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Resultados 1 - 20 de 780
1.

Nutrients and Bioactive Components of Human Milk After One Year of Lactation: Implication for Human Milk Banks.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 74(2): 284-291, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520401

Resumo

OBJECTIVE: Specifying the nutrient content and bioactive compounds in milk from long-term lactation for the purpose of finding additional sources of donors' milk for human milk banks. METHOD: Human milk samples were collected from 43 mothers of term infants (term infant human milk, TIHM) (3-6 weeks of lactation) and 50 mothers who have breastfed for over a year (long-nursing human milk, LNHM). The milk collection time was 24 hours. The analyses of fat, protein, carbohydrate and energy content were performed with human milk analyzer MIRIS (Miris HMA™ ); lactoferrin and vitamin C content using high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase (RP-HPLC); total antioxidant activity (TAC) and lysozyme by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) via spectrophotometric methods. Sociodemographic characteristics of both groups of mothers have been compiled. RESULTS: Higher fat content and energy value was found in LNHM than in TIHM. Protein content in LNHM and TIHM did not differ. Carbohydrate content was lower in LNHM than in TIHM. TAC, CAT and GPx activity were higher in LNHM compared to TIHM. No significant differences in the content of lysozyme, lactoferrin and vitamin C between the studied groups were found. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that after 12 months of lactation, human milk still has significant nutritional value, does not lose bioactive components and can be considered for use in human milk banks.
2.

Receiving screened donor human milk for their infant supports parental wellbeing: a mixed-methods study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth; 22(1): 455, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641919

Resumo

BACKGROUND: Access to donor human milk (DHM) has primarily been based on the health and development outcomes of premature infants but there has been little examination of the broader impact of an infant receiving it upon parental mental health. Breastfeeding and mental health are closely tied with women who experience breastfeeding difficulties or are unable to meet their own breastfeeding goals often experiencing feelings of guilt, sadness and anger, alongside an increased risk of postnatal depression. The aim of the current study was to explore how experience of receiving DHM for their baby affected the wellbeing of parents. METHODS: UK parents of infants aged 0 - 12 months who had received screened DHM from a milk bank (typically on the neonatal unit or in some cases in the community) completed an online questionnaire exploring their experiences. The questionnaire included Likert scale items examining perceived impact upon infant health, own wellbeing and family functioning alongside open-ended questions exploring perceptions of how receiving DHM affected wellbeing. RESULTS: Almost all of the 107 participants (women = 102) agreed that receiving DHM had a positive impact upon infant health and development, their own mental and physical health, and their family's wellbeing. Parents felt relieved that their infant was receiving DHM for health reasons but also due to the experience of being listened to, supported and having their infant feeding decisions facilitated. Receiving DHM helped mothers to process some of their emotions at not being able to breastfeed, in part because knowing their baby was being fed gave them the space to focus on recovery and bonding with their baby. Some parents did experience challenges, feeling guilty at receiving DHM, insecure that another woman was able to feed their baby when they could not, or negative reactions from family. Although the impact of receiving DHM upon breastfeeding was not measured, some women who were working to build their own milk supply noted that it helped motivate them to continue. CONCLUSIONS: DHM may play an important role not only in protecting infant health and development but in supporting the mental health and wellbeing of mothers for whom their infant receiving human milk is important.
3.

What is known about human milk bank donors around the world: a systematic scoping review.

