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Análisis de la mortalidad por VIH/SIDA en México en el periodo 1990-2013: ¿se cumplirá la meta establecida en los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM) para el año 2015?/ [Analysis of HIV/AIDS mortality in Mexico from 1990 to 2013: An assessment of the feasibility of millennium development goals by 2015].

Bravo-García, Enrique; Ortiz-Pérez, Hilda
| Idioma(s): Español
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the feasibility of achieving the goal of Mexican AIDS mortality in the Millennium Development Goals, nationally and by state. METHODS: For the period 1990-2013, we estimated annual rates of decline/increase in AIDS mortality according to five-year interval, using published data from the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía and Consejo Nacional de Población. Subsequently, we analyzed the feasibility of achieving the Millennium Development Goals target by 2015 by estimating the year in which the country and each state could achieve them. RESULTS: We estimated that only 13/32 states (40%) would achieve the goal established for AIDS mortality by Millennium Development Goals. Mexico, as a country, and the remaining 19 states (60%) did not will attain it. It is important to emphasize that seven states, rather than decrease, had an upward trend in mortality in the last five years analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The free and universal access to antiretroviral treatment against HIV/AIDS has failed to reduce mortality as expected in Mexico. It is urgent to improve access to HIV testing by using more aggressive strategies. Also, it is necessary to apply interventions to link and retain persons in care until they are virologically suppressed.
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Proceso educativo de enfermería para promover el autocuidado de la mujer durante el puerperio/ Nursing educational process to promote self-care of women during the postpartum period

Acevedo-Hernández, Beatriz Adriana; Pizarro, Norma; Moriel-Corral, Bernardina Leticia; González-Carrillo, Eliazar; Berumen-Burciaga, Luz Verónica
| Idioma(s): Español
Resumen: Introducción: en investigaciones referentes al cuidado de enfermería a la mujer durante el posparto, se han abordado diversas temáticas sin embargo, se identifica que la educación en el proceso de cuidado no ha sido una de ellas. Objetivo: explorar el desarrollo del proceso educativo del profesional de enfermería que promueva el autocuidado de la mujer durante el puerperio. Metodología: se realizó investigación cualitativa con el diario de campo, entrevista a profundidad y observación participante. El análisis se realizó con base en la Teoría Fundamentada de Strauss y Corbin. Resultados: socialmente el puerperio es un evento cotidiano influenciado por creencias personales, sociales y culturales, situación que el legado sociocultural no satisface con el cuidado genérico influenciado por la familia. Conclusiones: El puerperio es un evento único y transitorio en la mujer, mismo que se refleja en la actitud y las acciones que realiza con respecto al cuidado de sí misma y del recién nacido. La educación es una oportunidad para el profesional de enfermería en relación con la comunicación y educación de la mujer en puerperio.(AU) Abstract: Introduction: Research related to nursing care to women during the postpartum period have addressed various topics however, it is identified that education in the care process has not been one of them. Objective: To explore the development of educational process of professional nursing that promotes self-care of women during the postpartum period. Methods: Qualitative research was conducted with field notes, depth interviews and participant observation. The analysis was based on the Strauss and Corbin Grounded Theory. Results: Puerperium is socially a daily event influenced by personal, social and cultural beliefs, it is a socio-cultural legacy situation that does not meet with the generic influenced by family care. Conclusions: The postpartum period is a unique and temporary event in women; it is reflected in the attitude and the actions taken regarding care for herself and the newborn. Education is an opportunity for professional nursing in relation to communication and education of women in postpartum period.(AU)
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Evaporative concentration of arsenic in groundwater: health and environmental implications, La Laguna Region, Mexico.

