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1.

Results From Venezuela's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Méndez-Perez, Betty; Morales, Vanessa Castro; Martín-Rojo, Joana; Tristan, Bianca; Bandy, Amilid Torín; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Macías-Tomei, Coromoto; López-Blanco, Mercedes
| Idioma(s): Inglés
BACKGROUND: The Venezuelan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of information related to physical activity in Venezuela. It provides a compilation of existing information throughout the country and assesses how well it is doing at promoting opportunities for children and youth. The aim of this article is to summarize the information available. METHODS: Thirteen physical activity indicators were graded by a committee of experts using letters A to F (A, the highest, to F, the lowest) based on national surveys, peer review studies, and policy documents. RESULTS: Some indicators report incomplete information or a lack of data. Overweight and Obesity were classified as A; Body Composition and Nongovernmental Organization Policies as B; Municipal Level Policies as C; and Overall Physical Activity Levels and National Level Policies as D. CONCLUSIONS: 63% of children and youth have low physical activity levels. Venezuela needs to undergo a process of articulation between the several existing initiatives, and for said purposes, political will and a methodological effort is required. Investments, infrastructure, and opportunities will be more equal for all children and youth if more cooperation between institutions is developed and communication strategies are applied.
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3.

Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare: A Latin American Perspective.

Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Uruguay. The tolls of disease-related malnutrition are high in both human and financial terms-increased infectious complications, higher incidence of pressure ulcers, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, greater costs of care, and increased risk of death. In an effort to draw attention to malnutrition in Latin American healthcare, a feedM.E. Latin American Study Group was formed to extend the reach and support the educational efforts of the feedM.E. Global Study Group. In this article, the feedM.E. Latin American Study Group shows that malnutrition incurs excessive costs to the healthcare systems, and the study group also presents evidence of how appropriate nutrition care can improve patients' clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. To achieve the benefits of nutrition for health throughout Latin America, the article presents feedM.E.'s simple and effective Nutrition Care Pathway in English and Spanish as a way to facilitate its use.
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4.

In wealthier countries, patients perceive worse impact of the disease although they have lower objectively assessed disease activity: results from the cross-sectional COMORA study.

Putrik, Polina; Ramiro, Sofia; Hifinger, Monika; Keszei, Andras P; Hmamouchi, Ihsane; Dougados, Maxime; Gossec, Laure; Boonen, Annelies
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVES: To investigate patterns in patient-reported and physician-reported disease outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from countries with different level of socioeconomic development. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional multinational study (COMOrbidities in RA) were used. Contribution of socioeconomic welfare (gross domestic product (GDP); low vs high) of country of residence to physician-reported (tender joint count, swollen joint count (SJC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, disease activity score based on 28 joints assessment (DAS28)-3v based on these three components and physician global assessment) and patient-reported (modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ), patient global assessment and fatigue) disease outcomes was explored in linear regressions, adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: In total, 3920 patients with RA from 17 countries (30 to 411 patients per country) were included, with mean age of 56 years (SD13) and 82% women. Mean SJC varied between 6.7 (Morocco) and 0.9 (The Netherlands), mean mHAQ ranged between 0.7 (Taiwan) and 1.5 (The Netherlands). Venezuela had the lowest (1.7) and the Netherlands the highest score on fatigue (5.0). In fully adjusted models, lower GDP was associated with worse physician-reported outcomes (1.85 and 2.84 more swollen and tender joints, respectively, and 1.0 point higher DAS28-3v), but only slightly worse performance-based patient-reported outcome (0.15 higher mHAQ), and with better evaluation-based patient-reported outcomes (0.43 and 0.97 points lower on patient global assessment and fatigue, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with RA, important differences in physician-reported and patient-reported outcomes across countries were seen, with overall a paradox of worse physician-reported outcomes but better patient-reported outcomes in low-income countries, while results indicate that these outcomes in multinational studies should be interpreted with caution. Research on explanatory factors of this paradox should include non-disease driven cultural factors influencing health.
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5.

Efecto de la inteligencia emocional y flujo en el trabajo sobre estresores y bienestar psicológico: análisis de ruta en docentes/ Efeito da inteligência emocional e fluxo de trabalho sobre estressores e bem-estar psicológico: análise de rota em docentes/ Effect of emotional intelligence and immersion in work on stressors and psychological wellbeing: Path analysis in professors

