group. The groups were of similar ages, past medical history of asthma, asthma score, and peak expiratory flow rate. There was a significant difference in the patients discharged at 24 hours: 47% in high-dose prolonged magnesium sulfate infusion (9/19) versus 10% (2/21) in the bolus group (p = 0.032) with an absolute risk reduction 37% (95% CI, 10-63) and a number needed to treat of 2.7 (95% CI, 1.6-9.5) to facilitate a discharge at or before 24 hours. The length of stay was shorter in the high-dose prolonged magnesium sulfate infusion group (mean ± SD in hr: high-dose prolonged magnesium sulfate infusion, 34.13 ± 19.54; bolus, 48.05 ± 18.72; p = 0.013; 95% CI, 1.3-26.5). The cost per patient in the high-dose prolonged magnesium sulfate infusion group was one third lower than the bolus group (mean ± SD: high-dose prolonged magnesium sulfate infusion, $603.16 ± 338.47; bolus, $834.37 ± 306.73; p < 0.016). There were no interventions or discontinuations of magnesium sulfate due to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The early utilization of high-dose prolonged magnesium sulfate infusion (50 mg/kg/hr/4 hr), for non-infectious mediated asthma, expedites discharges from the emergency department with significant reduction in healthcare cost.
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3.

A comparative assessment of avoidable blindness and visual impairment in seven Latin American countries: prevalence, coverage, and inequality.

Silva, Juan Carlos; Mújica, Oscar J; Vega, Enrique; Barcelo, Alberto; Lansingh, Van C; McLeod, Joan; Limburg, Hans
| Idioma(s): Inglés; Español
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comparative analysis of social inequalities in eye health and eye health care and generate baseline evidence for seven Latin American countries as a benchmarking exercise for monitoring progress toward three goals of the regional Plan of Action for the Prevention of Blindness and Visual Impairment: increasing eye health service coverage, minimizing barriers, and reducing eye health-related disease burden. METHODS: Results from cross-sectional eye health surveys conducted in six Latin American countries (Argentina, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Peru, and Uruguay) from 2011 to 2013 and recently published national surveys in Paraguay were analyzed. The magnitude of absolute and relative inequalities between countries in five dimensions of eye health across the population gradient defined by three equity stratifiers (educational attainment, literacy, and wealth) were explored using standard exploratory data analysis techniques. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of blindness in people 50 years old and older varied from 0.7% (95% CI: 0.4-1.0) in Argentina to 3.0% (95% CI: 2.3-3.6) in Panama. Overall prevalence of visual impairment (severe plus moderate) varied from 8.0% (95% CI: 6.5-11.0) in Uruguay to 14.3% (95% CI: 13.9-14.7) in El Salvador. The main reported cause of blindness was unoperated cataract and most cases of visual impairment were caused by uncorrected refractive error. Three countries had cataract surgical coverage of more than 90% for blind persons, and two-thirds of cataract-operated patients had good visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS: Blindness and moderate visual impairment prevalence were concentrated among the most socially disadvantaged, and cataract surgical coverage and cataract surgery optimal outcome were concentrated among the wealthiest. There is a need for policy action to increase services coverage and quality to achieve universality.
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4.

A comparative assessment of avoidable blindness and visual impairment in seven Latin American countries: prevalence, coverage, and inequality/ Una evaluación comparativa de la ceguera y la deficiencia visual evitables en siete países latinoamericanos: prevalencia, cobertura y desigualdades

