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Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 6: CD007644, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250435


BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked donor preterm milk compared with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 grams). SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 7), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 23 October 2018), Embase (1980 to 23 October 2018), and CINAHL (1982 to 23 October 2018). We also searched clinical trial databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) or the number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) for categorical data; and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned to use the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to support or refute the effect of banked donor preterm milk compared to banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants.

Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev; (6): CD007644, 2010 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20556782


BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are no randomised trials that compare preterm banked milk to banked term milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing Better Preserves the Nutrient and Bioactive Compound Composition of Human Donor Milk.

J Nutr; 149(3): 497-504, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770541


BACKGROUND: When mother's milk is insufficient, pasteurized human donor milk (DM) is the recommended supplement for hospitalized very-low-birth-weight infants. The current method of pasteurization (Holder, 62.5°C, 30 min) negatively affects heat-sensitive nutrients and bioactive proteins. OBJECTIVES: Objectives of this study were to compare changes in DM composition after thermal pasteurization (Holder and flash-heating) and nonthermal methods [UV-C irradiation and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)]. We hypothesized that nonthermal techniques would result in fewer changes to composition. METHODS: Holder, flash-heating (brought to boil), UV-C irradiation (250 nm, 25 min), and HHP (500 MPa, 8 min) were studied. Pools of milk from 17 women known to contain bacteria at >5 × 107 colony forming units (CFU)/L were collected from the Rogers Hixon Ontario Human Milk Bank and underwent each pasteurization technique. Macronutrients, heat-sensitive micronutrients (vitamin C, folate), and bioactive components [bile-salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL), lysozyme, lactoferrin] were measured in raw and pools of pasteurized milk. Milk was cultured to determine how well each technique produced a culture negative result (detection limit <1 × 103 CFU/L). RESULTS: Folate was reduced by 24-27% after Holder, flash-heating, and UV-C (P < 0.05); no reduction was observed after HHP. All pasteurization methods reduced vitamin C (60-75%, P < 0.001). BSSL was abolished after Holder and flash-heating (P < 0.001), reduced after UV-C (48%, P < 0.001), but unaffected by HHP. Lysozyme activity was reduced after flash-heating (44%) and UV-C (74%, P < 0.004) but unaffected by Holder or HHP. Lactoferrin was reduced by all methods (P < 0.02) but most severely by flash-heating (74%) and least severely by HHP (25%). Holder and UV-C reduced lactoferrin by ∼48%. All pasteurization methods reduced the number of culture positive DM samples (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HHP better preserves human milk composition than Holder pasteurization. Future research on the feasibility of HHP for pasteurizing human milk is warranted because its implementation may improve the nutritional status and health of DM-fed infants.

Donor Breast Milk for the Preterm Infant: Your Questions Answered!

Neonatal Netw; 38(1): 7-16, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679251


Expressed breast milk (EBM) is the gold standard of infant nutrition, but is not always available for use for preterm infants in the NICU setting. Donor breast milk (DBM) is often a preferred alternative for preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants when maternal milk is not available. This article discusses the composition of DBM, reviews its advantages compared to formula, discusses challenges related to its long-term use, and identifies strategies to utilize DBM in the context of total nutritional management of preterm and VLBW infants. We will use a framework of WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, and WHY to answer the questions: who gets DBM, why use DBM, where does DBM come from, what is in DBM, and when may DBM use be challenged.

Exact determination of optimal nutritional composition for at-risk newborns tolerating enteral intake-breast milk analysis as a routine future standard in neonatal care.

Bratisl Lek Listy; 120(9): 658-662, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475549


AIM: To analyse the dynamics of macronutrients in breast milk in Slovakian women and compare the dynamics between mothers of hospitalized newborns and donors of human breast milk relative to the gestational age of their babies. METHODS: Human milk samples were collected from 101 breastfeeding women and analysed once or repeatedly from September 2017 to August 2018. Group A consisted of 79 mothers of newborns hospitalized at the Neonatal Department of Intensive Medicine (NDIM) of whom 69 were mothers of premature newborns (subgroup A1) and 10 were mothers of term babies (subgroup A2). Group B consisted of 22 breast milk donors registered at the Human Milk Bank at National Institute of Children's Diseases (NICHD). Of these, 4 were mothers of premature newborns (subgroup B1) and 18 were mothers of term newborns (subgroup B2). From subgroup A1, we chose two mothers, one with a hypotrophic newborn and another with a eutrophic newborn. The results were obtained by using the MIRIS breast­milk analyzer. RESULTS: The overall dynamics of macronutrients correspond with other studies, however, we demonstrated that the level of macronutrients in individual cases were different. CONCLUSION: The determination of macronutrients in human milk is essential in neonatal care. It provides information about the nutritional value of breast milk and helps to optimise nutrition according to the individual needs of newborns (Fig. 10, Ref. 16).

