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1.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): B1-B9, enero-abril 2025. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554700

RESUMO

Introducción: Las enfermedades cerebrovasculares son consideradas un problema de salud pública que afectan muchas capacidades en el individuo, entre ellas la comunicación; de esta manera el cuidador cumple un papel fundamental en su recuperación. Objetivo: Describir el rol comunicativo del cuidador en la atención a pacientes con secuelas de accidente cerebrovascular en la ciudad de Sincelejo, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Paradigma positivista, enfoque cuantitativo y estudio descriptivo de corte transversal realizado con 40 cuidadores, seleccionados según muestreo por criterios y reclutamiento en cadena. Se utilizó una encuesta sociodemográfica, una sobre favorecimiento y bienestar comunicativo y Escala Likert, se realizó análisis de fiabilidad y consistencia interna del instrumento. Resultados: Predominaron cuidadores de sexo femenino, sobresale el cuidador informal, con estudios de secundaria y estrato socioeconómico bajo. Se encontró una actitud favorable en la competencia del ser y saber hacer, prima el buen trato, justicia y respeto. La competencia del saber evidenció actitud desfavorable, caracterizada por un conocimiento limitado frente a la patología, insuficientes destrezas, técnicas y habilidades para cumplir sus funciones y estrategias empleadas. Conclusión: Es necesario cualificar al cuidador en la atención del paciente con accidente cerebrovascular, mediante programas de que dinamicen la competencia del ser, saber y saber hacer


Introduction: Cerebrovascular diseases are a public health problem affecting the different capabilities of patients, including communication. Thus, caregivers play a fundamental role in their recovery. Objective: To describe the communicative role of caregivers in the support of patients with stroke sequelae in the city of Sincelejo, Colombia. Materials and methods: A positivist paradigm, quantitative approach, and descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 40 caregivers, who were selected according to criteria sampling and chain recruitment. A sociodemographic survey about favorability and communicative well-being as well as the Likert Scale were applied. A reliability and internal consistency analysis was conducted. Results: The majority of caregivers were women. Informal caregivers, with high school education, and belonging to low socioeconomic status were also predominant. A positive attitude regarding competences such as being and knowing what to do; appropriate treatment of patients, with justice and respect, were observed as common features. The knowledge competence was considered unfavorable, which was characterized by limited understanding regarding pathology, strategies used, and insufficient skills, techniques, and abilities to fulfill their functions. Conclusions: Caregivers of stroke patients should be qualified through programs that improve the being, knowing, and knowing how to do competencies.


Introdução: As doenças cerebrovasculares são consideradas um problema de saúde pública que afeta diversas capacidades do indivíduo, incluindo a comunicação; desta forma, o cuidador desempenha um papel fundamental na sua recuperação. Objetivo: Descrever o papel comunicativo do cuidador no cuidado de pacientes com sequelas de acidente vascular cerebral na cidade de Sincelejo, Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Paradigma positivista, abordagem quantitativa e estudo transversal descritivo realizado com 40 cuidadores, selecionados segundo critérios de amostragem e recrutamento em cadeia. Foi utilizado um inquérito sociodemográfico, um de favorabilidade e bem-estar comunicativo e uma Escala Likert, foi realizada uma análise da fiabilidade e consistência interna do instrumento. Resultados: Predominaram cuidadores do sexo feminino, destacando-se os cuidadores informais, com escolaridade média e baixo nível socioeconômico. Encontrou-se na competição uma atitude favorável por ser e saber fazer, prevalecendo o bom tratamento, a justiça e o respeito. A competência conhecimento apresentou atitude desfavorável, caracterizada por conhecimento limitado sobre a patologia, habilidades, técnicas e habilidades insuficientes para cumprir suas funções e estratégias utilizadas. Conclusões: É necessário qualificar o cuidador no cuidado ao paciente com AVC, por meio de programas que potencializem a competência de ser, saber e saber fazer.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino
2.
Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh ; 22(1)2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review of qualitative studies explored interventions to improve student nurses' knowledge, attitudes or willingness to work with older people. Student nurses are likely to encounter older people in all health and aged care settings, however, research demonstrates that few have career aspirations in gerontological nursing. METHODS: Qualitative systematic review method based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. RESULTS: Search of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, EBSCOhost and Scopus yielded 1841 articles which were screened to include primary research about educational interventions to improve student nurses' knowledge, attitudes and/or willingness to work with older people. Data extraction was performed on the 14 included studies, and data were analysed using directed content analysis. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used the assess the quality of the studies. CONCLUSIONS: Educational interventions included theory or practice courses, or a combination of theory and practice. While most interventions changed nursing students' negative attitudes towards older people, few increased their willingness to work with them. Practice courses had the most significant impact on willingness to work with older people. Quality assessment revealed methodical limitations. More research is needed to better understand the elements of practice interventions that enhance student nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to work with older people, so that they can be replicated.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Idoso , Humanos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715895