Silva, Juan Carlos; McLeod, Joan; Mújica, Oscar J.; Vega, Enrique; Lansingh, Van C.; Barcelo, Alberto; Limburg, Hans
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Objective. To conduct a comparative analysis of social inequalities in eye health and eye health care and generate baseline evidence for seven Latin American countries as a benchmarking exercise for monitoring progress toward three goals of the regional Plan of Action for the Prevention of Blindness and Visual Impairment: increasing eye health service coverage, minimizing barriers, and reducing eye health-related disease burden. Methods. Results from cross-sectional eye health surveys conducted in six Latin American countries (Argentina, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Peru, and Uruguay) from 2011 to 2013 and recently published national surveys in Paraguay were analyzed. The magnitude of absolute and relative inequalities between countries in five dimensions of eye health across the population gradient defined by three equity stratifiers (educational attainment, literacy, and wealth) were explored using standard exploratory data analysis techniques. Results. Overall prevalence of blindness in people 50 years old and older varied from 0.7% (95% CI: 0.4-1.0) in Argentina to 3.0% (95% CI: 2.3-3.6) in Panama. Overall prevalence of visual impairment (severe plus moderate) varied from 8.0% (95% CI: 6.5-11.0) in Uruguay to 14.3% (95% CI: 13.9-14.7) in El Salvador. The main reported cause of blindness was unoperated cataract and most cases of visual impairment were caused by uncorrected refractive error. Three countries had cataract surgical coverage of more than 90% for blind persons, and two-thirds of cataract-operated patients had good visual acuity. Conclusions. Blindness and moderate visual impairment prevalence were concentrated among the most socially disadvantaged, and cataract surgical coverage and cataract surgery optimal outcome were concentrated among the wealthiest. There is a need for policy action to increase services coverage and quality to achieve universality. Objetivo. Realizar un análisis comparativo de las desigualdades sociales en materia de salud ocular y atención oftálmica, y generar datos probatorios de referencia de siete países latinoamericanos como un ejercicio de evaluación comparativa para vigilar el progreso hacia tres metas del Plan de Acción para la Prevención de la Ceguera y la Deficiencia Visual Evitables: el aumento de la cobertura de los servicios de salud ocular, la reducción al mínimo de las barreras y la disminución de la carga de morbilidad relacionada con la salud ocular. Métodos. Se analizaron los resultados de las encuestas transversales de salud ocular realizadas en seis países latinoamericanos (Argentina, El Salvador, Honduras, Panamá, Perú y Uruguay) desde el 2011 al 2013, y las encuestas nacionales del Paraguay recientemente publicadas. Mediante el empleo de técnicas ordinarias de análisis exploratorio de datos, se investigó la magnitud de las desigualdades absolutas y relativas entre países en cinco dimensiones de la salud ocular a través del gradiente poblacional definido por tres variables de estratificación de equidad (logro educativo, alfabetización y riqueza). Resultados. La prevalencia general de la ceguera en personas de 50 años de edad o mayores varió de 0,7% (intervalo de confianza (IC) de 95%: 0,4-1,0) en Argentina a 3,0% (IC95%: 2,3-3,6) en Panamá. La prevalencia general de la deficiencia visual (grave y moderada) varió de 8,0% (IC95%: 6,5-11,0) en Uruguay a 14,3% (IC95%: 13,9-14,7) en El Salvador. La principal causa notificada de ceguera fue la catarata no operada, mientras que la mayor parte de los casos de deficiencia visual fueron causados por un error de refracción no corregido. Tres países tenían una cobertura quirúrgica de la catarata de más de 90% para las personas ciegas, mientras que dos terceras partes de los pacientes operados de cataratas mostraban una buena agudeza visual. Conclusiones. Las prevalencias de la ceguera y la deficiencia visual moderada se concentraban en las personas más desfavorecidas socialmente, mientras que la cobertura quirúrgica de la catarata así como los resultados óptimos de esta intervención se concentraban en los más adinerados. Son necesarias acciones políticas para aumentar la cobertura y la calidad de los servicios con objeto de alcanzar la universalidad.
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5.

Is the cost the primary barrier for cataract surgery in Paraguay?

Burga, Harumi G; Hinds, Celeste N; Lansingh, Van C; Samudio, Margarita; Lewallen, Susan; Courtright, Paul; Duerksen, Rainald; Cibils, Pablo; Zegarra, Manuel
| Idioma(s): Inglés
PURPOSE: To determine if the cost was the main barrier to undergo cataract surgery in Paraguay. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study with patients screened in the 2011 Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) who had reported that the cost was the main barrier to undergo cataract surgery in Paraguay. All patients with operable cataract from the RAAB study and with registered telephone numbers were interviewed by telephone and were offered free surgery services. The patients who did not come for surgery were re-interviewed by telephone to analyze the reasons for not undergoing the operation. RESULTS: Out of 122 patients identified in the RAAB study with barriers for cataract surgery, 69 (56.6%) reported that the surgical fee was the main barrier; 52 (75.4%) of them had their telephone numbers registered. Thirty-six (69.2%) patients did not reside in the metropolitan area of Asunción. Six patients (12%), all from Asunción, agreed to undergo free surgery. Forty-six patients did not agree the free surgery mainly due to the costs associated with their transportation (n=31, 67%) and the travel costs of their companion (n=6, 13%). CONCLUSION: Surgery fee alone was not the major contributing factor for not undergoing cataract surgery. Place of residence and other indirect out-of-pocket expenses, such as transportation and companion-related costs appear to be more relevant. While further investigation is needed to assess if reducing the cost of transport will improve the uptake, the findings in this study suggest that a surgical package with all costs should be offered to patients of cataract surgical programs to increase cataract surgical coverage in Paraguay.
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6.

The right to health in Paraguay.