Public Health Nutr; 25(2): 312-322, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509177

Resumo

OBJECTIVE: The WHO recommends that low birth weight infants receive donor human milk (DHM) when mother's milk is not available. Systematic reviews have been published regarding clinical outcomes of infants receiving DHM, as well as the impact of pasteurisation on the composition of DHM; however, information about milk bank donors has not been systematically assessed. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic scoping review of original research articles about milk bank donors published before August 2020. SETTING: Globally. PARTICIPANTS: Donors to milk banks. RESULTS: A total of twenty-eight studies were included across a variety of geographies: the USA (n 8), Brazil (n 7), Spain (n 4), India (n 2), and single studies in France, Norway, Poland, Italy, Taiwan, Korea and China. Study variables were grouped into six main categories: Donor Demographics (n 19), Clinical Characteristics (n 20), Donor Experiences (n 16), Donation Patterns (n 16), Lifestyle Characteristics (n 4) and Lactation/Breast-feeding History (n 8). Some demographic characteristics were commonly reported across regions, while other, including gender and race, were infrequently explored. Factors that might influence the composition of DHM, including birth timing (term or pre-term), milk type (colostrum, transition or mature) and maternal diet were not regularly studied. Other gaps in the literature included (1) donors' motivations and barriers to donation, (2) lactation and breast-feeding history, including factors that influence donors to pump and amass surplus milk, and (3) donation patterns, including whether donors are also selling milk to corporations or sharing milk with peers. CONCLUSION: What is known about milk bank donors in different geographies is often limited to a single study, with heterogeneity in the variables reported.
4.

The legislative framework of donor human milk and human milk banking in Europe.

Matern Child Nutr; 18(2): e13310, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936203

Resumo

Data about the regulatory approaches to donor human milk (DHM) in European countries are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe the various regulations of DHM within European countries, to assess its legislative context and its impact in relation to donor milk banking. We performed a cross-sectional survey using a semistructured online questionnaire addressing 29 national European milk-banking representatives from June 2020 to February 2021. Representatives of 26 national DHM services participated in this study. The legal classification and regulatory status of DHM were defined in 9 out of 26 areas of jurisdiction (35%) as either food product (n = 6), product of human origin according to a blood, tissue, cell regulation (n = 2), or medicinal product (n = 1). In the remainder, DHM remains unclassified. Most legislations did not provide a comprehensive framework concerning DHM and costs to cover milk bank operations were rarely reimbursed. In general, the lack of national legislative governance and the actual legislative regulations in place do not support the use of DHM in European countries. National medical guidelines for the use of DHM have been issued in only 11 countries. The current number and distribution of milk banks (n = 239) within participating countries may not provide an equitable access to DHM for eligible infants. These findings could guide stakeholders aiming to establish a regulatory framework for DHM.
5.

[Access to donor human milk in Switzerland and CHUV's first human milk bank in Romandy : issues and perspectives]. / Pédiatrie - Accès au lait de donneuses en Suisse et création de la première banque de lait maternel romande au CHUV : enjeux et perspectives.

Rev Med Suisse; 18(764-5): 59-63, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048582

Resumo

Mother's own milk (MOM) is ideal for infant growth and health. When MOM is unavailable, donor human milk (DHM), rather than infant formula, is recommended for at-risk, preterm or sick neonates (NN), in view of its protective effects. Human milk banks (HMB) collect, secure, process and distribute DHM. In Switzerland, there is insufficient and unequal access to DHM in the absence of a national policy framework. With the support of the State of Vaud, the CHUV and the Interregional Blood Transfusion of the Swiss Red Cross will open the first HMB in Romandy in 2022. This HMB offers an innovative system in Switzerland, based on complementary expertise, in order to guarantee the quality and safety of DHM and to support the promotion of breastfeeding and human milk donation.
Le lait maternel (LM) est idéal pour la croissance et la santé des nourrissons. En l'absence de LM, le lait de donneuses (LD) est préférable au lait artificiel pour les nouveau-nés (NN) à risques, prématurés ou présentant certaines pathologies, au vu de ses effets protecteurs. Les banques de lait (BL) collectent, sécurisent, traitent et distribuent le LD. Il existe en Suisse une insuffisance et une inégalité d'accès au LD, faute de cadre national. Avec le soutien de l'État de Vaud, le CHUV et la Transfusion interrégionale de la Croix-Rouge suisse ouvriront en 2022 la première BL romande. Cette BL propose un système novateur en Suisse, fondé sur une complémentarité d'expertises, afin d'optimiser la qualité et la sécurité du LD et de soutenir la promotion de l'allaitement et du don.
6.