RESUMO

Objectives: To identify and classify submucosal tumors by building and validating a radiomics model with gastrointestinal endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) images. Methods: A total of 144 patients diagnosed with submucosal tumors through gastrointestinal EUS were collected between January 2019 and October 2020. There are 1952 radiomic features extracted from each patient's EUS images. The statistical test and the customized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression were used for feature selection. Subsequently, an extremely randomized trees algorithm was utilized to construct a robust radiomics classification model specifically tailored for gastrointestinal EUS images. The performance of the model was measured by evaluating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: The radiomics model comprised 30 selected features that showed good discrimination performance in the validation cohorts. During validation, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated as 0.9203 and the mean value after 10-fold cross-validation was 0.9260, indicating excellent stability and calibration. These results confirm the clinical utility of the model. Conclusions: Utilizing the dataset provided curated from gastrointestinal EUS examinations at our collaborating hospital, we have developed a well-performing radiomics model. It can be used for personalized and non-invasive prediction of the type of submucosal tumors, providing physicians with aid for early treatment and management of tumor progression.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715896

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related diseaseis a systemic inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by increases in serum IgG4 and in the number of IgG4-positive cells in affected tissues. One of the commonly involved locations is the pancreas; this condition is known as type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Type 1 AIP, which shows a biliary stricture in the intrapancreatic bile duct, can be misdiagnosed as a malignancy due to similar cholangiography findings and clinical presentation. In rare cases complicated by post-bulbar duodenal ulcers, differentiating between type 1 AIP and malignancies is even more difficult. An 81-year-old male was referred to our hospital for the treatment of a pancreatic head mass and obstructive jaundice. Serological and radiological findings were consistent with both type 1 AIP and a malignancy. Gastroduodenoscopy revealed a post-bulbar duodenal ulcer with endoscopic features that evoked malignant duodenal invasion. Although biopsies were negative for malignant cells, subsequent bleeding from the lesion suggested the progression of malignancy, which led to surgical resection. Pancreatoduodenectomy and pathological examination indicated that type 1 AIP was present. Simultaneously, the involvement of IgG4-related disease in the ulcerative lesion was suggested. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of type 1 AIP complicated by post-bulbar duodenal ulcers, which was misdiagnosed as malignancy and considered an IgG4-related gastrointestinal disease associated with type 1 AIP.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715897