Torales, Julio; Villalba-Arias, Jorge; Ruiz-Díaz, César; Chávez, Emilia; Riego, Viviana
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Access to facilities, services and opportunities designed to meet the needs of health is a fundamental human right and is the key for people to enjoy other human rights. However, in Paraguay, this right is still far from becoming reality. The status of the country is the most disadvantaged when compared to the average condition of the Mercosur (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela). Health, as a human right, expands as a social, economic, and political matter. Inequality, poverty, exploitation, violence and injustice are at the root of its poor quality and the consequent shortcomings that emerge from it. Access to health in Paraguay must be further developed using a human rights framework linking it with improving quality of life for all citizens. Such an approach means that potentially powerful barriers and interests must be questioned and contested wherever appropriate and that political and economic priorities must change drastically.
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7.

Is the cost the primary barrier for cataract surgery in Paraguay?/ A taxa para a cirurgia é a principal barreira para a adesão à cirurgia de catarata no Paraguai?

Burga, Harumi G.; Lansingh, Van C.; Samudio, Margarita; Lewallen, Susan; Hinds, Celeste N.; Zegarra, Manuel; Duerksen, Rainald; Courtright, Paul; Cibils, Pablo
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Purpose: To determine if the cost was the main barrier to undergo cataract surgery in Paraguay. Methods: We conducted a cohort study with patients screened in the 2011 Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) who had reported that the cost was the main barrier to undergo cataract surgery in Paraguay. All patients with operable cataract from the RAAB study and with registered telephone numbers were interviewed by telephone and were offered free surgery services. The patients who did not come for surgery were re-interviewed by telephone to analyze the reasons for not undergoing the operation. Results: Out of 122 patients identified in the RAAB study with barriers for cataract surgery, 69 (56.6%) reported that the surgical fee was the main barrier; 52 (75.4%) of them had their telephone numbers registered. Thirty-six (69.2%) patients did not reside in the metropolitan area of Asunción. Six patients (12%), all from Asunción, agreed to undergo free surgery. Forty-six patients did not agree the free surgery mainly due to the costs associated with their transportation (n=31, 67%) and the travel costs of their companion (n=6, 13%). Conclusion: Surgery fee alone was not the major contributing factor for not undergoing cataract surgery. Place of residence and other indirect out-of-pocket expenses, such as transportation and companion-related costs appear to be more relevant. While further investigation is needed to assess if reducing the cost of transport will improve the uptake, the findings in this study suggest that a surgical package with all costs should be offered to patients of cataract surgical programs to increase cataract surgical coverage in Paraguay. . Objetivo: Determinar se a taxa de cirurgia é a principal barreira para a adesão à cirurgia de catarata no Paraguai. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte com pacientes identificados na Avaliação Rápida da Cegueira Evitável (RAAB) de 2011, que haviam informado ser a taxa para a cirurgia a principal barreira para se submeter à cirurgia de catarata no Paraguai. Todos os pacientes com catarata operável a partir do estudo RAAB, cujos números de telefone foram registrados, foram entrevistados por telefone e foi oferecida a cirurgia gratuitamente. Aqueles pacientes que não compareceram para a cirurgia foram então re-entrevistados por telefone para confirmar as suas razões para não fazer a cirurgia. Resultados: Das 122 pessoas identificadas no estudo RAAB com barreiras para a cirurgia de catarata, 69 (56,6%) relataram a taxa cirúrgica como a principal barreira para a cirurgia; 52 (75,4%) destes indivíduos tiveram seus números de telefone registrados. Trinta e seis (69,2%) pacientes não residiam na área metropolitana de Assunção. Seis pacientes (12%) aceitaram se submeter à cirurgia gratuita, todos eles de Assunção. Dos 46 pacientes que não aceitaram a cirurgia gratuita, as duas principais razões para o não comparecimento foi o custo de transporte (n=31, 67%) e os custos de viagem de seu companheiro (n=6, 13%). Conclusão: A taxa de cirurgia de catarata per se não foi a barreira principal. Local de residência e outras despesas pessoais indiretas, como transporte e custos relacionados à companhia parecem ser mais relevantes. Embora mais estudos sejam necessários para avaliar se a redução do custo do transporte vai melhorar a adesão, os resultados sugerem que um pacote cirúrgico que inclua todos os custos deve ser oferecido aos pacientes dos programas de ...
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8.