Developing global guidance on human milk banking.

Bull World Health Organ; 99(12): 892-900, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866685

Resumo

Donor human milk is recommended by the World Health Organization both for its advantageous nutritional and biological properties when mother's own milk is not available and for its recognized support for lactation and breastfeeding when used appropriately. An increasing number of human milk banks are being established around the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries, to facilitate the collection, processing and distribution of donor human milk. In contrast to other medical products of human origin, however, there are no minimum quality, safety and ethical standards for donor human milk and no coordinating global body to inform national policies. We present the key issues impeding progress in human milk banking, including the lack of clear definitions or registries of products; issues around regulation, quality and safety; and ethical concerns about commercialization and potential exploitation of women. Recognizing that progress in human milk banking is limited by a lack of comparable evidence, we recommend further research in this field to fill the knowledge gaps and provide evidence-based guidance. We also highlight the need for optimal support for mothers to provide their own breastmilk and establish breastfeeding as soon as and wherever possible after birth.
Lorsque la mère est dans l'impossibilité d'allaiter, l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé recommande d'opter pour le lait humain provenant de donneuses, tant pour ses propriétés nutritionnelles et biologiques que pour la contribution avérée qu'il apporte à la lactation et à l'allaitement quand il est utilisé à bon escient. Un nombre croissant de banques de lait humain s'établissent dans le monde entier, en particulier dans les pays à faible et moyen revenu, afin de faciliter la collecte, le traitement et la distribution de lait humain provenant de donneuses. Cependant, contrairement à d'autres produits médicaux d'origine humaine, il n'existe aucune norme minimale de qualité, de sécurité et d'éthique en la matière, et aucun organe de coordination global n'a été créé pour guider les politiques nationales. Dans le présent document, nous évoquons les principaux obstacles à la progression des banques de lait humain, notamment l'absence de définition claire ou de registre de produits; les problèmes relatifs à la réglementation, la qualité et la sécurité; ainsi que les questions éthiques entourant la commercialisation et l'exploitation potentielle des femmes. Jugeant cette progression limitée par le manque de données comparables, nous encourageons à mener d'autres recherches dans ce domaine pour combler les lacunes et fournir des orientations fondées sur des preuves. Nous soulignons également la nécessité d'offrir un soutien optimal aux mères afin qu'elles puissent produire leur propre lait et allaiter autant que possible immédiatement après la naissance.
La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda la leche humana donada tanto por sus ventajosas propiedades nutricionales y biológicas cuando no se dispone de la propia leche materna como por su reconocido apoyo a la lactancia y al amamantamiento cuando se utiliza de manera adecuada. Cada vez se crean más bancos de leche humana en todo el mundo, sobre todo en los países de ingresos bajos y medios, para facilitar la recogida, el procesamiento y la distribución de leche humana donada. Sin embargo, a diferencia de lo que ocurre con otros productos médicos de origen humano, no existen estándares mínimos de calidad, seguridad y ética para la leche humana donada ni un organismo mundial de coordinación que sirva de base a las políticas nacionales. En este documento se exponen los principales problemas que impiden el progreso de los bancos de leche humana, como la falta de definiciones claras o de registros de productos; los problemas relacionados con la regulación, la calidad y la seguridad; y las preocupaciones éticas sobre la comercialización y la posible explotación de las mujeres. Dado que el progreso de los bancos de leche humana se ve limitado por la falta de evidencias comparables, se recomienda seguir investigando en este campo para compensar los vacíos de conocimiento y proporcionar una guía asistencial. Asimismo, se destaca la necesidad de apoyar al máximo a las madres para que se provean de su propia leche materna y establezcan la lactancia materna tan pronto y siempre que sea posible después del nacimiento.
7.

Predicting Protein and Fat Content in Human Donor Milk Using Machine Learning.

