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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260090, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374700

RESUMO

Ophiactis savignyi could be discovered all over the world in tropical marine environments. People could have aided in the spread of O. savignyi, particularly in the western and eastern populations of Panama's Isthmus. The brittle star Ophiactis savignyi, often known as savigny's brittle star, coexists alongside the sponge Geodia corticostylifera. The focus of this research has been to assess the functional relevance of G. corticostylifera secondary metabolites as antifoulant against mussels, protection against generalist fish, and chemical cues to affiliated brittle stars. Both in flow-through and static seawater laboratory studies, O. savignyi which has previously been connected with sponges, was given both treated and control mimics at the same time. The sponge extract was also tested for its ability to protect fish against predators and fouling. Deterrence test using chemicals indicated that the normal level of the sponge extract may also suppress generalist fish predation in the field as well as the mussel Perna perna's normal attachment in clinical contexts. According to the findings, G. corticostylifera crude extract has many roles in the aquatic environments, apparently being accountable for this sponge's tighter relationship with O. savignyi, which protects the ophiuroid and inhibits epibionts on itself.


Ophiactis savignyi pode ser descoberta em todo o mundo em ambientes marinhos tropicais. A população pode ter contribuído para a propagação de O. savignyi, particularmente as populações ocidentais e orientais do istmo do Panamá. A estrela-quebradiça O. savignyi, muitas vezes conhecida como estrela-quebradiça de Savignyi, coexiste com a esponja Geodia corticostylifera. O foco desta pesquisa foi avaliar a relevância funcional dos metabólitos secundários de G. corticostylifera como anti-incrustante contra mexilhões, proteção contra peixes generalistas e sinais químicos para estrelas-quebradiças afiliadas. Em estudos de laboratório com fluxo contínuo e estático de água do mar, O. savignyi, que anteriormente havia se ligado a esponjas, recebeu mimetizadores tratados e controle ao mesmo tempo. O extrato de esponja também foi testado por sua capacidade de proteger os peixes contra predadores e incrustações. Testes de dissuasão usando produtos químicos indicaram que o nível normal de extrato de esponja também pode suprimir a predação de peixes generalistas no campo, bem como a fixação normal do mexilhão Perna perna em ambientes clínicos. De acordo com os achados, o extrato bruto de G. corticostylifera tem diversas funções em ambientes aquáticos, aparentemente responsáveis ​​pela relação mais próxima dessa esponja com O. savignyi, protegendo o ofiuroide e inibindo os epibiontes.


Assuntos
Animais , Poríferos/parasitologia , Simbiose , Bactérias , Geodia/parasitologia
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e261768, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374690

RESUMO

The current study was designed to check the anthelmintic activities of some local plants. Seeds of Amomum (A.) subulatum and Vitex (V.) negundo in different solvents were subjected to in vitro (adult motility assay; AMA and egg hatch assay; EHA) and in vivo (faecal egg count reduction test; FECRT) anthelmintic activity testing protocols using Haemonchus (H.) contortus as an experimental model. The results of AMA, EHA, and FECRT were statistically analysed through linear regression and Duncan multiple range test. In AMA test, at 50 mg mL-1 concentration, the percent mortality of H. contortus was higher in A. subulatum than V. negundo, whereas, in EHA test, A. subulatum was proven better ovicidal (LC50=14.2 µg mL-1) than V. negundo (LC50= 65.7405 µg mL-1). The FECRT also indicated the better efficacy of A. subulatum than V. negundo against natural infection of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites. The crude powder of plants used in this study showed 29.6% to 57.7% anthelmintic. The reduction rate was found higher for A. subulatum (3 g kg-1) as compared to V. negundo (7 g kg-1). Reagrding efficacy analysis of solvents used for plants extract, ethyl acetate and chloroform were found better in increasing ovicidal activity in adult worms (in vitro testing), whereas, the crude aqueous methanol was found better than the crude powders in in vivo testing. It will be beneficial to document the indigenous knowledge to standard scientific procedures for their validation. This study will help to motivate the farmers to make a better choice of cultivation of the indigenous plants because of their varying efficacies as an alternative preventive approach against the GI parasitic infections.