Recent actuality about Bacillus cereus and human milk bank: a new sensitive method for microbiological analysis of pasteurized milk.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis; 37(7): 1297-1303, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725957


Three cases of Bacillus cereus infection or colonization occurred in the same region in France, and milk from the milk bank was suspected as a possible common source of contamination. All Batches delivered to the three cases complied with the requirements of the bacteriological reference method recommended by good practices guidelines. Still, a retrospective analysis with a more sensitive method showed one batch to contain B. cereus, however straincomparison revealed no epidemiological link betweenisolates from patients and those from the milk. Consequently, in accordance with the precautionary principle, we developed a new sensitive method for the screening of pasteurized milk for pathogenic bacteria. From January 1 to August 31, 2017, 2526 samples of pasteurized milk were prospectively included in the study. We showed that a 20 mL sample of pasteurized milk incubated for 18 h at 37 °C under aerobic conditions was favoring the detection of B. Cereus. The nonconformity rate was 6.3% for the reference method and 12.6% for the improved method (p < 0.0001). Nonconformity was due to the presence of B. cereus in 88.5% of cases for the improved method and 53% of cases for the reference method (p < 0.0001). Thus our new method is improves the microbiological safety of the product distributed and only moderately increases the rate of bacteriological nonconformity .

Holder-Pasteurized Human Donor Milk: How Long Can It Be Preserved?

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 66(3): 479-483, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019853


OBJECTIVE: When own mother's milk falls short, pasteurized human donor milk is recommended as alternative feeding for preterm infants. Donor milk has to meet the highest safety standards, but its processing and storage is expensive. The recommended storage time of pasteurized donor milk is 3 months. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the frozen storage time of pasteurized donor milk can be extended beyond 3 months without compromising its safety and quality. METHODS: For this prospective observational study breast milk samples of 34 unique women, collected between November 2014 and June 2015, were provided by the Dutch Human Milk Bank. Samples were Holder pasteurized within 3 months after expression and stored at -20°C. Analysis of both bacterial growth (by inoculation of milk on a blood and a cysteine-, lactose-, and electrolyte-deficient agar) and fat, crude protein, carbohydrate and energy content of milk (analyzed by infrared spectroscopy) was done monthly during the first 6 months and every 2 months thereafter, up to 1 year postpasteurization. RESULTS: Thirty of 306 (9.8%) follow-up samples showed bacterial growth when cultured. None of the samples showed sequential contamination with the same strain up to 8 months of frozen storage. No significant decreases in macronutrients and energy content were observed over 8 months. CONCLUSION: Pasteurized human donor milk can be stored safely for 8 months at -20°C, without compromising its macronutrient and energy content. This longer storage time will reduce disposal of expired donor milk and subsequently reduce costs.

Dose-response Relationship Between Donor Human Milk, Mother's Own Milk, Preterm Formula, and Neonatal Growth Outcomes.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 67(1): 90-96, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543698