J Nutr; 151(7): 2075-2083, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847342

Resumo

BACKGROUND: Donor milk is the standard of care for hospitalized very low birth weight (VLBW) infants when mother's milk is unavailable; however, growth of donor milk-fed infants is frequently suboptimal. Variability in nutrient composition of donated milk complicates the production of a uniform pooled product and, subsequently, the provision of adequate nutrition to promote optimal growth and development of VLBW infants. We reasoned a machine learning approach to construct batches using characteristics of the milk donation might be an effective strategy in reducing the variability in donor milk product composition. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify whether machine learning models can accurately predict donor milk macronutrient content. We focused on predicting fat and protein, given their well-established importance in VLBW infant growth outcomes. METHODS: Samples of donor milk, consisting of 272 individual donations and 61 pool samples, were collected from the Rogers Hixon Ontario Human Milk Bank and analyzed for macronutrient content. Four different machine learning models were constructed using independent variable groups associated with donations, donors, and donor-pumping practices. A baseline model was established using lactation stage and infant gestational status. Predictions were made for individual donations and resultant pools. RESULTS: Machine learning models predicted protein of individual donations and pools with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.16 g/dL and 0.10 g/dL, respectively. Individual donation and pooled fat predictions had an MAE of 0.91 g/dL and 0.42 g/dL, respectively. At both the individual donation and pool levels, protein predictions were significantly more accurate than baseline, whereas fat predictions were competitive with baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning models can provide accurate predictions of macronutrient content in donor milk. The macronutrient content of pooled milk had a lower prediction error, reinforcing the value of pooling practices. Future research should examine how macronutrient content predictions can be used to facilitate milk bank pooling strategies.
8.

How do I create a partnership between a blood bank and a milk bank to provide safe, pasteurized human milk to infants?

Transfusion; 61(2): 350-355, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459378

Resumo

The now 5-year collaboration between the Indiana Blood Center, now Versiti Blood Center of Indiana, and The Milk Bank has increased the number of human milk donors, improved the collection and processing of donor milk, and improved awareness of this lifesaving resource. The Indiana Blood Center provides greater visibility for The Milk Bank, creating more opportunities to reach potential donors, and can provide the screening blood test for potential donors to become approved human milk donors. The resources of the multiple locations of the Indiana Blood Center permitted the formation of new milk depots in five different cities and quicker transportation of donated milk through their active courier system. This partnership most importantly has improved awareness for both lifesaving missions to the communities they serve.
9.

Comparison of the Effect of Holder Pasteurization and High-Pressure Processing on Human Milk Bacterial Load and Bioactive Factors Preservation.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 72(5): 756-762, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847290

Resumo

OBJECTIVES: This project aims at comparing the impact of Holder pasteurization (HoP) and high-pressure processing (HPP) on bacterial load and retention of immunological components in human milk. METHODS: Human milk samples discarded by the Public Mothers' milk bank (Montreal, Canada) for bacterial purpose were pooled (n = 6) and pasteurized either by heating in a water bath (62.5°C, 30 minutes) or by HPP treatment (425 MPa, four cycles of 6 minutes, initial milk temperature of 4°C or 37°C). Bacterial load, lysozyme activity, and levels of immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lipase, and 26 cytokines were analyzed. Untreated milk samples from same pools served as control. RESULTS: HPP treatment of milk allows a similar elimination of bacteria than HoP; bacterial counts were under the detection limit [<3 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL] in 50% of milk pools after HPP treatment, compared to 17% for HoP. With initial heating of samples to 37°C before HPP treatment, inactivation to an extent under the detection limit was reached in 67% of pools. There is no significant difference in IgA, lysozyme, and cytokines concentrations between untreated milk and all treatment methods. While no significant difference was observed in the amount of lipase (P > 0.07) and IgG (P > 0.11) between untreated milk and HPP-treated milk samples, HoP seems to be damaging for these factors (P < 0.04). IgM is well preserved in HPP-4°C samples compared to untreated milk (P = 0.07) whereas a decrease is observed for this immunoglobulin levels in HPP-37°C and HoP samples (P < 0.01). Lactoferrin activity, is well maintained in HPP-37°C milk samples in comparison to untreated milk samples (P = 0.52). A decrease in activity of this molecule is noted for samples treated with HPP at 4°C (P = 0.02) and this decrease is even more pronounced for HoP samples (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: HPP is a promising alternative to HoP for treatment of human milk intended to preterm babies. Our results demonstrate that HPP treatment of human milk provides safe milk with less detrimental effects on the biochemically and immunologically active milk components than HoP.
10.