O presente estudo foi desenhado para verificar as propriedades anti-helmínticas de algumas plantas locais. Sementes de Amomum (A.) subulatum e Vitex (V.) negundo em diferentes solventes foram submetidas à análise de atividade anti-helmíntica in vitro (ensaio de motilidade de adultos; AMA e teste de eclosão de ovos; EHA) e in vivo (teste de redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes; TRCOF), usando o Haemonchus (H.) contortus como modelo experimental no protocolo de teste. Os resultados dos testes AMA, EHA e TRCOF foram analisados ​​estatisticamente por meio de regressão linear e teste de Duncan. No teste AMA, na concentração de 50 mg mL-1, o percentual de mortalidade de H. contortus foi maior com o uso de A. subulatum do que com V. negundo, enquanto, no teste EHA, A. subulatum apresentou maior ação ovicida (LC50=14,2 µg mL- 1) do que V. negundo (LC50= 65,7405 µg mL-1). O TRCOF também indicou a melhor eficácia do uso de A. subulatum do que de V. negundo contra a infecção natural de parasitas gastrointestinais (GI). O extrato bruto seco das plantas utilizadas neste estudo apresentou 29,6% a 57,7% de atividade anti-helmíntica. A taxa de redução observada com o uso de A. subulatum (3 g kg-1) foi maior que com o uso de V. negundo (7 g kg-1). Em relação à análise da eficácia dos solventes utilizados para o extrato de plantas, o acetato de etila e o clorofórmio apresentaram maior ação ovicida em vermes adultos (testes in vitro), enquanto o extrato bruto metanólico aquoso apresentou maior eficácia do que os extratos brutos secos em testes in vivo. Consideramos vantajoso documentar o conhecimento indígena relativos aos procedimentos científicos padronizados, para sua validação. Este estudo irá servir de motivação para que os agricultores façam escolhas melhores referentes ao cultivo das plantas indígenas devido às suas diferentes eficácias comprovadas, servindo como alternativa para a abordagem preventiva contra as infecções parasitárias GI.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias , Plantas Medicinais , Vitex/parasitologia , Amomum/parasitologia , Anti-Helmínticos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243332, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345537

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo manifestar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos metanólicos de Salix alba L. contra sete patógenos bacterianos Gram-positivos e Gram-negativos. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) e Neisseria gonorrhoeae e três isolados de fungos do ar, como Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, e Rhizopus stolonifer. Dois sorotipos diferentes de S. aureus e E. coli foram usados. Os resultados do método de difusão em ágar mostraram a resposta dependente da dose de extratos de plantas contra cepas de bactérias e fungos, enquanto alguns organismos foram considerados resistentes, e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus e R. stolonifer. A maior atividade antibacteriana foi registrada em 17.000 ± 1.732 de 100 mg/mL de extratos metanólicos de folhas contra S. pyogenes, enquanto a atividade da maioria dos patógenos diminuiu após 24 h de incubação. A maior atividade antifúngica foi relatada em 11,833 ± 1,0 contra A. ornatus a 50 mg/mL após 48 h do período de incubação. Esses achados experimentais endossam o uso de S. alba em formulações etnofarmacológicas e sugerem o uso de extratos metanólicos da referida planta para o desenvolvimento de fármacos que controlem a proliferação de doenças resistentes que causam micróbios patogênicos.