BACKGROUND: A dose-response relationship between proportions of donor human milk (DHM) intake and in-neonatal intensive care unit (in-NICU) growth rates, if any, remains poorly defined. Objective was to evaluate interrelationships between percentages of DHM, mother's own milk (MOM), and preterm formula (PF) intake and neonatal growth parameters at 36 weeks postmenstrual age or NICU discharge. METHODS: Infants eligible for this single-center retrospective study were inborn at ≤32 weeks gestation or ≤1800 g, stayed in the NICU for ≥7 days, and received enteral nutrition consisting of human milk fortified with Enfamil human milk fortifier acidified liquid. Study exposures were defined as 10% increments in the total volumetric proportions of infant diet provided as MOM, DHM, or PF. Outcomes were growth parameters at 36 weeks postmenstrual age or NICU discharge. Multivariable linear regression modeled the adjusted additive effect of infant diet on individual growth parameters. RESULTS: A total of 314 infants records were eligible for analysis. Using MOM as reference, the adjusted mean growth velocity for weight significantly decreased by 0.17 g ·â€Škg ·â€Šday for every 10% increase in DHM intake, but did not vary with PF intake. The adjusted mean change in weight z score significantly decreased with increasing proportion of DHM intake but significantly improved with increasing PF intake. The adjusted mean head circumference velocity was significantly decreased by 0.01 cm/wk for every 10% increase in DHM intake, in reference to MOM, but did not vary with PF intake. Neither proportion of DHM nor PF intake was associated with length velocity. CONCLUSIONS: When DHM and MOM are fortified interchangeably, preterm infants receiving incremental amounts of DHM are at increased risk of postnatal growth restriction. The dose-response relationship between DHM, MOM, and PF and long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes warrants further research.

Donor Human Milk and Fortifier Use in United States Level 2, 3, and 4 Neonatal Care Hospitals.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 66(4): 664-669, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29045350


OBJECTIVE: In 2011, the United States Surgeon General issued a call to action to "identify and address obstacles to greater availability of safe banked donor milk for fragile infants." The purpose of the present study is to analyze patterns in donor human milk (DHM) and fortifier use in level 2, 3, and 4 neonatal facilities in 2015 and to identify factors associated with nonuse. METHODS: Data from the 2015 Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care survey, conducted by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, were analyzed for questions about feeding practices within neonatal hospitals. RESULTS: The percentage of neonatal facilities that reported using DHM in 2015 was 38.3%, up 74% from 2011. The majority of level 3 and level 4 facilities reported using DHM (65.7% and 73.3%, respectively) and fortifiers (96.1% and 91.9%, respectively). Within DHM-using facilities, a wide range of DHM feeding patterns was reported. The prevalence of DHM use was higher in facilities that had the highest rates of mother's own milk feedings (P < 0.001), in facilities that were participating in the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (P < 0.001), and in facilities that were in a state with an operating milk bank (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: DHM use continues to increase in advanced care neonatal settings, with significant difference based on acuity level, facility size, breast-feeding culture, and proximity to a milk bank. Geographic gaps in DHM use provide the opportunity for targeted efforts to improve access.

Anti-Cytomegalovirus Activity in Human Milk and Colostrum From Mothers of Preterm Infants.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 67(5): 654-659, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074575


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the anti-human cytomegalovirus (CMV) activity of milk from seropositive and seronegative mothers of preterm infants and to analyze its changes throughout the different stages of lactation and after Holder pasteurization, a procedure adopted by donor human milk banks. METHODS: Eighteen mothers of preterm infants were enrolled in the study. Colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk samples were collected and tested for anti-CMV activity. Depletion of immunoglobulins A from milk samples was carried out by jacalin resin. Pools of milk samples were pasteurized according to Holder technique. RESULTS: All samples were endowed with anti-CMV activity, although to a different extent. In CMV IgG-positive mothers, colostra were significantly more active than the transitional milk and mature milk samples. Moreover, they were more potent than colostra from seronegative mothers. Immunoglobulins A depletion in colostra from IgG-positive mothers resulted in a partial loss of anti-CMV activity. Holder pasteurization significantly reduced the antiviral activity. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk is endowed with anti-CMV activity and its potency may vary depending on the stage of lactation and the serological status of the mother. This biological property could partially neutralize CMV particles excreted in the milk of CMV IgG-positive mothers thus reducing the risk of transmitting infectious viruses to the infant.

Factors associated with infants receiving their mother's own breast milk on discharge from hospital in a unit where pasteurised donor human milk is available.

