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The traffic signature on the vertical PM profile: Environmental and health risks within an urban roadside environment.

Pateraki, St; Manousakas, M; Bairachtari, K; Kantarelou, V; Eleftheriadis, K; Vasilakos, Ch; Assimakopoulos, V D; Maggos, Th
| Idioma(s): Inglés
In an attempt to investigate the traffic-impacted vertical aerosols profile and its relationship with potential carcinogenicity and/or mutagenicity, samples of different sized airborne particles were collected in parallel at the 1st and 5th floor of a 19 m high building located next to one of the busiest roads of Athens. The maximum daily concentrations were 65.9, 42.5 and 38.5 µg/m , for PM , PM and PM , respectively. The vertical concentration ratio decreased with increasing height verifying the role of the characteristics of the area (1st/5th floor: 1.21, 1.13, 1.09 for PM , PM and PM , respectively). Chemically, strengthening the previous hypothesis, the collected particles were mainly carbonaceous (68%-93%) with the maximum budget of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons being recorded near the surface (1st/5th floor: 1.84, 1.07, 1.15 for PM , PM and PM , respectively). The detected PM-bound PAHs along with the elements as well as the carbonaceous and ionic constituents were used in a source apportionment study. Exhaust and non-exhaust emissions, a mixed source of biomass burning and high temperature combustion processes (natural gas, gasoline/diesel engines), sea salt, secondary and soil particles were identified as the major contributing sources to the PM pollution of the investigated area. With respect to the health hazards, the calculation of the Benzo[a]Pyrene toxicity equivalency factors underlined the importance of the height of residence in buildings for the level of the exposure (1st/5th floor: B[a]P : 1.82, 1.12, 1.10, B[a]P : 1.85, 1.13, 1.09 for PM , PM and PM , respectively). Finally, despite its verified significance as a surrogate compound for the mixture of the hydrocarbons (its contribution up to 72%, 79% on the level of the 1st and 5th floor, respectively), the importance of the incorporation of PAH species in addition to B[a]P when assessing PAH toxicity was clearly documented.
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Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Health: A Declaration from the Vatican.

Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Samet, Jonathan; Neira, Maria; Sorondo, Marcelo Sanchez
| Idioma(s): Inglés
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Growth performance, feeding behavior, health status, and blood metabolites of environmentally heat-loaded Holstein dairy calves fed diets supplemented with chromium.

Kargar, S; Mousavi, F; Karimi-Dehkordi, S; Ghaffari, M H
| Idioma(s): Inglés
We investigated the effect of Cr supplementation on growth performance, feeding behavior, health status, and blood metabolites of summer-exposed dairy calves during the pre- and postweaning periods. A total of 24 newborn Holstein female calves (1 d of age; 42.1 ± 0.89 kg of body weight) were assigned randomly to a control group (no Cr supplement; Cr-) or a Cr group (Cr+) receiving 0.05 mg of Cr/kg of body weight . During the study period, the average maximum temperature-humidity index was 81.3 units, indicating a high environmental heat load. Chromium was provided in colostrum and milk during the preweaning period, and in the starter feed during the postweaning period. Calves had free access to fresh water and starter feed throughout the experiment and were weaned on d 63. Starter feed intake and total dry matter intake were greater in Cr+ calves. Despite decreased meal frequency in Cr+ calves, during the preweaning period the starter feed intake increased due to increases in meal duration and meal size and a tendency for greater meal interval. Increased postweaning starter intake in Cr+ calves was attributed to a tendency for an increase in meal duration. Chromium-supplemented calves had greater overall weight gain, but their feed efficiency and rectal temperature were not affected by Cr treatment. Chromium supplementation tended to increase the heart girth during the preweaning and overall periods and increased the hip width during the postweaning and overall periods. Respiration rates were lower in Cr+ calves than Cr- calves during the preweaning and overall periods. During the preweaning period, the time spent in eating and ruminating per 12-h period was not affected by Cr treatment. During the postweaning period, the rumination time (min per 12-h period) was unaffected but total eating time (min per 12-h period) increased in Cr+ calves. Times spent resting, drinking, standing, lying, and in nonnutritive oral behaviors were not affected by treatments during the pre- and postweaning periods. Chromium supplementation had no effects on serum concentrations of cortisol, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine measured at weaning or the end of the trial. The Cr+ calves tended to have higher serum concentrations of glucose and a higher ratio of insulin to glucose measured at the end of the trial. In conclusion, Cr supplementation of both liquid and solid feeds improved growth performance in summer-exposed calves as a result of reduced respiration rate and increased feed intake; however, no beneficial effects were found on feed efficiency and insulin metabolism.
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The rising health, social and economic costs of Australia's ageing prisoner population.