Assuntos
Salix , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Metanol , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
5.
R I Med J (2013) ; 105(10): 19-24, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413447

RESUMO

Acute severe ulcerative colitis is a rapidly progressive severe form of colitis that can occur in 20-30% patients with ulcerative colitis. Early recognition, hospitalization at centers with experience and expertise and multidisciplinary treatment is the cornerstone of appropriate management of this condition. After excluding infections and other differentials, patients should be started on parenteral corticosteroids to control inflammation. ASUC patients are at high risk for thromboembolic complications and hence DVT prophylaxis is ideally started as soon as possible in the emergency room and continued throughout hospitalization. Objective criteria should be applied to assess improvement and identify patients who are unlikely to improve without second line/rescue therapy as early as 72 hours on steroid therapy. Infliximab and cyclosporine are the most used options for second line therapy and should be administered under direction by gastroenterologists. Disease progression despite aggressive treatment or non-response to second line therapy, complications such as megacolon, perforation, hemorrhage can occur requiring colectomy as a salvage option in those patients.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Humanos , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Colite/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Progressão da Doença
8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e261768, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674590

RESUMO

The current study was designed to check the anthelmintic activities of some local plants. Seeds of Amomum (A.) subulatum and Vitex (V.) negundo in different solvents were subjected to in vitro (adult motility assay; AMA and egg hatch assay; EHA) and in vivo (faecal egg count reduction test; FECRT) anthelmintic activity testing protocols using Haemonchus (H.) contortus as an experimental model. The results of AMA, EHA, and FECRT were statistically analysed through linear regression and Duncan multiple range test. In AMA test, at 50 mg mL-1 concentration, the percent mortality of H. contortus was higher in A. subulatum than V. negundo, whereas, in EHA test, A. subulatum was proven better ovicidal (LC50=14.2 µg mL-1) than V. negundo (LC50= 65.7405 µg mL-1). The FECRT also indicated the better efficacy of A. subulatum than V. negundo against natural infection of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites. The crude powder of plants used in this study showed 29.6% to 57.7% anthelmintic. The reduction rate was found higher for A. subulatum (3 g kg-1) as compared to V. negundo (7 g kg-1). Reagrding efficacy analysis of solvents used for plants extract, ethyl acetate and chloroform were found better in increasing ovicidal activity in adult worms (in vitro testing), whereas, the crude aqueous methanol was found better than the crude powders in in vivo testing. It will be beneficial to document the indigenous knowledge to standard scientific procedures for their validation. This study will help to motivate the farmers to make a better choice of cultivation of the indigenous plants because of their varying efficacies as an alternative preventive approach against the GI parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Amomum , Anti-Helmínticos , Vitex , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes , Solventes
9.
West Afr J Med ; 39(5): 497-500, 2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35633629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute leukaemias are very aggressive diseases that run a rapidly fatal course if not promptly diagnosed and appropriately treated. The clinical presentations range from bone marrow failure such as anaemia, neutropenia or thrombocytopenia to features of organ infiltrations such as lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, etc, but presentations may be non-specific. Misdiagnosis is very common with delay in diagnosis and prompt treatment being the causes of high morbidity and mortality in acute leukaemias. This study aims to determine the pattern of presentation and various clinical entities of acute leukaemias in Bauchi State, North-Eastern Nigeria. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a three year retrospective study in which records of cases of acute leukaemias diagnosed in the Haematology Department of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital (ATBUTH) Bauchi from the bone marrow aspiration cytology register from 1st January, 2018 to 31st December, 2020 were collected. Data on socio-demographic characteristics of the patients that include age, gender, diagnosis as well as subtypes of some of the malignancies diagnosed were also collated. The collated data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Twenty-nine cases of acute leukaemias were diagnosed during the period under review. Majority of cases had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) 19/29 (65.5%) while acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) was seen in 10/29 (34.5%). The mean ± SD age of the patients was 22.2±9.2 years with a range 6 months to 60 years. Males constituted 75.9% (22/29) of the cases of acute leukaemias diagnosed. The male to female ratios for AML and ALL were 2:1 and 2.6:1 respectively. The mean±SD ages for AML and ALL were 27±9.2years and 17.3±11.3 years respectively. The most common form of presentation of acute leukaemia in this study is recurrent anaemia necessitating blood transfusion while proptosis and epistaxis were the least forms of presentation. CONCLUSION: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is the commonest form of acute leukaemias while recurrent anaemia is the commonest form of clinical presentations in our setting. Early referral of patients with clinical features suggestive of acute leukaemias is recommended.