Escola Politécnica de Saúde Joaquim Venâncio: 10 anos como Centro Colaborador da OMS para a educação de técnicos em saúde/ Polytechnic School of Health Joaquim Venancio: 10 years as Centre WHO Collaborating for education of health technicians

Stauffer, Anakeila de Barros; Noronha, Ana Beatriz de; Ruela, Helifrancis Conde Groppo
| Idioma(s): Portugués
O livro traz um resumo das principais ações da EPSJV como Centro Colaborador da OMS para a Educação de Técnicos em Saúde, como o TCC Bolívia, Brasil e Paraguai, o Projeto Mercosul e o Plano de Melhora da Qualidade das Instituições Formadoras de Técnicos em Saúde. A publicação relata ainda outras ações de cooperação técnica com os países da América Latina e com os Países Africanos de Língua Portuguesa (Palops), além de outros países africanos, e traz informações sobre a Rede Internacional de Educação de Técnicos em Saúde (RETS), da qual a EPSJV é Secretaria Executiva, e suas sub-redes: Rede de Escolas Técnicas de Saúde da CPLP (RETS-CPLP) e Rede de Escolas Técnicas da Unasul (RETS-Unasul)...
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9.

Management of children with brain tumors in Paraguay.

Baskin, Jacquelyn L; Lezcano, Eva; Kim, Bo Sung; Figueredo, Diego; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Perez-Martinez, Antonio; Madero, Luis; Caniza, Miguela A; Howard, Scott C; Samudio, Angelica; Finlay, Jonathan L
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Cure rates among children with brain tumors differ between low-income and high-income countries. To evaluate causes of these differences, we analyzed aspects of care provided to pediatric neuro-oncology patients in a low middle-income South American country. METHODS: Three methods were used to evaluate treatment of children with brain tumors in Paraguay: (1) a quantitative needs assessment questionnaire for local treating physicians, (2) site visits to assess 3 tertiary care centers in Asunción and a satellite clinic in an underdeveloped area, and (3) interviews with health care workers from relevant disciplines to determine their perceptions of available resources. Treatment failure was defined as abandonment of therapy, relapse, or death. RESULTS: All 3 tertiary care facilities have access to chemotherapy and pediatric oncologists but lack training and tools for neuropathology and optimal neurosurgery. The 2 public hospitals also lack access to appropriate radiological tests and timely radiotherapy. These results demonstrate disparities in Paraguay, with rates of treatment failure ranging from 37% to 83% among the 3 facilities. CONCLUSIONS: National and center-specific deficiencies in resources to manage pediatric brain tumors contribute to poor outcomes in Paraguay and suggest that both national and center-specific interventions are warranted to improve care. Disparities in Paraguay reflect different levels of governmental and philanthropic support, program development, and socio-economic status of patients and families, which must be considered when developing targeted strategies to improve management. Effective targeted interventions can serve as a model to develop pediatric brain tumor programs in other low- and middle-income countries.
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10.

Calidad de vida en pacientes con cáncer de mama en tratamiento oncológico ambulatorio en el Instituto de Previsión Social en el año 2010/ Quality of life in patients with breast cancer undergoing ambulatory oncologic treatment at the Social Security Institute in 2010

Recalde, M. T; Samudio, Margarita
| Idioma(s): Español
El cáncer de mama es un problema de salud pública debido a su frecuencia y porque su diagnóstico y tratamiento alteran la calidad de vida de las mujeres afectadas en las dimensiones físicas, psicológicas, sociales y sexuales. En Paraguay, existen pocos estudios realizados sobre la calidad de vida de pacientes oncológicos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad de vida de 125 mujeres, entre 25 y 90 años con cáncer de mama, que fueron sometidas a mastectomía y quimioterapia ambulatoria en el Hospital Día del Servicio de Hematología del Hospital Central del Instituto de Previsión Social. Se les administró un cuestionario genérico de la calidad de vida de la Organización Europea para la Investigación y Tratamiento del Cáncer (EORTC QLQ-C30), y uno específico: módulo de cáncer de mama (QLQ-BR23). Las mujeres reportaron malestar físico (dolor, insomnio, cansancio), malestar psicológico y dificultades en sus relaciones sexuales. Se observó una buena correlación entre ambos instrumentos (r=0,77; valor p <0,0001), el QLQBR23 arrojó puntuaciones menores que el QLQ30 (68,0±13,4 frente 79,9±14,0). La dimensión salud general tuvo el promedio más bajo. Ninguna persona calificó su salud general como excelente. La etapa de la enfermedad y presencia de linfedema se relacionaron con menor puntuación de la calidad de vida. En general, las mujeres afirmaron que su salud general y calidad de vida eran buenas; demostrando capacidad para desempeñar actividades laborales o del hogar y sociales. Se concluye que la calidad de vida relacionada a la salud es favorable en las pacientes estudiadas
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