Human milk bank and personalized nutrition in the NICU: a narrative review.

Eur J Pediatr; 180(5): 1327-1333, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244710

Resumo

The number of infants born preterm including extremely premature babies is rising worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which challenge neonatologists and milk banks for the provision of the most adequate nutrition for successful infant's growth and development. The benefits of mother's own milk (MOM) have been extensively recognized, but the use of donor milk (DM) is a commonly routine practice in preterm neonates admitted to the NICU. Pasteurized mature milk from milk banks is not the same composition than the mother's colostrum and premature milk, the characteristics of which protect the infant from the risk for necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, and other comorbidities associated with prematurity. The development of a personalized nutrition unit (PNU) allows to obtain DM from mothers who have their infants admitted to the NICU and produce an excess of milk, a practice that matches MOM by gestational age and the stage of lactation, ensuring an adequate composition of DM to target the nutritional requirements of premature infants.Conclusion: This narrative review presents salient data of our current knowledge and concerns regarding milk feeding of preterm infants in the NICU, with special emphasis on personalized DM as a result of establishing a PNU. What is Known: • Donor milk bank is mature or pooled milk from lactating mothers at different stages of lactation. • Milk composition varies by gestational age and stage of lactation. What is New: • Donor milk from mothers delivered prematurely have the most adequate composition for preterm infant feeding. • Personalized nutrition for premature infants with preterm donor milk is feasible.
11.

Methods of mixing donor human milk during bottling results in fat differences between samples within a pool.

J Dairy Sci; 104(5): 5256-5264, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516556

Resumo

The influence of milk-banking processes on nutrients in donor human milk (DHM) is largely unknown. Previous studies have measured nutrients between pools of DHM, but within-pool nutrient differences (between bottles from the same pool) have yet to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effect of different mixing characteristics on the distribution of fat, protein, IgA, and lysozyme in bottled, raw DHM. Pools of DHM were created in a laboratory setting according to published human milk-banking guidelines and assigned to a mixing treatment (mixing during bottling method, pooling container material, and refrigerated hold time). Four mixing protocols using glass pooling containers and a 1-h refrigerated hold time were tested: control (no mixing during bottling); manual-A (Man-A, hand swirl after pouring 3 bottles); manual-B (Man-B, hand swirl after pouring every bottle); and mechanical-G (Mech-G, continuous stirring with a magnet). As secondary objectives, we compared the effect of a glass and a plastic pooling container with mechanical mixing (mechanical-P, Mech-P), and compared refrigerated delays of 1 and 24 h before bottling with manual mixing (manual-A24, Man-A24). To control for differences in nutrient content, comparisons between treatments were made using absolute percent difference from the treatment-specific mean; and comparisons within a treatment were made using the ratio of fat content in a bottle to fat content in the first bottle of the same pool. We did not observe differences in nutrient distribution between Man-A, Man-B, and Mech-G in pools held for 1 h, but all were significantly different from the control for fat. There were no differences between glass or plastic pooling containers when mechanical mixing was used. Holding a pool in the refrigerator for 24 h before bottling created significantly greater fat distribution than holding a pool for 1 h. Outcomes were the result of controlled experiments. In summary, manual and mechanical mixing of 1,700-mL DHM pools produces similar fat and protein distributions when DHM is pooled and bottled after a 1-h hold time. When DHM is held for 24 h before bottling, more research is needed to determine the duration of initial mixing needed to reduce fat variability between bottles.
12.