CONTEXTE: Les leucémies aiguës sont des maladies très agressives qui exécuter un cours rapidement mortel s'il n'est pas diagnostiqué rapidement et de manière appropriée Traités. Les présentations cliniques vont de l'insuffisance médullaire tels que l'anémie, la neutropénie ou la thrombocytopénie aux caractéristiques d'infiltrations d'organes telles que lymphadénopathie, splénomégalie, etc., mais les présentations peuvent être non spécifiques. Les erreurs de diagnostic sont très courantes le retard dans le diagnostic et le traitement rapide étant les causes demorbidité et mortalité élevées dans les leucémies aiguës. Cette étude vise à :déterminer le modèle de présentation et les diverses entités cliniques de leucémies aiguës dans l'État de Bauchi, au nord-est du Nigéria. SUBJETS, MATÉRIAUX ET MÉTHODES: Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective de trois ans dans laquelle des enregistrements de cas de leucémies aiguës diagnostiqués dans le département d'hématologie d'Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital (ATBUTH) Bauchi du registre de cytologie par aspiration de la moelle osseuse du 1er janvier 2018 au31 décembre 2020 ont été collectés. Données sociodémographiques caractéristiques des patients qui incluent l'âge, le sexe, le diagnostic comme ainsi que des sous-types de certaines des tumeurs malignes diagnostiquées ont également été rassemblé. Les données rassemblées ont été analysées à l'aide de SPSS version 20.0. Une valeur de p < 0,05 a été jugée significative. RÉSULTATS: Vingt-neuf cas de leucémies aiguës ont été diagnostiqués au cours de la période considérée. La majorité des cas avaient des cas aigus leucémie lymphoblastique (LAL) 19/29 (65,5 %) en myéloïde aiguëune leucémie (LAM) a été observée chez 10/29 (34,5 %). L'âge moyen ± du DS deles patients étaient âgés de 22,2 ±9,2 ans avec une fourchette de 6 mois à 60 ans.Les hommes constituaient 75,9 % (22/29) des cas de leucémies aiguës diagnostiqué. Les ratios hommesfemmes pour la LAM et la LAL étaient de 2:1 et2.6:1 respectivement. Les âges moyens ±SD pour la LAM et la LAL étaient les suivants:27±9,2 ans et 17,3±11,3 ans respectivement. Le plus commun la forme de présentation de la leucémie aiguë dans cette étude est récurrente anémie nécessitant une transfusion sanguine pendant la proptose et l'épistaxis étaient les formes les moins présentes. CONCLUSION: La leucémie lymphoblastique aiguë est la plus courante forme de leucémies aiguës tandis que l'anémie récurrente est la plus courante forme de présentations cliniques dans notre cadre. Orientation précoce des patients avec des caractéristiques cliniques suggérant des leucémies aiguës est recommandé. Mots-clés: Leucémie aiguë, Modèle de présentation, État de Bauchi.


Assuntos
Anemia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260090, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613214

RESUMO

Ophiactis savignyi could be discovered all over the world in tropical marine environments. People could have aided in the spread of O. savignyi, particularly in the western and eastern populations of Panama's Isthmus. The brittle star Ophiactis savignyi, often known as savigny's brittle star, coexists alongside the sponge Geodia corticostylifera. The focus of this research has been to assess the functional relevance of G. corticostylifera secondary metabolites as antifoulant against mussels, protection against generalist fish, and chemical cues to affiliated brittle stars. Both in flow-through and static seawater laboratory studies, O. savignyi which has previously been connected with sponges, was given both treated and control mimics at the same time. The sponge extract was also tested for its ability to protect fish against predators and fouling. Deterrence test using chemicals indicated that the normal level of the sponge extract may also suppress generalist fish predation in the field as well as the mussel Perna perna's normal attachment in clinical contexts. According to the findings, G. corticostylifera crude extract has many roles in the aquatic environments, apparently being accountable for this sponge's tighter relationship with O. savignyi, which protects the ophiuroid and inhibits epibionts on itself.