RESUMO

Objectives: Cold snare polypectomy (CSP) is widely performed for small colorectal polyps. However, small colorectal polyps sometimes include high-grade adenomas or carcinomas that require endoscopic resection with electrocautery. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel resection technique, hot snare polypectomy with low-power pure-cut current (LPPC-HSP) for small colorectal polyps, compared with CSP and conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Methods: Records of patients who underwent CSP, EMR, or LPPC-HSP for nonpedunculated colorectal polyps less than 10 mm between April 2021 and March 2022 were retrospectively evaluated. We analyzed and compared the treatment outcomes of CSP and EMR with those of LPPC-HSP using propensity score matching. Results: After propensity score matching of 396 pairs, an analysis of CSP and LPPC-HSP indicated that LPPC-HSP had a significantly higher R0 resection rate (84% vs. 68%; p < 0.01). Delayed bleeding was observed in only two cases treated with CSP before matching. Perforation was not observed with either treatment. After propensity score matching of 176 pairs, an analysis of EMR and LPPC-HSP indicated that their en bloc and R0 resection rates were not significantly different (99.4% vs. 100%, p = 1.00; 79% vs. 81%, p = 0.79). Delayed bleeding and perforation were not observed with either treatment. Conclusions: The safety of LPPC-HSP was comparable to that of CSP. The treatment outcomes of LPPC-HSP were comparable to those of conventional EMR for small polyps. These results suggest that this technique is a safe and effective treatment for nonpedunculated polyps less than 10 mm.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725874

RESUMO

Objective: Iodine staining on white light imaging (WLI) is the gold standard for detecting and demarcating esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We examined the effects of texture and color enhancement imaging (TXI) on improving the endoscopic visibility of ESCC under iodine staining. Methods: Twenty ESCC lesions that underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection were retrospectively included. The color difference between ESCC and the surrounding mucosa (ΔEe) on WLI, TXI, and narrow-band imaging was assessed, and ΔEe under 1% iodine staining on WLI and TXI. Furthermore, the visibility grade determined by endoscopists was evaluated on each imaging. Result: The median ΔEe was greater on TXI than on WLI (14.53 vs. 10.71, respectively; p < 0.005). Moreover, the median ΔEe on TXI under iodine staining was greater than the median ΔEe on TXI and narrow-band imaging (39.20 vs. 14.53 vs. 16.42, respectively; p < 0.005 for both). A positive correlation in ΔEe under iodine staining was found between TXI and WLI (correlation coefficient = 0.61, p < 0.01). Moreover, ΔEe under iodine staining on TXI in each lesion was greater than the corresponding ΔEe on WLI. The visibility grade assessed by endoscopists on TXI was also significantly greater than that on WLI under iodine staining (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The visibility of ESCC after iodine staining was greater on TXI than on WLI.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725875

RESUMO

Accurate measurement of the size of lesions or distances between any two points during endoscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract is difficult owing to the fisheye lens used in endoscopy. To overcome this issue, we developed a phase-shift method to measure three-dimensional (3D) data on a curved surface, which we present herein. Our system allows the creation of 3D shapes on a curved surface by the phase-shift method using a stripe pattern projected from a small projecting device to an object. For evaluation, 88 measurement points were inserted in porcine stomach tissue, attached to a half-pipe jig, with an inner radius of 21 mm. The accuracy and precision of the measurement data for our shape measurement system were compared with the data obtained using an Olympus STM6 measurement microscope. The accuracy of the path length of a simulated protruded lesion was evaluated using a plaster model of the curved stomach and graph paper. The difference in height measures between the measurement microscope and measurement system data was 0.24 mm for the 88 measurement points on the curved surface of the porcine stomach. The error in the path length measurement for a lesion on an underlying curved surface was <1% for a 10-mm lesion. The software was developed for the automated calculation of the major and minor diameters of each lesion. The accuracy of our measurement system could improve the accuracy of determining the size of lesions, whether protruded or depressed, regardless of the curvature of the underlying surface.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770399