Ortega-Guerrero, Adrián
| Idioma(s): Inglés
High arsenic concentrations in groundwater have been documented in La Laguna Region (LLR) in arid northern Mexico, where arsenic poisoning is both chronic and endemic. A heated debate has continued for decades on its origin. LLR consisted of a series of ancient connected lakes that developed at the end of a topographic depression under closed basin conditions. This study addresses the isotopic, chemical composition of the groundwater and geochemical modeling in the southeasternmost part of the LLR to determine the origin of arsenic. Groundwater samples were obtained from a carbonate and granular aquifers and from a clayey aquitard at terminal Viesca Lake. Results show that groundwater originated as meteoric water that reached the lakes mainly via abundant springs in the carbonate aquifer and perennial flooding of the Nazas-Aguanaval Rivers. Paleo-lake water underwent progressive evaporation as demonstrated by the enrichment of δ O, δ H and characteristic geochemical patterns in the granular aquifer and aquitard that resulted in highly saline (>90,000 mS/cm), arsenic-rich (up to 5000 µg/L) paleo-groundwater (>30,000 years BP). However, adsorption or co-precipitation on iron oxides, clay-mineral surfaces and organic carbon limited arsenic concentration in the groundwater. Arsenic-rich groundwater and other solutes are advancing progressively from the lacustrine margins toward the main granular aquifer, due to reversal of hydraulic gradients caused by intensive groundwater exploitation and the reduction in freshwater runoff provoked by dam construction on the main rivers. Desorption of arsenic will incorporate additional concentrations of arsenic into the groundwater and continue to have significant negative effects on human health and the environment.
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Identification of barriers and beliefs influencing engagement by adult and teen Mexican-Americans in oral health behaviors.

Aguirre-Zero, O; Westerhold, C; Goldsworthy, R; Maupome, G
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To identify barriers and beliefs influencing oral health and dental care-seeking among Mexican-Americans. RESEARCH DESIGN: Interviews and Likert-scale survey questions were utilized to explore urgent and preventive dental care-seeking, oral hygiene habits and lifestyle practices. Thirty-three interviews were conducted with 16 adults (ages 33-52), and 17 adolescents (ages 14-19). RESULTS: Teens identified the same main barriers to accessing dental care as adults: high cost, financial limitations and lack of insurance. Most Mexican-Americans agreed with the belief that everyone will need urgent dental treatment and the majority believed that going to a dentist in private practice instead of the Emergency Room was important. Although adults recognized the importance of preventive dental care, half reported being unlikely to seek such care while half of teens reported that they were likely to do so. Adults reported relying equally on themselves and on peers to make dental care decisions, while teens mostly depended on others to make decisions about urgent and preventive care. Virtually all respondents believed regular brushing to be important and many flossing too. A major barrier to flossing was being unsure of the proper technique. Another barrier to better oral health was not having seen messages encouraging changes in lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that Mexican-American teens and adults may experience oral health similarly. Teens do not have more positive oral health beliefs and encounter mostly the same barriers to care as adults.
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La asistencia materno-infantil en México entre 1921 y 1930 por parte del Departamento de Salubridad Pública./ [Mother and child attention in Mexico between 1921 and 1930 abstract by the Department of Public Health].

