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Connectivity, prison environment and mental health among first-time male inmates in Mexico City.

Albertie, Ariel; Bourey, Christine; Stephenson, Rob; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Research from high-income countries suggests that prison populations are affected disproportionately by mental illness. However, little research has examined mental health among prisoners in low- and middle-income countries or associations between mental health and contextual factors surrounding the prison experience among susceptible first-time inmates in these settings. The current study examines associations between connectivity, prison environment and mental health (major depression and substance use) among novice male inmates (n = 593) in three Mexico City prisons. Severe depression (46.2%), any substance use (53.8%) and heavy substance use (45.7%) were prevalent. Among key co-variates, recent visitors were protective for severe depression, conjugal visits for any substance use and prison employment for heavy substance use. Physical attacks were associated with increased prevalence of depression, sentence time served with both any and heavy substance use and overcrowding with any substance use. These findings suggest the need for routine health assessments to improve identification and treatment programmes to minimise mental health burden. Addressing demographic risk factors as well as contextual determinants, by decreasing physical violence and overcrowding and supporting outside connections for prisoners, may help improve inmate mental health.
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Mercury and selenium concentrations in marine shrimps of NW Mexico: health risk assessment.

Frías-Espericueta, M G; Ramos-Magaña, B Y; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Escobar-Sánchez, O; Aguilar-Juárez, M; Izaguirre-Fierro, G; Osuna-Martínez, C C; Voltolina, D
| Idioma(s): Inglés
We determined total Hg and Se contents of hepatopancreas, exoskeleton, and muscle, and the Se:Hg molar ratios in the muscle of shrimps Farfantepenaeus californiensis and Litopenaeus stylirostris caught in NE Pacific Mexican waters. Total Hg mean values in muscle, hepatopancreas, and exoskeleton were 0.31 ± 0.26, 0.28 ± 0.29, and 0.24 ± 0.06 µg g , and 0.46 ± 0.46, 0.41 ± .034, and 0.24 ± 0.06 µg g for F. californiensis and L. stylirostris, respectively. In all tissues, the mean concentrations of Se tended to be close to one order of magnitude higher than the respective Hg values. In F. californiensis, the hepatopancreas of the larger commercial size had significantly (p < 0.05) higher Hg content than smaller sizes, but correlations size-Hg concentration calculated for each tissue of either species were not significant. The Hg content of the muscle of all commercial sizes of both species was lower than the permissible limit and their Se:Hg ratios in all sizes were higher than 1, indicating low risk for human consumption.
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Proceso educativo de enfermería para promover el autocuidado de la mujer durante el puerperio/ Nursing educational process to promote self-care of women during the postpartum period

Acevedo-Hernández, Beatriz Adriana; Pizarro, Norma; Moriel-Corral, Bernardina Leticia; González-Carrillo, Eliazar; Berumen-Burciaga, Luz Verónica
| Idioma(s): Español
Resumen: Introducción: en investigaciones referentes al cuidado de enfermería a la mujer durante el posparto, se han abordado diversas temáticas sin embargo, se identifica que la educación en el proceso de cuidado no ha sido una de ellas. Objetivo: explorar el desarrollo del proceso educativo del profesional de enfermería que promueva el autocuidado de la mujer durante el puerperio. Metodología: se realizó investigación cualitativa con el diario de campo, entrevista a profundidad y observación participante. El análisis se realizó con base en la Teoría Fundamentada de Strauss y Corbin. Resultados: socialmente el puerperio es un evento cotidiano influenciado por creencias personales, sociales y culturales, situación que el legado sociocultural no satisface con el cuidado genérico influenciado por la familia. Conclusiones: El puerperio es un evento único y transitorio en la mujer, mismo que se refleja en la actitud y las acciones que realiza con respecto al cuidado de sí misma y del recién nacido. La educación es una oportunidad para el profesional de enfermería en relación con la comunicación y educación de la mujer en puerperio.(AU) Abstract: Introduction: Research related to nursing care to women during the postpartum period have addressed various topics however, it is identified that education in the care process has not been one of them. Objective: To explore the development of educational process of professional nursing that promotes self-care of women during the postpartum period. Methods: Qualitative research was conducted with field notes, depth interviews and participant observation. The analysis was based on the Strauss and Corbin Grounded Theory. Results: Puerperium is socially a daily event influenced by personal, social and cultural beliefs, it is a socio-cultural legacy situation that does not meet with the generic influenced by family care. Conclusions: The postpartum period is a unique and temporary event in women; it is reflected in the attitude and the actions taken regarding care for herself and the newborn. Education is an opportunity for professional nursing in relation to communication and education of women in postpartum period.(AU)
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Preliminary human health risk assessment of arsenic and fluoride in tap water from Zacatecas, México.