RESUMO

Objective: The population-based colorectal cancer screening guidelines in Japan recommend an annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT). However, there is no consensus on the need for annual FIT screening for patients who recently performed a total colonoscopy (TCS). Therefore, we evaluated the repeated TCS results for patients with positive FIT after a recent TCS to assess the necessity of an annual FIT. Methods: We reviewed patients with positive FIT in opportunistic screening from April 2017 to March 2022. The patients were divided into two groups: those who had undergone TCS within the previous 5 years (previous TCS group) and those who had not (non-previous TCS group). We compared the detection rates of advanced neoplasia and colorectal cancer between the two groups. Results: Of 671 patients, 151 had received TCS within 5 years and 520 had not. The detection rates of advanced neoplasia in the previous TCS and non-previous TCS groups were 4.6% and 12.1%, respectively (p < 0.01), and the colorectal cancer detection rates were 0.7% and 1.5%, respectively (no significant difference). The adenoma detection rates were 33.8% in the previous TCS group and 40.0% in the non-previous TCS group (no significant difference). Conclusions: Only a few patients were diagnosed with advanced neoplasia among the patients with FIT positive after a recent TCS. For patients with adenomatous lesions on previous TCS, repeated TCS should be performed according to the surveillance program without an annual FIT. The need for an annual FIT for patients without adenomatous lesions on previous TCS should be prospectively assessed in the future.

9.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 21-28, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767473

RESUMO

Rare neurological diseases, while individually are rare, collectively impact millions globally, leading to diverse and often severe neurological symptoms. Often attributed to genetic mutations that disrupt protein function or structure, understanding their genetic basis is crucial for accurate diagnosis and targeted therapies. To investigate the underlying pathogenesis of these conditions, researchers often use non-mammalian model organisms, such as Drosophila (fruit flies), which is valued for their genetic manipulability, cost-efficiency, and preservation of genes and biological functions across evolutionary time. Genetic tools available in Drosophila, including CRISPR-Cas9, offer a means to manipulate gene expression, allowing for a deep exploration of the genetic underpinnings of rare neurological diseases. Drosophila boasts a versatile genetic toolkit, rapid generation turnover, and ease of large-scale experimentation, making it an invaluable resource for identifying potential drug candidates. Researchers can expose flies carrying disease-associated mutations to various compounds, rapidly pinpointing promising therapeutic agents for further investigation in mammalian models and, ultimately, clinical trials. In this comprehensive review, we explore rare neurological diseases where fly research has significantly contributed to our understanding of their genetic basis, pathophysiology, and potential therapeutic implications. We discuss rare diseases associated with both neuron-expressed and glial-expressed genes. Specific cases include mutations in CDK19 resulting in epilepsy and developmental delay, mutations in TIAM1 leading to a neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and language delay, and mutations in IRF2BPL causing seizures, a neurodevelopmental disorder with regression, loss of speech, and abnormal movements. And we explore mutations in EMC1 related to cerebellar atrophy, visual impairment, psychomotor retardation, and gain-of-function mutations in ACOX1 causing Mitchell syndrome. Loss-of-function mutations in ACOX1 result in ACOX1 deficiency, characterized by very-long-chain fatty acid accumulation and glial degeneration. Notably, this review highlights how modeling these diseases in Drosophila has provided valuable insights into their pathophysiology, offering a platform for the rapid identification of potential therapeutic interventions. Rare neurological diseases involve a wide range of expression systems, and sometimes common phenotypes can be found among different genes that cause abnormalities in neurons or glia. Furthermore, mutations within the same gene may result in varying functional outcomes, such as complete loss of function, partial loss of function, or gain-of-function mutations. The phenotypes observed in patients can differ significantly, underscoring the complexity of these conditions. In conclusion, Drosophila represents an indispensable and cost-effective tool for investigating rare neurological diseases. By facilitating the modeling of these conditions, Drosophila contributes to a deeper understanding of their genetic basis, pathophysiology, and potential therapies. This approach accelerates the discovery of promising drug candidates, ultimately benefiting patients affected by these complex and understudied diseases.