Assuntos
Geodia , Animais , Peixes , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
12.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 2864485, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431665

RESUMO

A diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a human often contains more than one test. Calcification of the traverse carpal ligament (TCL) is the common reason why patients seek CTS surgery. However, the determination of calcium (Ca) concentration in the TCL has not been studied. The results of environmental toxicity studies assessing the relationship between Ca and elemental deposition in the TCL are inconsistent. The purpose of this paper was to verify this hypothesis by conducting a chemical analysis of a portion of the released TCL to assess whether there is a relationship between CTS and Ca, measured as the total concentration of Ca, and to measure the precipitation of elements; the most closely related elements associated with Ca are cadmium and lead, which are also toxic. Surgical release of TCL was performed on forty patients. Total concentrations of Ca, Cd, and Pb in the extracted portion of TCL were digested and determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the possibility of using X-ray spectroscopy (XRF) for direct elemental analysis. Ca mineralisation was revealed in some TCLs. In assessing patients' environmental pollution, it was observed that the Cd and Pb concentrations were significant with a higher Ca concentration, and XRF was useful for direct detection of the elements in samples of the human body. These results indicate that TCL mineralisation by Ca does not characterise CTS, which has important concerns in improving patients' therapeutic strategies, and Cd and Pb concentrations varied due to different factors.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal , Cádmio , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/cirurgia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Chumbo , Ligamentos Articulares/cirurgia
13.
Cureus ; 14(2): e22460, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371734

RESUMO

Pneumonia is a prevalent disease with considerable morbidity and mortality among the pediatric population. Early diagnosis and swift commencement of the correct treatment are vital for a favorable clinical outcome. Along with history-taking and clinical examination, imaging modalities commonly used, lung ultrasound provides a bedside, less invasive, radiation-free alternative to diagnose pneumonia when compared with other images such as chest x-ray (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) scan. It is therefore of the utmost magnitude to inspect the evidence of its accuracy and reliability in the diagnosis of this condition. The goal of this study is to look into the available data supporting the use of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of juvenile pneumonia, its relevance in distinguishing between viral and bacterial diseases, and its superiority as compared to other diagnostic methods. As mentioned, early detection and differentiation of the type of pneumonia can reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and provide patients with a better prognosis, as well as the ability to predict the course of the disease and the need for advanced care or the development of complications. An extensive literature search of two popular online medical websites (PubMed and Embase) was conducted in this review, concentrating on studies that examined the role of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia published in the last five years. Only studies published in the English language were included in this review. With high sensitivity and specificity, lung ultrasound appeared to be a promising tool not only for pediatric pneumonia diagnosis, but also for treatment guidance and disease follow-up, especially when combined with clinical presentation and laboratory findings.

14.
J Cutan Pathol ; 49(7): 618-622, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302653

RESUMO

Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by elongation and tortuosity of the large- and medium-sized arteries. ATS patients display features that are also found in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) patients. ATS is caused by pathogenic mutations in the SLC2A10 gene, which encodes for the glucose transporter, GLUT10. This study aimed at examining the ultrastructure of skin for abnormalities that can explain the loose skin and arterial phenotypes of Arab patients with the p.S81R mutation in SLC2A10. Forty-eight patients with SLC2A10 mutation were recruited for this study. Skin biopsy specimens from three children with ATS and a healthy child were examined by electron microscopy to determine the ultrastructure of collagen and elastin. Histopathologic staining of sections from tissue biopsy specimens was also performed. Large spaces were observed among the collagen fibrils in the skin biopsy specimens obtained from ATS patients, suggesting disorganization of the collagen structures. Furthermore, elastin fiber contents and their thickness are reduced in the skin. In small muscular arteries in the skin from ATS patients, discontinuous internal elastic lamina, lack of myofilaments, and disorganized medial smooth muscle cells with vacuolated cytoplasm are present. The disorganization of collagen fibrils and reduced elastin contents in the skin may explain the loose skin phenotype of ATS patients similar to the EDS patients. The lack of elastin in small muscular arteries may have contributed to the development of arterial tortuosity in these patients.


