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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339366

RESUMO

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239991, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278503

RESUMO

Abstract High resistance to antimicrobials is associated with biofilm formation responsible for infectious microbes to withstand severe conditions. Therefore, new alternatives are necessary as biofilm inhibitors to control infections. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of Fagonia indica extracts were evaluated against MDR clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica has antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica had antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against MDR isolates. The maximum inhibitory effects of Fagonia indica chloroform extract on biofilm formation was observed on Staphylococcus aureus (71.84%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (70.83%) after 48 hrs showing that inhibition is also time dependent. Our results about bacterial cell protein leakage indicated that MDR isolates treated with chloroform extract of Fagonia indica showed maximum protein leakage of K. pneumoniae (59.14 µg mL-1) followed by S. aureus (56.7 µg mL-1). Cell attachment assays indicated that chloroform extract resulted in a 43.5-53.5% inhibition of cell adherence to a polystyrene surface. Our results revealed that extracts of Fagonia indica significantly inhibited biofilm formation among MDR clinical isolates, therefore, could be applied as antimicrobial agents and cost effective biofilm inhibitor against these MDR isolates.


Resumo A alta resistência aos antimicrobianos está associada à formação de biofilme responsável por micróbios infecciosos para suportar condições severas. Portanto, novas alternativas são necessárias como inibidores de biofilme para controlar infecções. Neste estudo, as atividades antimicrobiana e antibiofilme dos extratos de Fagonia indica foram avaliadas contra isolados clínicos MDR. O extrato exibiu seu efeito antibiofilme ao alterar a aderência e a desintegração da parede celular bacteriana. Fagonia indica tem efeito antibacteriano com valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) variando de 125 a 500 µg mL-1, e valor de concentração bactericida mínima (MBC) de 500-3000 µg mL-1 contra isolados clínicos multirresistentes (MDR). O extrato exibiu seu efeito antibiofilme ao alterar a aderência e a desintegração da parede celular bacteriana. Fagonia indica teve efeito antibacteriano com valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) variando de 125 a 500 µg mL-1, e concentração bactericida mínima (MBC) de 500-3000 µg mL-1 contra isolados MDR. Os efeitos inibitórios máximos do extrato de clorofórmio Fagonia indica na formação de biofilme foi observada em Staphylococcus aureus (71,84%), seguido por Klebsiella pneumoniae (70,83%) após 48 horas, mostrando que a inibição também é dependente do tempo. Nossos resultados sobre extravasamento de proteínas de células bacterianas indicaram que isolados MDR tratados com extrato clorofórmico de Fagonia indica apresentaram vazamento máximo de proteínas de K. pneumoniae (59,14 µg mL-1), seguido por S. aureus (56,7 µg mL-1). Ensaios de fixação de células indicaram que o extrato de clorofórmio resultou em uma inibição de 43,5-53,5% da aderência das células a uma superfície de poliestireno. Nossos resultados revelaram que extratos de Fagonia indica inibiram significativamente a formação de biofilme entre isolados clínicos MDR, portanto, poderiam ser aplicados como agentes antimicrobianos e inibidores de biofilme de baixo custo contra esses isolados MDR.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249911, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669802

RESUMO

Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Helminthologia ; 58(2): 162-172, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248376

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus tapeworms. These parasites have a worldwide geographic distribution and pose a serious threat to livestock industry as well as human health in the endemic areas. CE is widely distributed in Pakistan. However, very few reports are available related to the regional transmission of E. granulosus. A retrospective analysis was conducted of surgically confirmed CE patients who were treated at Shoukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre in Lahore, Punjab Province, Pakistan from 2007 - 2018. In total, 536 CE patients were evaluated during the study period. Cases originated from the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (n=336), Punjab (n=147), Baluchistan (n=18), Sindh (n=3), Islamabad (n=2), Gilgit Baltistan (n=1), and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (n=1). An additional 28 cases were from Afghanistan. The highest number of CE cases was reported in 2013 (n=90). Females made up a larger proportion of cases (n=310; 57.8 %) than males (n=226; 42.2 %). Most patients were members of the Pashtun (n=197; 36.7 %), Hindku (n=142; 26.5 %), and Punjabi (n=118; 22.0 %) ethnic groups. The largest number of cysts was obtained from the liver (137/536; 25.6 %). This study showed that CE is likely present throughout Pakistan. In order to control the disease, a comprehensive control program and regional surveillance are needed.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e239991, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190801