10.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 5, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767471
11.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 29-40, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767474

RESUMO

The development of neurodegenerative diseases is closely related to the disruption of central nervous system homeostasis. Microglia, as innate immune cells, play important roles in the maintenance of central nervous system homeostasis, injury response, and neurodegenerative diseases. Lactate has been considered a metabolic waste product, but recent studies are revealing ever more of the physiological functions of lactate. Lactylation is an important pathway in lactate function and is involved in glycolysis-related functions, macrophage polarization, neuromodulation, and angiogenesis and has also been implicated in the development of various diseases. This review provides an overview of the lactate metabolic and homeostatic regulatory processes involved in microglia lactylation, histone versus non-histone lactylation, and therapeutic approaches targeting lactate. Finally, we summarize the current research on microglia lactylation in central nervous system diseases. A deeper understanding of the metabolic regulatory mechanisms of microglia lactylation will provide more options for the treatment of central nervous system diseases.

12.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 41-53, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767475

RESUMO

Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a quinone described as a cofactor for many bacterial dehydrogenases and is reported to exert an effect on metabolism in mammalian cells/tissues. Pyrroloquinoline quinone is present in the diet being available in foodstuffs, conferring the potential of this compound to be supplemented by dietary administration. Pyrroloquinoline quinone's nutritional role in mammalian health is supported by the extensive deficits in reproduction, growth, and immunity resulting from the dietary absence of pyrroloquinoline quinone, and as such, pyrroloquinoline quinone has been considered as a "new vitamin." Although the classification of pyrroloquinoline quinone as a vitamin needs to be properly established, the wide range of benefits for health provided has been reported in many studies. In this respect, pyrroloquinoline quinone seems to be particularly involved in regulating cell signaling pathways that promote metabolic and mitochondrial processes in many experimental contexts, thus dictating the rationale to consider pyrroloquinoline quinone as a vital compound for mammalian life. Through the regulation of different metabolic mechanisms, pyrroloquinoline quinone may improve clinical deficits where dysfunctional metabolism and mitochondrial activity contribute to induce cell damage and death. Pyrroloquinoline quinone has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective properties in different experimental models of neurodegeneration, although the link between pyrroloquinoline quinone-promoted metabolism and improved neuronal viability in some of such contexts is still to be fully elucidated. Here, we review the general properties of pyrroloquinoline quinone and its capacity to modulate metabolic and mitochondrial mechanisms in physiological contexts. In addition, we analyze the neuroprotective properties of pyrroloquinoline quinone in different neurodegenerative conditions and consider future perspectives for pyrroloquinoline quinone's potential in health and disease.

13.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 54-66, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767476

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is a prominent chronic neurodegenerative condition characterized by a gradual decline in memory leading to dementia. Growing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease is associated with accumulating various amyloid-ß oligomers in the brain, influenced by complex genetic and environmental factors. The memory and cognitive deficits observed during the prodromal and mild cognitive impairment phases of Alzheimer's disease are believed to primarily result from synaptic dysfunction. Throughout life, environmental factors can lead to enduring changes in gene expression and the emergence of brain disorders. These changes, known as epigenetic modifications, also play a crucial role in regulating the formation of synapses and their adaptability in response to neuronal activity. In this context, we highlight recent advances in understanding the roles played by key components of the epigenetic machinery, specifically DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs, in the development of Alzheimer's disease, synaptic function, and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Moreover, we explore various strategies, including enriched environments, exposure to non-invasive brain stimulation, and the use of pharmacological agents, aimed at improving synaptic function and enhancing long-term potentiation, a process integral to epigenetic mechanisms. Lastly, we deliberate on the development of effective epigenetic agents and safe therapeutic approaches for managing Alzheimer's disease. We suggest that addressing Alzheimer's disease may require distinct tailored epigenetic drugs targeting different disease stages or pathways rather than relying on a single drug.

14.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 67-81, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767477

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with an increasing trend and tendency for onset at a younger age. China, in particular, bears a high burden of stroke cases. In recent years, the inflammatory response after stroke has become a research hotspot: understanding the role of inflammatory response in tissue damage and repair following ischemic stroke is an important direction for its treatment. This review summarizes several major cells involved in the inflammatory response following ischemic stroke, including microglia, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and astrocytes. Additionally, we have also highlighted the recent progress in various treatments for ischemic stroke, particularly in the field of stem cell therapy. Overall, understanding the complex interactions between inflammation and ischemic stroke can provide valuable insights for developing treatment strategies and improving patient outcomes. Stem cell therapy may potentially become an important component of ischemic stroke treatment.