Assuntos
Artérias , Colágeno , Elastina , Instabilidade Articular , Dermatopatias Genéticas , Malformações Vasculares , Árabes , Artérias/anormalidades , Artérias/patologia , Colágeno/ultraestrutura , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/patologia , Elastina/ultraestrutura , Humanos
15.
Cell ; 185(4): 654-671.e22, 2022 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065713

RESUMO

Sex hormones exert a profound influence on gendered behaviors. How individual sex hormone-responsive neuronal populations regulate diverse sex-typical behaviors is unclear. We performed orthogonal, genetically targeted sequencing of four estrogen receptor 1-expressing (Esr1+) populations and identified 1,415 genes expressed differentially between sexes or estrous states. Unique subsets of these genes were distributed across all 137 transcriptomically defined Esr1+ cell types, including estrous stage-specific ones, that comprise the four populations. We used differentially expressed genes labeling single Esr1+ cell types as entry points to functionally characterize two such cell types, BNSTprTac1/Esr1 and VMHvlCckar/Esr1. We observed that these two cell types, but not the other Esr1+ cell types in these populations, are essential for sex recognition in males and mating in females, respectively. Furthermore, VMHvlCckar/Esr1 cell type projections are distinct from those of other VMHvlEsr1 cell types. Together, projection and functional specialization of dimorphic cell types enables sex hormone-responsive populations to regulate diverse social behaviors.


Assuntos
Ciclo Estral/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Agressão , Animais , Aromatase/metabolismo , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Comportamento Social
16.
J Dent Res ; 101(4): 420-427, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796750

RESUMO

Some modifiable risk factors for dementia are closely related to oral health. Although eating and speaking abilities are fundamental oral functions, limited studies have focused on the effect of malnutrition and lack of social interaction between oral health and dementia. We investigated the mediating effects of nutritional and social factors on the association between the number of teeth and the incidence of dementia. This 6-y cohort study used data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study targeting older adults aged 65 y and above. The number of teeth (exposure) and covariates in 2010 (baseline survey), mediators (weight loss, vegetable and fruit intake, homeboundness, social network) in 2013, and the onset of dementia (outcome) between 2013 and 2016 were obtained. The Karlson-Holm-Breen mediation method was applied. A total of 35,744 participants were included (54.0% women). The mean age at baseline was 73.1 ± 5.5 y for men and 73.2 ± 5.5 y for women. A total of 1,776 participants (5.0%) had dementia during the follow-up period. There was a significant total effect of the number of teeth on the onset of dementia (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.28). Controlling for nutritional and social mediators, the effect of the number of teeth was reduced to 1.10 (95% CI, 0.98-1.25), leaving an indirect effect of 1.03 (95% CI, 1.02-1.04). In the sex-stratified analysis, the proportion mediated by weight loss was 6.35% for men and 4.07% for women. The proportions mediated by vegetable and fruit intake and homeboundness were 4.44% and 4.83% for men and 8.45% and 0.93% for women, respectively. Furthermore, the proportion mediated by social networks was 13.79% for men and 4.00% for women. Tooth loss was associated with the onset of dementia. Nutritional and social factors partially mediated this association.