Espinosa de los Reyes-Sánchez, Víctor Manuel
| Idioma(s): Español
A series of actions during the years of 1921-1930 took place in Mexico City by the Department of Health in order to protect the women during the gravid puerperal state and the product of conception through the different stages. These activities were initiated based on a work presented in 1921 by Dr. Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes during the Child´s First Mexican Congress sponsored by the newspaper El Universal. In this work entitled "Childcare Intrauterine", the author proposes the foundation of pre- and post-birth clinics, with the intention of protecting the mother and fetus, increasing the birth rate, as well as improving the physical conditions of those born. These clinics were given the name of Hygiene Centers and under the supervision of Dr. Espinosa de los Reyes eight centers were founded, the first one in 1921 and the last one in 1930. The work contains, in full, the activities undertaken to protect the mother and child during the decade indicated.
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Addressing Social Determinants of Health in a Clinic Setting: The WellRx Pilot in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Page-Reeves, Janet; Kaufman, Will; Bleecker, Molly; Norris, Jeffrey; McCalmont, Kate; Ianakieva, Veneta; Ianakieva, Dessislava; Kaufman, Arthur
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Although it is known that the social determinants of health have a larger influence on health outcomes than health care, there currently is no structured way for primary care providers to identify and address nonmedical social needs experienced by patients seen in a clinic setting. We developed and piloted WellRx, an 11-question instrument used to screen 3048 patients for social determinants in 3 family medicine clinics over a 90-day period. Results showed that 46% of patients screened positive for at least 1 area of social need, and 63% of those had multiple needs. Most of these needs were previously unknown to the clinicians. Medical assistants and community health workers then offered to connect patients with appropriate services and resources to address the identified needs. The WellRx pilot demonstrated that it is feasible for a clinic to implement such an assessment system, that the assessment can reveal important information, and that having information about patients' social needs improves provider ease of practice. Demonstrated feasibility and favorable outcomes led to institutionalization of the WellRx process at a university teaching hospital and influenced the state department of health to require managed care organizations to have community health workers available to care for Medicaid patients.
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Recommended Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Reduced Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome in Mexican-Americans.

Wu, Shenghui; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Reininger, Belinda; McCormick, Joseph B
| Idioma(s): Inglés
PURPOSE: To measure the association between physical activity and the metabolic syndrome risk in Mexican-Americans. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (n = 3,414), a randomly selected Mexican-American cohort in Texas on the US-Mexico border. Moderate and vigorous physical activity was assessed using reliable and validated instruments. The metabolic syndrome was defined as having 3 or more metabolic abnormalities. RESULTS: One thousand five hundred and twenty-four participants of the cohort (45.02%) were found to have the metabolic syndrome. Compared to participants who did not meet US physical activity guidelines, participants who met physical activity guidelines of 150 moderate and vigorous minutes per week (≥ 600 MET adjusted minutes) had 36% lower risk for the metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42-0.98), and participants with total minutes per week of moderate and vigorous/strenuous activity greater than 743 MET adjusted minutes had 37% lower risk for the metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42-0.94) compared with their counterparts, after adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, body mass index, smoking and alcohol drinking status, total portions of fruit and vegetable intake, census tracts and blocks, and survey version for physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Meeting or exceeding physical activity guidelines significantly was inversely associated with the risk for the metabolic syndrome in Mexican-Americans. Improving levels of physical activity appears to be an effective target for the metabolic syndrome prevention and control among Mexican-Americans independent of other factors.
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Interpersonal and social correlates of depressive symptoms among Latinas in farmworker families living in North Carolina.

Roblyer, Martha I Zapata; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Suerken, Cynthia K; Trejo, Grisel; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Little research is available about the mental health of Latina women in farmworker families living in the southern United States, where Latino immigrants are relatively recent arrivals. This study examined interpersonal correlates (family conflict, family's outward orientation, and perceived discrimination) and social correlates (residential mobility and economic insecurity) of depressive symptoms and of meeting a threshold of depressive symptoms that could be clinically significant (a cut-point of 10 or higher in a short Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale) among Latinas in farmworker families living in North Carolina. Data were collected from April 19, 2011 to April 20, 2012 as part of Niños Sanos, a prospective study of Latino women and children (N = 248). Regression models showed that exposure to family conflict, perceived discrimination, and economic insecurity were associated with more depressive symptoms. Likewise, perceived discrimination and economic insecurity were associated with a threshold of depressive symptoms that could be clinically significant, above and beyond family conflict. The findings suggested that policies that lessen the discrimination of farmworkers and their families and reduce economic insecurity, as well as interventions that support positive family functioning, might be beneficial for the mental health of Latinas in farmworker families living in new immigrant destinations.
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The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

Valle, Adolfo Martinez
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.
Resultados  1-10 de 2.738