J Paediatr Child Health; 54(9): 1016-1022, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806873


AIM: To determine the proportion of very preterm infants who were exclusively fed breast milk at the time of discharge home, before and after the availability of pasteurised donor human milk (PDHM). METHODS: This was an observational retrospective cohort study with historical comparison, comparing two cohorts (<32 weeks gestational age or very low birthweight) before and after the availability of donor human milk. The main explanatory variable was the PDHM cohort: pre-PDHM or post-PDHM. The primary dichotomous outcome variable was defined as whether the baby was being fed with breast milk only at the time of discharge home, compared with those fed with artificial formula alone or mixed feeding (artificial formula and breast milk). RESULTS: There were 1088 babies in the pre-PDHM cohort and 330 in the post-PDHM cohort (total n = 1418). Following the introduction of PDHM, 56% (185/330) were exclusively fed breast milk at the time of hospital discharge and 57% (620/1088) in the pre-PDHM cohort. The availability of PDHM is not a significant predictor of feeding outcome upon discharge (P = 0.45) when adjusted for maternal age, log-transformed post-natal age at discharge home and any congenital abnormality. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of donor human milk in our unit is not associated with a decrease in the number of very preterm infants receiving mother's own breast milk at time of discharge home. Other factors that positively impact the successful establishment of breastfeeding in preterm babies were older maternal age, the absence of any congenital abnormality and a shorter duration of hospital stay.

Turkish Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors on Wet-Nursing, Milk Sharing and Human Milk Banking.

Matern Child Health J; 22(4): 454-460, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340904


Purpose The aim of this study was to determine Turkish women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing, and human milk banking in a primary care setting located in a semi-rural area. Description Donated human milk is a feasible option for feeding infants and children. Currently, there is a debate on the topic starts with the preparations to launch a human milk bank in a large city in Turkey. Several previous papers reported women's opinions in large hospital based studies. Little is known about women's views and practice on donated human milk in the rural areas of Turkey. Assessment The study sample was recruited among married women aged 15-49 years who had given birth within the past 5 years and who were in a family health center for any reason in Honaz, Denizli, Turkey. A total of 240 women were included in the study. The data were collected by questionnaire created by the researchers and consisting of two parts: sociodemographic characteristics, and women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing and human milk banking. Results Thirty women (12.5%) had had a wet-nurse; 20 women (8.7%) wet-nursed babies before; and 17 (7.2%) of the women's children had a wet-nurse. If necessary, 80.9 and 78.3% were willing to accept to do wet-nursing and milk sharing, respectively. 150 (62.5%) heard of human milk banks; 55 (22.9%) approved of the establishment of milk banks. However, only 46 women (19.1%) were willing to donate to the bank. Possibility of marriages between milk siblings (76.8%) was the main reason for not considering the donation. Women's education was another factor affecting their opinion on breast milk sharing and donation to human milk banks. Less educated women were sympathetic to milk sharing (p = 0.02), however, more educated mothers had a propensity to donate to milk banks (p = 0.02). Conclusion Wet-nursing decreased over the years in Turkey, but still an ongoing small child feeding method. Most of the women tend to become a wet nurse or do milk sharing if it is needed, but they are hesitant to donate their milk to human milk banks, mostly due to religious concerns.

A prospective analysis of intake and composition of mother's own milk in preterm newborns less than 32 weeks' gestational age.

J Perinat Med; 47(1): 106-113, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995634


Background Mothers of preterm (PT) infants have difficulty providing adequate quantities of human milk (HM) for their babies during their hospital stay. The macronutrient content in HM changes over time, varying across and within individual mothers. The research aim of the strudy was to describe the intake of mothers' own milk (MOM) and its composition according to gestational (GA) and postnatal age (PNA) in infants born <32 weeks' GA and to correlate them with neonatal weight, length and morbidities. Methods A prospective observational study of 176 premature infants in a unit without a donor milk bank was conducted. Daily milk intake was recorded. HM macronutrients were determined by mid-infrared spectrophotometric analysis at 7, 15 and 30 days after delivery and monthly until hospital discharge. Results Intake of MOM increased during the first 2 weeks after birth and decreased steadily thereafter. Protein concentration varied inversely with PNA. Carbohydrate and lipid concentrations increased over the first few days and remained stable thereafter. A fall in weight percentiles from birth to 60 days was found. No correlation was found between total protein and calorie intakes at 3 and 15 days of life and growth velocity (GV) between 15 and 30 days, even when broken down into parenteral nutrition (PN), formula and MOM. Conclusion To improve MOM feeding in PT newborns, intensive support strategies at the prenatal stage along entire hospitalization income should be encouraged. New protocols for fortification of HM should be implemented to optimize postnatal weight gain while preserving the health benefits of HM.