Use of donor human milk in nonhospitalized infants: An infant growth study.

Matern Child Nutr; 17(2): e13128, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404169

Resumo

When mother's own milk (MOM) is unavailable or insufficient, donor human milk (DHM) is recommended as the next best alternative for low birthweight infants. DHM use for healthy, term infants is increasing, but evidence for growth and tolerability is limited. This retrospective study evaluated growth in term infants in the community who received DHM from a UK milk bank. Mothers of infants receiving DHM between 2017 and 2019 were contacted (n = 49), and 31 (63.2%) agreed to participate. Fourteen infants received DHM as a supplement to other feeds (MOM and/or infant formula) and 17 were exclusively fed DHM where breastfeeding was impossible (range: 3-6 weeks). Growth was assessed by deriving z-scores using the WHO standard for infant growth and compared with 200 exclusively breastfed infants. Multivariate regression analysis revealed no feeding method-specific association between z-score and age, nor between weight and age, suggesting that z-scores and growth velocity were not affected by feeding exclusive MOM, supplemental DHM or exclusive DHM. DHM was well-tolerated with no adverse events that led to early cessation. After receiving supplemental DHM group, 63% of infants whose mothers had no physical barrier to breastfeeding (5/8 infants) were exclusively breastfed. This novel study reports adequate growth outcomes of healthy nonhospitalized infants receiving DHM, either as the sole milk source or supplement. Prospective studies are needed to confirm whether DHM is a suitable feeding alternative for term infants in the community, optimal durations, as well as the impact of DHM availability on breastfeeding rates and maternal mental health.
13.

The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on North American milk banks.

Matern Child Nutr; 17(4): e13234, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190391

Resumo

This study aims to understand the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on human milk banking services in North America, with a focus on the United States. We triangulated questionnaire data with interviews and text-based website data. Of the 30 human milk bank services from which data were obtained, the majority faced substantial internal organization change in terms of staffing and protocols and experienced financial hardship in particular because of decreases in donor human milk orders. At the same time, most banks reported an increase in their numbers of donors and in the volume of milk collected. These results show that the pandemic significantly affected the way in which many North American milk banks operate, some lactating mothers donate their milk and, at least during the first few months of the crisis, certain hospitals' donor human milk ordering patterns changed. It suggests in particular that stay-at-home orders and the turn to remote work created the potential for a surge in human milk available for donation as a number of parents no longer needed their surplus for their own children. Legal and policy reform should focus on replicating the positive effects of the pandemic on breastfeeding by guaranteeing paid parental leave and flexible work conditions. Initiatives should also aim at counteracting its negative effects by mandating the insurance coverage of donor human milk, supporting milk banks financially and, more generally, integrating lactation and human milk banking services within the health system.
14.

Maintaining human milk bank services throughout the COVID-19 pandemic: A global response.

Matern Child Nutr; 17(3): e13131, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403779

Resumo

If maternal milk is unavailable, the World Health Organization recommends that the first alternative should be pasteurised donor human milk (DHM). Human milk banks (HMBs) screen and recruit milk donors, and DHM principally feeds very low birth weight babies, reducing the risk of complications and supporting maternal breastfeeding where used alongside optimal lactation support. The COVID-19 pandemic has presented a range of challenges to HMBs worldwide. This study aimed to understand the impacts of the pandemic on HMB services and develop initial guidance regarding risk limitation. A Virtual Collaborative Network (VCN) comprising over 80 HMB leaders from 36 countries was formed in March 2020 and included academics and nongovernmental organisations. Individual milk banks, national networks and regional associations submitted data regarding the number of HMBs, volume of DHM produced and number of recipients in each global region. Estimates were calculated in the context of missing or incomplete data. Through open-ended questioning, the experiences of milk banks from each country in the first 2 months of the pandemic were collected and major themes identified. According to data collected from 446 individual HMBs, more than 800,000 infants receive DHM worldwide each year. Seven pandemic-related specific vulnerabilities to service provision were identified, including sufficient donors, prescreening disruption, DHM availability, logistics, communication, safe handling and contingency planning, which were highly context-dependent. The VCN now plans a formal consensus approach to the optimal response of HMBs to new pathogens using crowdsourced data, enabling the benchmarking of future strategies to support DHM access and neonatal health in future emergencies.
15.