Assuntos
Demência , Perda de Dente , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Fatores Sociais , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/etiologia , Redução de Peso
17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730611

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Salix , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus , Escherichia coli , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus
18.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(10): 1492-1498, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulpal involvement, secondary to dental caries, is not uncommon and is a challenging task for pediatric dentists. Morphological differences in root canal of deciduous teeth increases the complexity of management. The aim of this study was to compare two rotary file systems and hand instrumentation for root canal preparation in regard to canal transportation, centering ability ratio, and dentin thickness using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: A total of 72 canals from 24 freshly extracted mandibular deciduous second molars were divided into a set of 8 teeth, then prepared using 2 rotary files systems: the Kedo-S pediatric file system (Group A) and Pro AF Baby Gold file system (Group B) were compared to hand instrumentation (Group C). CBCT scans before and after root canal preparation were used to evaluate tested parameters. Instrumentation time for all three techniques was also measured using a chronometer. RESULTS: Although rotary file systems have shown superior results in root canal preparation as compared to hand instrumentation, no significant differences were observed between all the groups for canal transportation and dentin thickness at all three levels of prepared canals. A comparison of centering ability ratio between all the groups was found to be statistically significant only at the cervical level. A significant difference was observed between hand instrumentation using K-files (117.3 s) and both rotary systems (Kedo-S (81 s) and Pro AF Baby Gold (81.5 s)) in terms of canal preparation time (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both tested rotary systems and hand instrumentation demonstrated comparable canal preparation results, with differences that were statistically non-significant in most tested parameters, without shaping errors. However, both the rotary systems were more efficient and faster than hand instrumentation.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Criança , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Pulpar/cirurgia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/cirurgia , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Dente Decíduo
19.
Assist Technol ; : 1-6, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232842

RESUMO

This study describes the development and content validation of the Electronic Instrumental activities of daily living Satisfaction Assessment (EISA), a self-report outcome measure for assessing satisfaction with completing instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) for People With Disabilities (PWD) using internet-Connected Assistive Devices (iCAD). For this study, an iCAD is defined as any information communication technology/electronic device or software that assists with promoting, maintaining, and/or enhancing the ability of a PWD to live independently in society. Phase 1 of development involved generating an initial item pool based on a literature review. Content validity of the EISA was computed in Phase 2 using the Qualtrics on-line research platform. Utilizing the content validity index procedure, EISA demonstrated acceptable content validity: item level (I-CVI of 0.78 or higher) and scale level (S-CVI/Ave of 0.90 or higher). EISA version 1.0 was generated in Phase 3 where it is the first of its kind outcome measure specifically designed for assessing satisfaction with completing IADL for PWD using iCAD.

20.
Children (Basel) ; 8(2)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578785

RESUMO

Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare, frequently lethal disease with heterogeneous phenotypes and an unclear etiology. Limited studies have reported associations between PVS and congenital heart disease (CHD), chronic lung disease (CLD), and/or prematurity; however, to date, there have been no studies that report detailed clinical syndromic phenotypes and the potential role of genetics in PVS. An existing registry of multivessel PVS patients seen at Boston Children's Hospital (BCH) was queried between August 2006 and January 2017 for all existing genetic testing data on these patients. PVS was defined as an intraluminal pulmonary venous obstruction in ≥2 vessels with mean pressure gradients > 4 mmHg. One-hundred-and-fifty-seven patients (46% female, with a median age at PVS diagnosis of 3 months) formed the cohort. Seventy-one (45%) patients had available genetic testing information. Of the 71 patients, a likely genetic diagnosis was found in 23 (32%) patients: 13 (57%) were diagnosed with Trisomy 21 (T21), five (22%) with Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome, five (22%) had other pathologic genetic disease, and 24 (33%) had variants of unknown significance. The majority of 13 patients with T21 and PVS had common atrioventricular canal (CAVC) (10, 77%) and all had severe pulmonary hypertension (PHTN), which led to their PVS diagnosis. In our study, PVS was associated with T21, the majority of whom also had CAVC and PHTN. Therefore, complete assessment of the pulmonary veins should be considered for all T21 patients, especially those with CAVC presenting with PHTN. Furthermore, prospective standardized genetic testing with detailed clinical phenotyping may prove informative about potential genetic etiologies of PVS.

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