Millán de Lange, Anthony Constant; García-Álvarez, Diego de J; D'Aubeterre López, María Eugenia
| Idioma(s): Español
Se realizó un estudio explicativo y transversal sobre una muestra de 199 docentes universitarios de Venezuela, con el fin de confirmar el valor de la inteligencia emocional y la disposición a fluir en el trabajo como factores de protección personal ante las diferentes fuentes de estrés laboral y como promotores del bienestar psicológico. Los resultados se analizaron, a partir de dos análisis de ruta con la estrategia de modelos rivales, e indicaron que efectivamente ambas variables poseen un efecto de protección sobre algunas fuentes de estrés laboral y de promoción del bienestar psicológico. Eso coincide con lo estipulado teóricamente por el modelo PERMA, del cual surgieron las hipótesis... An explanatory, cross-cutting study was carried out in a sample of 199 university professors in Venezuela, in order to confirm the value of emotional intelligence and immersion in work as personal protection factors against the different sources of workplace stress and as promoters of psychological wellbeing. The results, which were analyzed on the basis of two path analyses using the rival models strategy, showed that, in fact, both variables protect against some sources of workplace stress and promote psychological wellbeing. This coincides with the theoretical stipulations of the PERMA model, which gave rise to the hypotheses... Realizou-se um estudo explicativo e transversal sobre uma amostra de 199 docentes universitários da Venezuela, a fim de confirmar o valor da inteligência emocional e a disposição a fluir no trabalho como fatores de proteção pessoal ante as diferentes fontes de estresse laboral e como promotores do bem-estar psicológico. Os resultados foram analisados a partir de duas análises de rota com a estratégia de modelos rivais, e indicaram que efetivamente ambas as variáveis possuem um efeito de proteção sobre algumas fontes de estresse laboral e de promoção do bem-estar psicológico. Isso coincide com o estipulado teoricamente pelo modelo PERMA, do qual surgiram as hipóteses...
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6.

Reflexões sobre a saúde bucal no Brasil/ Reflexions on oral health in Brazil

Pimentel Gomes Fernandes Vieira Meyer, Anya; Vieira de Lima Saintrain, Maria
| Idioma(s): Portugués
No último século, numerosos avanços em pesquisas e tecnologias biomédicas na área odontológica foram responsáveis por melhorias na saúde e no bem-estar das populações(1). Entretanto, apesar das grandes realizações no âmbito da saúde bucal, muitos problemas ainda permanecem, como a cárie dental, a mais comum das doenças bucais. A prevalência da cárie dentária apresentou uma tendência de declínio nas três últimas décadas do século XX e no início do século XXI, especialmente nos países desenvolvidos, contudo, ainda é considerada uma importante questão de saúde pública mundial, afetando de 60% a 90% das crianças em idade escolar, além da vasta maioria dos adultos(2-4)No levantamento epidemiológico SB Brasil 2010(5), foram observadas melhoras na condição bucal dos brasileiros, porém, ainda é alta a prevalência de cárie. Entre os adolescentes de 15 a 19 anos, por exemplo, a média de dentes afetados foi de 4,25 mais que o dobro do número médio encontrado aos 12 anos. Entre os idosos de 65a 74 anos, o número de dentes cariados, perdidos e obturados (CPO) praticamente não se alterou, ficando em 27,5 em 2010, enquanto, em 2003, a média era de 27,8.Em termos internacionais, de acordo com o Ministério da Saúde brasileiro(5),um estudo realizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) em 2004 indicou que, nos dados de 188 países, o valor médio do CPO aos 12 anos foi de 1,6, sendonas Américas a média de 2,8, enquanto na Europa ficou em 1,6. Na América do Sul,somente a Venezuela apresentou média de CPO aos 12 anos semelhante à brasileira(2,1)...
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7.

América Latina frente a los determinantes sociales de la salud: Políticas públicas implementadas/ Latin-American public policy regarding social determinants of health

García-Ramírez, Jorge A; Vélez-Álvarez, Consuelo
| Idioma(s): Español
RESUMEN El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar las políticas públicas que se han desarrollado en los países latinoamericanos frente a la intervención de los Determinantes Sociales de la Salud. Para esto se realizó una revisión temática de artículos científicos a partir de bases de datos y de documentos oficiales de organismos multilaterales y de los Ministerios de Salud de los 22 países latinoamericanos. Se hace un recuento del concepto e historia de los determinantes sociales de la salud de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y del trabajo desarrollado en el ámbito mundial en regiones como Europa, así como en Latinoamérica. Posteriormente se describen como ejemplos los casos de ocho países (Argentina, Brasil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, México y Venezuela) y las políticas públicas desarrolladas en el área de estudio. Se concluye que en Latinoamérica hay un panorama desigual de aplicación de políticas de abordaje hacia los determinantes sociales de la salud así como una intervención segmentada principalmente hacia los determinantes intermedios de la salud, sin tener en cuenta la intervención integral desde diferentes puntos de entrada, según el marco conceptual. ABSTRACT The study was aimed at identifying Latin-American countries’ public policy which has been related to the social determinants of health. A topic review was thus made of papers kept in the 22 Latin-American countries’ databases and official documents issued by their multilateral organisations and ministries of health. The World Health Organization’s concept of the social determinants of health has been summarised and a history given of the pertinent work developed worldwide in regions such as Europe and Latin-America. Public policy regarding the field of study in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, México and Venezuela has been described. It was concluded that Latin-America provides a panorama of inequality regarding the application of policy concerning the social determinants of health and that there was segmented intervention, mainly regarding intermediate determinants of health, without taking an integrated approach from different entrance points into account, according to the stated conceptual framework.
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8.