RESUMO

High resistance to antimicrobials is associated with biofilm formation responsible for infectious microbes to withstand severe conditions. Therefore, new alternatives are necessary as biofilm inhibitors to control infections. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of Fagonia indica extracts were evaluated against MDR clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica has antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica had antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against MDR isolates. The maximum inhibitory effects of Fagonia indica chloroform extract on biofilm formation was observed on Staphylococcus aureus (71.84%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (70.83%) after 48 hrs showing that inhibition is also time dependent. Our results about bacterial cell protein leakage indicated that MDR isolates treated with chloroform extract of Fagonia indica showed maximum protein leakage of K. pneumoniae (59.14 µg mL-1) followed by S. aureus (56.7 µg mL-1). Cell attachment assays indicated that chloroform extract resulted in a 43.5-53.5% inhibition of cell adherence to a polystyrene surface. Our results revealed that extracts of Fagonia indica significantly inhibited biofilm formation among MDR clinical isolates, therefore, could be applied as antimicrobial agents and cost effective biofilm inhibitor against these MDR isolates.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Staphylococcus aureus , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 1)(2): S37-S41, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the role of motorcycles in causing Road Traffic Accidents and assess the demographics of the drivers, the injury patterns and their outcomes. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted at the Surgical Unit 1, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore for a period of 6 months from November 2017 to May 2018. All patients presenting in ER with RTA secondary to motorcycle trauma were included in the study. Data of patients including demographic and medical data, helmet use, spectrum of injuries, specific injury diagnosis, and final disposition of patients was analyzed. The distribution and associations of both victim- and crash-related variables such as crash mechanism, types of involved vehicles, types of injuries, and demographic characteristics were investigated. Data were analyzed by SPSS v23. RESULTS: A total of 835 patients were included in this study with 685 (82%) being male (mean age 28.38 ± 13.89 years) and775 (92.7%) were motorcycle users. The majority of road traffic crashes, traffic accident's mechanism were motorcycle-vehicle accident 579 (69.3%), followed by collision with slow moving carts and bicycles 104 (12.5%). Inner city main roads were the site for 563 (67.4%) accidents. Only 168 (2.2%) patients were wearing helmets at the time of trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Motorcycle traffic morbidities and mortalities remain to be a major public health issue in Lahore as well as all over Pakistan. There is an urgent need for an efficacious interventional programs to decline the burden of motorcycle related morbidity and mortalities.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Motocicletas , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Abdominais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Abdominais/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/terapia , Traumatismos Faciais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/terapia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Lacerações/terapia , Fígado/lesões , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Baço/lesões , Traumatismos Torácicos/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/terapia , Centros de Traumatologia , Extremidade Superior/lesões , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/epidemiologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1109-1114, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417054