The Economic Impact of Donor Milk in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

J Pediatr; 224: 57-65.e4, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682581

Resumo

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of mother's own milk supplemented with donor milk vs mother's own milk supplemented with formula for infants of very low birth weight in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of 319 infants with very low birth weight born before (January 2011-December 2012, mother's own milk + formula, n = 150) and after (April 2013-March 2015, mother's own milk + donor milk, n = 169) a donor milk program was implemented in the NICU. Data were retrieved from a prospectively collected research database, the hospital's electronic medical record, and the hospital's cost accounting system. Costs included feedings and other NICU costs incurred by the hospital. A generalized linear regression model was constructed to evaluate the impact of feeding era on NICU total costs, controlling for neonatal and sociodemographic risk factors and morbidities. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for each morbidity that differed significantly between feeding eras. RESULTS: Infants receiving mother's own milk + donor milk had a lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) than infants receiving mother's own milk + formula (1.8% vs 6.0%, P = .048). Total (hospital + feeding) median costs (2016 USD) were $169 555 for mother's own milk + donor milk and $185 740 for mother's own milk + formula (P = .331), with median feeding costs of $1317 and $936, respectively (P < .001). Mother's own milk + donor milk was associated with $15 555 lower costs per infant (P = .045) and saved $1812 per percentage point decrease in NEC incidence. CONCLUSIONS: The additional cost of a donor milk program was small compared with the cost of a NICU hospitalization. After its introduction, the NEC incidence was significantly lower with small cost savings per case. We speculate that NICUs with greater NEC rates may have greater cost savings.
16.

João Aprígio Guerra de Almeida: supporting breastfeeding mothers.

Bull World Health Organ; 98(6): 380-381, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514211

Resumo

João Aprígio Guerra de Almeida speaks to Andréia Azevedo Soares about the origins of Brazil's human milk bank network and the psychosocial aspects of breastfeeding.
17.

Impact of Holder pasteurization on immunological properties of human breast milk over the first year of lactation.

Pediatr Res; 87(1): 32-41, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288249

Resumo

BACKGROUND: The timing of milk donations to human milk banks ranges from a few days to more than 1 year after delivery, and the Holder method is used for pasteurization. We evaluated the effect of temporal variation and thermal treatment on the immunological properties of milk. METHODS: We analyzed 73 milk samples, raw and after pasteurization, donated at different lactation stages. We studied antibodies, lysozyme, cytokines, soluble receptors, and factors with impact on barrier function. We also evaluated in vitro the capacity of milk to modulate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in an HT-29 epithelial cell line stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). RESULTS: With few exceptions, immune components exhibited their highest levels in colostrum, and were stable in the various stages of mature milk. Pasteurization altered the immunological composition of milk, and very drastically for some components. Raw milk of the first year reduced NF-κB activation in HT-29 cells treated with TNF-α to approximately the same extent, and Holder pasteurization significantly affected this capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the present work reports that mature donated milk is equally valuable over the first year of lactation, but warns about drastic losses of anti-inflammatory properties during Holder pasteurization that could be critical for the health of preterm infants.
18.

Holder pasteurization of donated human milk is effective in inactivating SARS-CoV-2.