Cirugía mínimamente invasiva en Venezuela: estado actual de la atención pública/ Minimally invasive surgery in Venezuela: public attention current status

Martín Piñate, Felipe
| Idioma(s): Español
El propósito del trabajo es describir el estado actual de la cirugía mínimamente invasiva (CMI) en Venezuela, con el fin último de incentivar políticas públicas dirigidas a dotar a los hospitales del país con el recurso humano e instrumental necesarios para el desarrollo de procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos destinado a solucionar el problema que representa el cupo quirúrgico en la población de menores recursos económicos. La metodología de investigación está guiada por el paradigma positivista lógico, de enfoque empirico análitico, de raíz epistémica positivista, utilizando lenguaje cuantitativo. Desde el punto de vista heurístico la información procede del Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Salud, Sociedad Venezolana de Cirugía, círculos quirúrgicos, bibliografía nacional e internacional. El estudio de la investigación de campo y del marco teórico referencial nos permite contextualizar el tema y generar conclusiones, así como recomendaciones acordes con el fenómeno de estudio The purpose of the study is to describe the minimally invasive surgery current state in Venezuela with the last end of motivate public policies toward provide the country's hospitals with the human resource and the necessary instrumental for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in order to solve the problem of the surgical needs in the population with low economic resources. The research methodology is guide by the logic positivist paradigm, with the empirical analytic focus and using quantitative language. From the heuristic point of view the data comes from the popular health agency. Venezuelan surgical society, surgical circles, national and international bibliograpy. The field research study permits to contextualize the theme and generate preliminary considerations and also recommendations in concordance with the phenomenon in study
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9.

Knowledge and attitudes as predictors of cervical cancer screening among women in a Venezuelan urban area/ Conocimientos y actitudes como predictores en la pesquisa del cuello uterino en mujeres en un área urbana venezolana

Núñez-Troconis, José; Tulliani, Elisabetta; Martínez, María Gabriela; Fernández, Ninorka
| Idioma(s): Inglés
The purpose of this research was to investigate how the knowledge and attitudes have influence in Cervical Cancer (CC) screening among Venezuelan women, by realizing a cross-sectional descriptive study based on a structured non disguised questionnaire with closed ended questions: yes/no questions and multiple choices. The survey was performed on 691 volunteers, of which 595 were analyzed. Each patient was asked to fill in the questionnaire. Four hundred ninety three of 522 (94.4%) answered that they knew that Pap smear is for screening CC. Knowledge of Pap smear was statistically significant when it was compared to high educational level (p<0.0001) although 185 (76%) of 244 low educational level interviewees answered that they had the knowledge that the Pap smear is used for screening of CC. Four hundred four of 504 (84.7%; p<0.001) mentioned that they had a Pap smear at least once. One hundred ninety two (38.1%) of 504 women were adherent to an annual Pap smear test and more than half of the women (n=337, 67%) had the last Pap smear in the last 1-3 years. Women with a high educational level showed higher adherence to the annual Pap smear screening (68.2%). Two hundred fifty seven (87.4%) of 294 said that they remembered when they got the information about Pap smear. The conclusions of this investigation were that our women were aware about Pap smear, had a good attitude to have a Pap smear and to be adherent to a regularly performed screening. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar como el conocimiento y las actitudes que poseen las mujeres venezolanas son elementos que influencian la pesquisa del Cáncer del Cuello Uterino (CCU). La investigación consistió en un estudio descriptivo transversal basado en un cuestionario estructurado no disfrazado con preguntas cerradas, usando respuestas si/no y múltiple escogencia. Se entrevistaron 691 mujeres; 595 fueron analizadas. Cada paciente llenó el cuestionario. Cuatrocientos noventa y tres de 522 (94,4%) respondieron que sabía que la citología cervico-vaginal (CCV) es para la pesquisa del CCU. El conocimiento sobre la utilidad de la CCV fue estadísticamente significativo cuando se comparó el nivel educacional de las entrevistadas (p<0,0001), sin embargo, 185 (76%) de 244 mujeres con bajo nivel educacional respondieron que ellas tenían el conocimiento sobre la utilidad de la CCV en la pesquisa del CCU. Cuatrocientos cuatro de 595 (84,7%; p<0,001) mencionaron que ellas se había realizado al menos una CCV. Ciento noventa y dos de 504 entrevistadas (38,1%) se realizaban una CCV anual y más de la mitad (n=337, 67%) de ellas se practicaban la CCV entre 1-3 años. Las mujeres con un nivel educacional elevado fueron más inclinadas a realizarse su CCV anual (68,2%). Doscientos cincuenta y siete (87,4%) de 294 entrevistadas mencionaron que ellas recordaban cuando se enteraron de la utilidad de la CCV. Las conclusiones de esta investigación fueron que nuestras mujeres están concientes de la utilidad de la CCV, tienen una buena actitud a realizársela, así mismo de practicársela regularmente.
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