A pilot study on nutrients, antimicrobial proteins, and bacteria in commerce-free models for exchanging expressed human milk in the USA.

Matern Child Nutr; 14 Suppl 6: e12566, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592165


Expressed human milk can be donated or sold through a variety of channels, including human milk banks, corporations or individuals, or peer-to-peer milk sharing. There is a paucity of research regarding the nutrient and bioactive profiles of expressed human milk exchanged through commerce-free scenarios, including peer-to-peer milk sharing. The study objective was to evaluate the macronutrient, antimicrobial protein, and bacteria composition in expressed human milk acquired via commerce-free arrangements. Expressed human milk samples were collected from the following commerce-free scenarios: milk expressed for a mother's or parent's own infant (MOM; N = 30); unpasteurized milk donated to a non-profit milk bank (BANKED; N = 30); milk expressed for peer-to-peer milk sharing (SHARED; N = 31); and health professional-facilitated milk sharing where donors are serologically screened and milk is dispensed raw (SCREENED; N = 30). Analyses were conducted for total protein, lactose, percent fat and water, lysozyme activity, immunoglobulin A (IgA) activity, total aerobic bacteria, coliform, and Staphylococcus aureus. No bacterial growth was observed in 52/121 samples, and 15/121 had growth greater than 5.0 log colony-forming units/mL. There was no evidence of differences by groups (p > .05) in lactose, fat, water, lysozyme activity, sIgA activity, aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and S. aureus. Mean protein values (95% confidence interval) were 1.5 g/dL (1.4, 1.6) for BANKED, 1.4 g/dL (1.3, 1.5) for MOM, 1.6 g/dL (1.5, 1.7) for SCREENED, and 1.5 g/dL (1.4, 1.6) for SHARED, which was not significantly different (p = .081). This research contributes to growing literature on the risks and benefits of uncompensated, peer-to-peer milk sharing.

Prioritising allocation of donor human breast milk amongst very low birthweight infants in middle-income countries.

Matern Child Nutr; 14 Suppl 6: e12595, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592164


The use of donor human breast milk instead of formula reduces the risk of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants when their mother's own milk is insufficient. Use of donor milk is limited by the cost of establishing a milk bank and a lack of donors, but the optimal rationing of limited donor milk is unclear. This paper uses an economic model to explore how a limited donor milk supply should be allocated across very low birthweight infants in South Africa considering 2 outcomes: maximising lives saved and minimising costs. We developed a probabilistic cohort Markov decision model with 10,000 infants across 4 birthweight groups. We evaluated allocation scenarios in which infants in each group could be exclusively formula-fed or fed donor milk for 14 or 28 days and thereafter formula until death or discharge. Prioritising infants in the lowest birthweight groups would save the most lives, whereas prioritising infants in the highest birthweight groups would result in the highest cost savings. All allocation scenarios would be considered very cost-effective in South Africa compared to the use of formula; the "worst case" was $619 per Disability Adjusted Life Year averted. There is a compelling argument to increase the supply of donor milk in middle-income countries. Our analysis could be extended by taking a longer term perspective, using data from more than one country and exploring the use of donor milk as an adjunct to mother's own milk, rather than a pure substitute for it.

Room for improvement in breast milk feeding after very preterm birth in Europe: Results from the EPICE cohort.

Matern Child Nutr; 14(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714111


Breast milk feeding (BMF) is associated with lower neonatal morbidity in the very preterm infant (<32 weeks gestation) and breastfeeding is beneficial for maternal health. Previous studies show large variations in BMF after very preterm birth and recognize the need for targeted breastfeeding support in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU). In a European collaboration project about evidence-based practices after very preterm birth, we examined the association between maternal, obstetric, and infant clinical factors; neonatal and maternal care unit policies; and BMF at discharge from the NICU. In multivariable analyses, covariates associated with feeding at discharge were first investigated as predictors of any BMF and in further analysis as predictors of exclusive or partial BMF. Overall, 58% (3,826/6,592) of the infants received any BMF at discharge, but there were large variations between regions (range 36-80%). Primiparity, administration of antenatal corticosteroids, first enteral feed <24 hr after birth, and mother's own milk at first enteral feed were predictors positively associated with any BMF at discharge. Vaginal delivery, singleton birth, and receiving mother's own milk at first enteral feed were associated with exclusive BMF at discharge. Units with a Baby Friendly Hospital accreditation improved any BMF at discharge; units with protocols for BMF and units using donor milk had higher rates of exclusive BMF at discharge. This study suggests that there is a high potential for improving BMF through policies and support in the NICU.