CMAJ; 192(31): E871-E874, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646870

Resumo

BACKGROUND: Provision of pasteurized donor human milk, as a bridge to mother's own milk, is the standard of care for very low-birth-weight infants in hospital. The aim of this research was to confirm that Holder pasteurization (62.5°C for 30 min) would be sufficient to inactivate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in donated human milk samples. METHODS: We spiked frozen milk samples from 10 donors to the Rogers Hixon Ontario Human Milk Bank with SARS-CoV-2 to achieve a final concentration of 1 × 107 TCID50/mL (50% of the tissue culture infectivity dose per mL). We pasteurized samples using the Holder method or held them at room temperature for 30 minutes and plated serial dilutions on Vero E6 cells for 5 days. We included comparative controls in the study using milk samples from the same donors without addition of virus (pasteurized and unpasteurized) as well as replicates of Vero E6 cells directly inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. We reported cytopathic effects as TCID50/mL. RESULTS: We detected no cytopathic activity in any of the SARS-CoV-2-spiked milk samples that had been pasteurized using the Holder method. In the SARS-CoV-2-spiked milk samples that were not pasteurized but were kept at room temperature for 30 minutes, we observed a reduction in infectious viral titre of about 1 log. INTERPRETATION: Pasteurization of human milk by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min) inactivates SARS-CoV-2. Thus, in the event that donated human milk contains SARS-CoV-2 by transmission through the mammary gland or by contamination, this method of pasteurization renders milk safe for consumption and handling by care providers.
19.

The nucleic acid positive rate and genotype distribution of human cytomegalovirus in human milk banks in China.

Arch Virol; 165(5): 1099-1107, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152788

Resumo

To determine the status of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in human milk in China, a total of 510 human milk samples obtained from three provinces, including 211 donor human milk samples from human milk banks and 299 milk samples obtained from the mothers of premature infants, were tested to detect HCMV DNA. Overall, 46.4% of the donated milk samples and 59.2% of the samples obtained from mothers of premature infants were positive for HCMV DNA. The concentration of HCMV DNA was approximately 103 -104 copies/ml in the HCMV-DNA-positive human milk samples. Based on the nucleotide sequence of a 299- to 305-bp fragment of the glycoprotein B (gB) gene, three HCMV genotypes (gB1, gB2 and gB3) were identified in human milk samples. Mixed infection with genotypes gB1 and gB3 was also found in four milk samples from mothers. Genotype gB1 was the predominant genotype in the HCMV-DNA-positive human milk samples, and it could be subdivided into three lineages. There were also some characteristic nucleotides and amino acids in the three HCMV genotypes, which were helpful for distinguishing the genotypes. This is the first study to clarify the HCMV infection status and genetic characteristics of human milk obtained from banks in China, which will be helpful in preventing postnatal HCMV infections and ensuring the safety of human milk banks.
20.

Lifelines NEXT: a prospective birth cohort adding the next generation to the three-generation Lifelines cohort study.

Eur J Epidemiol; 35(2): 157-168, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100173

Resumo

Epidemiological research has shown there to be a strong relationship between preconceptional, prenatal, birth and early-life factors and lifelong health. The Lifelines NEXT is a birth cohort designed to study the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic determinants on health and disease in a four-generation design. It is embedded within the Lifelines cohort study, a prospective three-generation population-based cohort study recording the health and health-related aspects of 167,729 individuals living in Northern Netherlands. In Lifelines NEXT we aim to include 1500 pregnant Lifelines participants and intensively follow them, their partners and their children until at least 1 year after birth. Longer-term follow-up of physical and psychological health will then be embedded following Lifelines procedures. During the Lifelines NEXT study period biomaterials-including maternal and neonatal (cord) blood, placental tissue, feces, breast milk, nasal swabs and urine-will be collected from the mother and child at 10 time points. We will also collect data on medical, social, lifestyle and environmental factors via questionnaires at 14 different time points and continuous data via connected devices. The extensive collection of different (bio)materials from mother and child during pregnancy and afterwards will provide the means to relate environmental factors including maternal and neonatal microbiome composition) to (epi)genetics, health and developmental outcomes. The nesting of the study within Lifelines enables us to include preconceptional transgenerational data and can be used to identify other extended families within the cohort.
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