Ginnivan, Natasha A; Butler, Tony G; Withall, Adrienne N
| Idioma(s): Inglés
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Socio-economic differentials in minimum dietary diversity among young children in South-East Asia: evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys.

Harvey, Chloe M; Newell, Marie-Louise; Padmadas, Sabu S
| Idioma(s): Inglés
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the socio-economic differentials underlying minimum dietary diversity (MDD) among children aged 6-23 months in three economically diverse South-East Asian countries. DESIGN: The outcome variable MDD was defined as the proportion of children aged 6-23 months who received foods from four of the seven recommended food groups within the 24 h prior to interview. The association between socio-economic factors and MDD, adjusting for relevant characteristics, was examined using logistic regression. SETTING: We used cross-sectional population data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys from Cambodia (2014), Myanmar (2015-16) and Indonesia (2012). SUBJECTS: Total of 8364 children aged 6-23 months. RESULTS: Approximately half of all children met the MDD, varying from 47·7 % in Cambodia (n 1023) to 58·2 % in Indonesia (n 2907) and 24·6 % in Myanmar (n 301). The likelihood (adjusted OR; 95 % CI) of meeting MDD increased for children in the richest households (Cambodia: 2·4; 1·7, 3·4; Myanmar: 1·8; 1·1, 3·0; Indonesia: 2·0; 1·6, 2·5) and those residing in urban areas (Cambodia: 1·4; 1·1, 1·9; Myanmar: 1·7; 1·2, 2·4; Indonesia: 1·7; 1·5, 1·9). MDD deprivation was most severe among children from the poorest households in rural areas. The association between mother's labour force participation and MDD was positive in all three countries but reached significance only in Indonesia (1·3; 1·1, 1·5). CONCLUSIONS: MDD deprivation among young children was significantly high in socio-economically disadvantaged families in all three study settings. MDD requirements are not being met for approximately half of young children in these three South-East Asian countries.
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Confronting The Effects Of Climate Change On Health In California.

Tuller, David
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Vulnerable communities have been forced to address the deepening impact of severe weather events on residents' well-being.
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Rationale and Design of Distance-Based Training to Persuade Local Health Department Employees That Addressing Social Determinants of Health Is Their Job, Too.

Bernstein, Melissa F; Cinnick, Samantha E; Franzosa, Emily; Murrman, Marita K; Freudenberg, Nicholas
| Idioma(s): Inglés
Public health workers in local health departments frequently rate skills needed to address social determinants of health among their top training needs. These workers have the ability to impact social determinants of health, but many may believe this responsibility is not part of their job description or that they do not have the necessary skills or resources. Guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion and employing the case study method of instruction, the Region 2 Public Health Training Center designed a 45-minute, self-paced, online training module, titled Strategies to Advance Health Equity: How Health Departments Can Promote Living Wages, to persuade public health workers that addressing social determinants of health, especially those related to income disparities, is part of their day-to-day responsibilities. This article describes the module design, promising preliminary assessment data, and the formal evaluation plan.
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Políticas de zoonosis en Colombia: del Código Sanitario a la salud ambiental./ [Policies of zoonosis in Colombia: from health Code to environmental health].

Agudelo-Suárez, Ángela N; Villamil-Jiménez, Luis C
| Idioma(s): Español
OBJECTIVE : To analyze public policies of zoonosis in Colombia, in the period of 1975 to 2014, as State responses. METHODOLOGY : Used the policy cycle analysis approach or sequential approach. This analysis was carried out by means of the following aspects: content, processes, actors, and vertical and horizontal relationships between policies. RESULTS : Zoonosis policies were very different in scope, contents and forms, and results are part of a history of successes and failures, who have only managed to partially transform the general and regional overview of the zoonosis. CONCLUSIONS : The implementation of decisions that have operational scope is relatively slow and scattered in areas of zoonosis in the country. A major achievement has been the shift from policies that are individualized to the great policy of health environmental-PISA.
Resultados  1-10 de 176.823