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Congenital rubella syndrome: a matter of concern / Síndrome de rubéola congénita: un motivo de preocupación

Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos; Torner, Nuria; Rodríguez-González, Fayna.
Rev. panam. salud pública; 37(3): 179-186, Mar. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-746678
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), an important cause of severe birth defects, remains a public health problem in a significant number of countries. Therefore, global health experts encourage use of rubella vaccination, with the primary aim of preventing CRS. While large-scale rubella vaccination during the last decade has drastically reduced or eliminated both the virus and CRS in Europe and the Americas, many countries in Africa, South-East Asia, the Eastern Mediterranean, and the Western Pacific have not yet incorporated any type of rubella-containing vaccine into their immunization schedule. As a result, through travel and migration, rubella has been imported into countries that had successfully eliminated the virus, leading to outbreaks and the reestablishment of endemic transmission. The objective of this study was to identify the key factors required for CRS elimination (prevalence reduction, vaccination strategies, and surveillance methods) by reviewing publications in PubMed on rubella and CRS (systematic reviews, country experiences, and position papers from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other intergovernmental organizations). Based on the results of the review, to eliminate rubella and CRS in endemic areas and reduce re-emergence in previously disease-free areas, all countries should carry out two types of mass rubella vaccination campaigns: 1) one single mass national immunization campaign targeting all men and women 5-39+ years old (with the upper age limit depending on the year in which the rubella-containing vaccine was introduced and the epidemiology of rubella in the country) and 2) incorporation of an rubella-containing vaccine in routine childhood immunization programs, including regular vaccination campaigns for 12-month-olds and measles follow-up campaigns. In addition to mass rubella immunization campaigns and routine childhood vaccination programs, the following measures should be taken to help fight rubella and CRS: 1) surveillance of the number of susceptible women of childbearing age, and the emergence of imported cases; 2) coverage of susceptible populations with "second-chance" ("catch-up") campaigns (vaccination of older children and adults who may have missed earlier immunization programs); 3) rapid response to outbreaks; 4) strengthening of CRS surveillance; 5) involvement of the private sector in awareness and vaccination campaigns; and 6) reduction of the number of false-positive laboratory test results.
Biblioteca responsável: BR1.1