Martínez-Acuña, Mónica I; Mercado-Reyes, Marisa; Alegría-Torres, Jorge A; Mejía-Saavedra, José J
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Zacatecas state is located in the central area of Mexico, where the underground water contains elevated quantities of natural arsenic and fluoride. In order to estimate health risk associated with human exposure to these pollutants, tap water samples from the southern-central region of the state were analyzed. Ninety percent of the samples exceeded the levels of arsenic established by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 0.01 mg/L and 43 % exceeded the limit established by the NOM-127-SSA1(1) of 0.025 mg/L. Forty-three percent of the samples had fluoride levels above the Mexican regulation limit of 1.5 mg/L (NOM-127-SSA1). We used WHO and EPA's health risk assessment method, we estimated 80 % of the inhabitants of sites studied could be exposed to arsenic levels higher than those recommended by EPA and the WHO, 22 % could be exposed to fluoride levels higher than those recommended by EPA, and 16 % of the local population may be in risk of suffering dental fluorosis.
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A Multisite Study of Environmental Correlates of Active Commuting to School in Mexican Children.

Jauregui, Alejandra; Soltero, Erica; Santos-Luna, René; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Barquera, Simon; Jáuregui, Edtna; Lévesque, Lucie; López-Taylor, Juan; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Lee, Rebecca
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: Mexican children often use active commuting to school (ACS). In order to maintain high levels of ACS it is important to understand correlates of ACS in this population. However, most evidence comes from high-income countries (HICs). We examined multilevel correlates of ACS in children attending public schools in 3 Mexican cities. METHODS: Information on 1191 children (grades 3 to 5) attending 26 schools was retrieved from questionnaires, neighborhood audits, and geographic information systems data. Multilevel logistic modeling was used to explore individual and environmental correlates of ACS at 400-m and 800-m buffers surrounding schools. RESULTS: Individual positive correlates for ACS included age (6-8 years vs 9-11 years, odds ratio [OR] = 1.5; 6-8 years vs ≥12 years: OR = 2.1) and ≥ 6 adults at home (OR = 2.0). At the 400-m buffer, more ACS was associated with lower walkability (OR = 0.87), presence of posted speed limits (< 6% vs > 12%: OR = 0.36) and crossing aids (< 6% vs 6-20%: OR = 0.25; > 20%: OR = 0.26), as well as higher sidewalk availability (< 70% vs > 90%: OR = 4.5). Similar relationships with speed limits and crossing aids were observed at the 800m buffer. CONCLUSIONS: Findings contrast with those reported in HICs, underscoring the importance of considering the local context when developing strategies to promote ACS. Future studies are needed to replicate these relationships and investigate the longitudinal impact of improving active transportation infrastructure and policies.
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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentration in soil from San Luis Potosi, Mexico: levels and ecological and human health risk characterization.

Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Orta-García, Sandra T; Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Jiménez-Avalos, Jorge Armando; González-Palomo, Ana K; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soils from the city of San Luis Potosi in Mexico and perform an ecological and human health risk characterization. In order to confirm the presence of PBDEs, outdoor surface soil samples were collected and the concentrations of PBDEs in urban, industrial, agricultural, and brick kiln industry areas were determined. The mean total PBDEs levels obtained in the study sites were 25.0 ± 39.5 µg/kg (geometric mean ± standard deviation) in the brick kiln industry zone; 34.5 ± 36.0 µg/kg in the urban zone; 8.00 ± 7.10 µg/kg in the industrial zone and 16.6 ± 15.3 µg/kg in the agricultural zone. The ecological and human health risk characterization showed relatively low-hazard quotient values. However, the moderately high PBDEs levels found in soils highlight the necessity to establish a systematic monitoring process for PBDEs in environmental and biological samples.
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Adult Children's Education and Parents' Functional Limitations in Mexico.