15.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 107-115, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767480

RESUMO

High-mobility group box 1 was first discovered in the calf thymus as a DNA-binding nuclear protein and has been widely studied in diverse fields, including neurology and neuroscience. High-mobility group box 1 in the extracellular space functions as a pro-inflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern, which has been proven to play an important role in a wide variety of central nervous system disorders such as ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury. Several drugs that inhibit high-mobility group box 1 as a damage-associated molecular pattern, such as glycyrrhizin, ethyl pyruvate, and neutralizing anti-high-mobility group box 1 antibodies, are commonly used to target high-mobility group box 1 activity in central nervous system disorders. Although it is commonly known for its detrimental inflammatory effect, high-mobility group box 1 has also been shown to have beneficial pro-regenerative roles in central nervous system disorders. In this narrative review, we provide a brief summary of the history of high-mobility group box 1 research and its characterization as a damage-associated molecular pattern, its downstream receptors, and intracellular signaling pathways, how high-mobility group box 1 exerts the repair-favoring roles in general and in the central nervous system, and clues on how to differentiate the pro-regenerative from the pro-inflammatory role. Research targeting high-mobility group box 1 in the central nervous system may benefit from differentiating between the two functions rather than overall suppression of high-mobility group box 1.

16.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 82-92, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767478

RESUMO

Understanding the neural underpinning of human gait and balance is one of the most pertinent challenges for 21st-century translational neuroscience due to the profound impact that falls and mobility disturbances have on our aging population. Posture and gait control does not happen automatically, as previously believed, but rather requires continuous involvement of central nervous mechanisms. To effectively exert control over the body, the brain must integrate multiple streams of sensory information, including visual, vestibular, and somatosensory signals. The mechanisms which underpin the integration of these multisensory signals are the principal topic of the present work. Existing multisensory integration theories focus on how failure of cognitive processes thought to be involved in multisensory integration leads to falls in older adults. Insufficient emphasis, however, has been placed on specific contributions of individual sensory modalities to multisensory integration processes and cross-modal interactions that occur between the sensory modalities in relation to gait and balance. In the present work, we review the contributions of somatosensory, visual, and vestibular modalities, along with their multisensory intersections to gait and balance in older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease. We also review evidence of vestibular contributions to multisensory temporal binding windows, previously shown to be highly pertinent to fall risk in older adults. Lastly, we relate multisensory vestibular mechanisms to potential neural substrates, both at the level of neurobiology (concerning positron emission tomography imaging) and at the level of electrophysiology (concerning electroencephalography). We hope that this integrative review, drawing influence across multiple subdisciplines of neuroscience, paves the way for novel research directions and therapeutic neuromodulatory approaches, to improve the lives of older adults and patients with neurodegenerative diseases.

17.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 130-138, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767482

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neuromuscular condition resulting from the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. While the typical clinical phenotype of ALS involves both upper and lower motor neurons, human and animal studies over the years have highlighted the potential spread to other motor and non-motor regions, expanding the phenotype of ALS. Although superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations represent a minority of ALS cases, the SOD1 gene remains a milestone in ALS research as it represents the first genetic target for personalized therapies. Despite numerous single case reports or case series exhibiting extramotor symptoms in patients with ALS mutations in SOD1 (SOD1-ALS), no studies have comprehensively explored the full spectrum of extramotor neurological manifestations in this subpopulation. In this narrative review, we analyze and discuss the available literature on extrapyramidal and non-motor features during SOD1-ALS. The multifaceted expression of SOD1 could deepen our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, pointing towards a multidisciplinary approach for affected patients in light of new therapeutic strategies for SOD1-ALS.