Genomics of lactation: role of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics in the fatty acid composition of human milk.

Br J Nutr; 118(3): 161-168, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831952


Human milk covers the infant's nutrient requirements during the first 6 months of life. The composition of human milk progressively changes during lactation and it is influenced by maternal nutritional factors. Nowadays, it is well known that nutrients have the ability to interact with genes and modulate molecular mechanisms impacting physiological functions. This has led to a growing interest among researchers in exploring nutrition at a molecular level and to the development of two fields of study: nutrigenomics, which evaluates the influence of nutrients on gene expression, and nutrigenetics, which evaluates the heterogeneous individual response to nutrients due to genetic variation. Fatty acids are one of the nutrients most studied in relation to lactation given their biologically important roles during early postnatal life. Fatty acids modulate transcription factors involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, which in turn causes a variation in the proportion of lipids in milk. This review focuses on understanding, on the one hand, the gene transcription mechanisms activated by maternal dietary fatty acids and, on the other hand, the interaction between dietary fatty acids and genetic variation in genes involved in lipid metabolism. Both of these mechanisms affect the fatty acid composition of human milk.

Human Milk Processing: A Systematic Review of Innovative Techniques to Ensure the Safety and Quality of Donor Milk.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 64(3): 353-361, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27755345


Pasteurization, performed at 62.5°C for 30 minutes (holder pasteurization), is currently recommended in all international human milk banks guidelines, but it affects some human milk bioactive and nutritive components. The present systematic review is aimed at critically reviewing evidence on the suitability of human milk processing techniques other than holder pasteurization, both thermal and nonthermal, to ensure microbiological safety, and on the effects of these techniques on biologically active donor milk components. A systematic review of English and non-English articles using Medline, PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS, and CAB Abstracts, with no restriction in publication date was performed. Search terms included: human, breast, donor, or banked milk, breastmilk, breast fed, breastfed, breastfeed; HTST, Flash, High Pressure, UV, ultrasonic or nonthermal; process, pasteuris, pasteuriz. Only primary research articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included, providing or not a comparison with holder pasteurized human milk, provided that the pasteurization technique was clearly described, and not intended for domestic use. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of relevant articles. Twenty-six studies were identified as being relevant. Two examined both High Pressure Processing and High-Temperature-Short-Time pasteurization; 10 only examined High Pressure Processing; 10 only examined High-Temperature-Short-Time; 2 articles examined ultraviolet irradiation; 2 articles examined (thermo-)ultrasonic processing. The results indicate that data about safety for microbiological control are still scarce for most of the novel technologies, and that consensus on processing conditions is necessary for nonthermal technologies, before any conclusions on the qualitative and nutritional advantages of these techniques can be drawn.

Stability of Cortisol and Cortisone in Human Breast Milk During Holder Pasteurization.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 65(6): 658-660, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691975


Human donor milk is the feeding of choice for preterm infants, when own mother's milk is not available. Holder pasteurization is necessary to secure the safety of donor milk, although it can affect milk quality by reduction of nutritional and bioactive components. Recently, research has focused on the potential role of breast milk glucocorticoids for infant development. At this moment, it is unknown whether pasteurization affects milk glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, we assessed whether Holder pasteurization, the most frequently used method nowadays, reduces breast milk cortisol and cortisone levels, using breast milk samples from 30 women who delivered at term. We found tight correlations between pre- and postpasteurization levels of cortisol (R = 0.99) and cortisone (R = 0.98), and good agreement in Passing and Bablok regression analysis. In conclusion, cortisol and cortisone in human term breast milk are not significantly affected by Holder pasteurization.

A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

Matern Child Nutr; 13(1)2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26776058


While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme, Immunoglobulin A, oligosaccharides and sodium in longitudinal samples of mother's milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification.
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