Yahirun, Jenjira J; Sheehan, Connor M; Hayward, Mark D
| Idioma(s): Inglés
This article asks how adult children's education influences older parents' physical health in Mexico, a context where older adults often lack access to institutional resources and rely on kin, primarily children, as a main source of support. Using logistic and negative binomial regression models and data from the first wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (N = 9,661), we find that parents whose children all completed high school are less likely to report any functional limitations as well as fewer limitations compared to parents with no children who completed high school. This association remains significant even after accounting for parent and offspring-level characteristics, including parents' income that accounts for children's financial transfers to parents. Future research should aim to understand the mechanisms that explain the association between adult children's education and changes to parents' health over time.
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Socio-Urban Spatial Patterns Associated with Dyslipidemia among Schoolchildren in the City of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

Aradillas-García, Celia; Palos-Lucio, Gabriela; Padrón-Salas, Aldanely
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The places where a child lives and attends to school are both major environmental and social determinants of its present and future health status. Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and some of their risk factors among child and adolescent populations are obesity and dyslipidemia, so finding the patterns of distribution of these risk factors by gender, type of school, area, and margination level is important to do health intervention focusing in their necessities to prevent diseases at younger ages. Because of that, a cross-sectional study was performed among elementary and junior high school students from public and private schools in six of the seven areas of the metropolitan zone of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Biochemical dyslipidemia indicators (triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein) and anthropometric data (weight and height) were obtained. Seventeen public schools and five private schools with a total of 383 students were included. More than half of the studied population (53.0%) had elevated triglyceride levels. A total of 330 students (86.2%) had normal levels of total cholesterol with a mean value of 141.7 mg/dl, and 202 schoolchildren (52.8%) had lower than acceptable levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with a mean value of 43.9 mg/dl. There were differences in the levels of high-density protein between the areas and the type of school where they had been studied. Finally, a total of 150 students (39.4%) had at least one altered lipid value and 103 participants (26.9%) had two altered values. Several students, despite their young age, showed a high prevalence of risk factors, so it is important to design programs according to their necessities.
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Environmental stress in the Gulf of Mexico and its potential impact on public health.

Singleton, B; Turner, J; Walter, L; Lathan, N; Thorpe, D; Ogbevoen, P; Daye, J; Alcorn, D; Wilson, S; Semien, J; Richard, T; Johnson, T; McCabe, K; Estrada, J J; Galvez, F; Velasco, C; Reiss, K
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest maritime oil spill in history resulting in the accumulation of genotoxic substances in the air, soil, and water. This has potential far-reaching health impacts on cleanup field workers and on the populations living in the contaminated coastal areas. We have employed portable airborne particulate matter samplers (SKC Biosampler Impinger) and a genetically engineered bacterial reporter system (umu-ChromoTest from EBPI) to determine levels of genotoxicity of air samples collected from highly contaminated areas of coastal Louisiana including Grand Isle, Port Fourchon, and Elmer's Island in the spring, summer and fall of 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. Air samples collected from a non-contaminated area, Sea Rim State Park, Texas, served as a control for background airborne genotoxic particles. In comparison to controls, air samples from the contaminated areas demonstrated highly significant increases in genotoxicity with the highest values registered during the month of July in 2011, 2013, and 2014, in all three locations. This seasonal trend was disrupted in 2012, when the highest genotoxicity values were detected in October, which correlated with hurricane Isaac landfall in late August of 2012, about five weeks before a routine collection of fall air samples. Our data demonstrate: (i) high levels of air genotoxicity in the monitored areas over last four years post DWH oil spill; (ii) airborne particulate genotoxicity peaks in summers and correlates with high temperatures and high humidity; and (iii) this seasonal trend was disrupted by the hurricane Isaac landfall, which further supports the concept of a continuous negative impact of the oil spill in this region.
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Health economic assessment of universal immunization of toddlers against Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) in Mexico.

Carlos, Fernando; Gómez, Jorge Alberto; Anaya, Pablo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has shifted from high to intermediate endemicity in Mexico, which may increase the risk of clinically significant HAV infections in older children, adolescents and adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of single-dose or 2-dose universal infant HAV vaccination strategy in Mexico, compared with no vaccination. A previously published dynamic model estimated the expected number of HAV cases with each strategy, and a decision model was used to estimate the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) expected with each strategy. The time horizon was 25 years (2012-2036) and the base case analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Mexican public health system. Costs and QALYs after the first year were discounted at 5% annually. Input data were taken from national databases and published sources where available. The single-dose HAV vaccination strategy had an incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) of Mexican peso (MXN) 2,270 per QALY gained, compared with no vaccination. The two-dose strategy had an ICUR of MXN 14,961/QALY compared with no vaccination, and an ICUR of MXN 78,280/QALY compared with the single-dose strategy. The estimated ICURs were below the threshold of 1 x Mexican gross domestic product per capita. When indirect costs were included (societal perspective), the single-dose HAV vaccination strategy would be expected to improve health outcomes and to be cost-saving. This analysis indicates that routine vaccination of toddlers against HAV would be cost-effective in Mexico using either a single-dose or a 2-dose vaccination strategy. GSK study identifier: HO-12-12877.
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