18.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 93-106, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767479

RESUMO

Nowadays, presynaptic dopaminergic positron emission tomography, which assesses deficiencies in dopamine synthesis, storage, and transport, is widely utilized for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the latest developments in the application of presynaptic dopaminergic positron emission tomography imaging in disorders that manifest parkinsonism. We conducted a thorough literature search using reputable databases such as PubMed and Web of Science. Selection criteria involved identifying peer-reviewed articles published within the last 5 years, with emphasis on their relevance to clinical applications. The findings from these studies highlight that presynaptic dopaminergic positron emission tomography has demonstrated potential not only in diagnosing and differentiating various Parkinsonian conditions but also in assessing disease severity and predicting prognosis. Moreover, when employed in conjunction with other imaging modalities and advanced analytical methods, presynaptic dopaminergic positron emission tomography has been validated as a reliable in vivo biomarker. This validation extends to screening and exploring potential neuropathological mechanisms associated with dopaminergic depletion. In summary, the insights gained from interpreting these studies are crucial for enhancing the effectiveness of preclinical investigations and clinical trials, ultimately advancing toward the goals of neuroregeneration in parkinsonian disorders.

19.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 6-20, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767472

RESUMO

The endoplasmic reticulum, a key cellular organelle, regulates a wide variety of cellular activities. Endoplasmic reticulum autophagy, one of the quality control systems of the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a pivotal role in maintaining endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis by controlling endoplasmic reticulum turnover, remodeling, and proteostasis. In this review, we briefly describe the endoplasmic reticulum quality control system, and subsequently focus on the role of endoplasmic reticulum autophagy, emphasizing the spatial and temporal mechanisms underlying the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum autophagy according to cellular requirements. We also summarize the evidence relating to how defective or abnormal endoplasmic reticulum autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In summary, this review highlights the mechanisms associated with the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum autophagy and how they influence the pathophysiology of degenerative nerve disorders. This review would help researchers to understand the roles and regulatory mechanisms of endoplasmic reticulum-phagy in neurodegenerative disorders.

20.
Neural Regen Res ; 20(1): 174-180, 2025 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767485

RESUMO

γ-Secretase, called "the proteasome of the membrane," is a membrane-embedded protease complex that cleaves 150+ peptide substrates with central roles in biology and medicine, including amyloid precursor protein and the Notch family of cell-surface receptors. Mutations in γ-secretase and amyloid precursor protein lead to early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. γ-Secretase has thus served as a critical drug target for treating familial Alzheimer's disease and the more common late-onset Alzheimer's disease as well. However, critical gaps remain in understanding the mechanisms of processive proteolysis of substrates, the effects of familial Alzheimer's disease mutations, and allosteric modulation of substrate cleavage by γ-secretase. In this review, we focus on recent studies of structural dynamic mechanisms of γ-secretase. Different mechanisms, including the "Fit-Stay-Trim," "Sliding-Unwinding," and "Tilting-Unwinding," have been proposed for substrate proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein by γ-secretase based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. While an incorrect registry of the Notch1 substrate was identified in the cryo-electron microscopy structure of Notch1-bound γ-secretase, molecular dynamics simulations on a resolved model of Notch1-bound γ-secretase that was reconstructed using the amyloid precursor protein-bound γ-secretase as a template successfully captured γ-secretase activation for proper cleavages of both wildtype and mutant Notch, being consistent with biochemical experimental findings. The approach could be potentially applied to decipher the processing mechanisms of various substrates by γ-secretase. In addition, controversy over the effects of familial Alzheimer's disease mutations, particularly the issue of whether they stabilize or destabilize γ-secretase-substrate complexes, is discussed. Finally, an outlook is provided for future studies of γ-secretase, including pathways of substrate binding and product release, effects of modulators on familial Alzheimer's disease mutations of the γ-secretase-substrate complexes. Comprehensive understanding of the functional mechanisms of γ-secretase will greatly facilitate the rational design of effective drug molecules for treating familial Alzheimer's disease and perhaps Alzheimer's disease in general.

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