RESUMO

Background: The dental graduation program is stressful and challenging as it is essential to master various skills. The emotional intelligence (EI) is reported to help in perceiving, moderating emotions and also play a significant role in academic excellence. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the sociodemographic factors influencing EI and to determine the association of EI in academic performance of clinical and preclinical courses. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included the 113 dental clinical internship students from five different dental schools at Pakistan. The self-administered questionnaire data included sociodemographic factors, academic performance in preclinical, clinical courses, and San Diego City College MESA Program-based EI responses. The results were analyzed with multiple linear regression and ordinal regression to identify the independent predictor for EI and academic performance. Results: The female participants had marginally higher mean EI score (109.67) in comparison to male counterparts (108.10). The independent predictors among sociodemographic factors for EI were having siblings (P = 0.016), loss of parents (P = 0.002), parents' education (P = 0.022), and relation with parents (P = 0.03). The students enjoy studying dentistry were also associated with higher EI scores (P = 0.002). The mean EI score was an independent predictor of academic performance predominantly in clinical courses [ß = -0.041 (95% confidence interval - 0.063 to - 0.020); P = 0.000]. Conclusion: The finding of the study indicates the influence of family and social factors in the development of EI. The dental students' EI is vital for higher academic performance in clinical courses.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Educação em Odontologia , Inteligência Emocional , Emoções , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Faculdades de Odontologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
9.
Brain Stimul ; 12(4): 868-876, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Closed loop deep brain stimulation (clDBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) using subthalamic (STN) neural feedback has been shown to be efficacious only in the acute post-operative setting, using externalized leads and stimulators. OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility of neural (N)clDBS using the clinical implanted neurostimulator (Activa™ PC + S, FDA IDE approved) and a novel beta dual threshold algorithm in tremor and bradykinesia dominant PD patients on chronic DBS. METHODS: 13 PD subjects (20 STNs), on open loop (ol)DBS for 22 ±â€¯7.8 months, consented to NclDBS driven by beta (13-30 Hz) power using a dual threshold algorithm, based on patient specific therapeutic voltage windows. Tremor was assessed continuously, and bradykinesia was evaluated after 20 min of NclDBS using a repetitive wrist flexion-extension task (rWFE). Total electrical energy delivered (TEED) on NclDBS was compared to olDBS using the same active electrode. RESULTS: NclDBS was tolerated for 21.67 [21.10-26.15] minutes; no subject stopped early. Resting beta band power was measurable and similar between tremor and bradykinesia dominant patients. NclDBS improved bradykinesia and tremor while delivering only 56.86% of the TEED of olDBS; rWFE velocity (p = 0.003) and frequency (p < 0.001) increased; tremor was below 0.15 rad/sec for 95.4% of the trial and averaged 0.26 rad/sec when present. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate that STN NclDBS is feasible, efficacious and more efficient than olDBS in tremor and bradykinesia dominant PD patients, on long-term DBS, using an implanted clinical neurostimulator and driven by beta power with a novel dual threshold algorithm, based on customized therapeutic voltage windows.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Neuroestimuladores Implantáveis/tendências , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiologia , Idoso , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Hipocinesia/epidemiologia , Hipocinesia/fisiopatologia , Hipocinesia/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Tremor/epidemiologia , Tremor/fisiopatologia , Tremor/terapia
10.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 21(4): 26, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868280

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The last 40 years of clinical research in interventional cardiology were extraordinarily innovative. This article will review the most promising up and coming interventional cardiovascular therapies, with a primary focus on the treatment of coronary artery disease. RECENT FINDINGS: From the first stent, to the first transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and the left appendage closure technique, percutaneous interventions revolutionized the treatment of multiple diseases and dramatically improved the prognosis of many patients. While these advances have decreased the risk of mortality in some patients (such as ST-elevation myocardial infarction), 15% of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients still experience recurrent ischemic events within the first year, challenging us to develop new pharmaceutical targets and new devices. The continued emergence of data supporting inflammation as a risk factor and pharmacologic target as well as data supporting the importance of cholesterol efflux have identified novel therapeutic targets that may play a major role in the improvement of prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. In addition, novel medical devices are being developed to allow even earlier detection of acute cardiac events and to support high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions. Advances in computing and the ability to analyze large datasets will allow us to use artificial intelligence to augment the clinician patient experience, both in and out of the catheterization laboratory, with live procedural guidance as well as pre- and post-operative prognostication tools.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Cardiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Cardiologia/tendências , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Humanos , Sistema de Registros
12.
Inflammopharmacology ; 27(1): 89-98, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728874

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma is emerging as one of the most common forms of cancer resulting in thousands of death worldwide. The purpose of this study was to screen nimesulide for anticancer activity in chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats as well as in BEL 7402 and HEP G2 cell lines. HCC in rats was induced by administering a single dose of diethyl nitrosamine (150 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Duration of the in vivo study was 12 weeks and the anticancer potential was further confirmed by in vitro cell line study. Administration of DENA in Wistar rats significantly elevated the levels of serum biochemical parameters and α-feto protein. Treatment with different dose of nimesulide significantly decreased the markedly raised serum levels of biochemical parameters as well as maintained the histology of the liver tissues nearly similar to the normal. Further study of hepatocytes enzymes showed that treatment with nimesulide also improved the antioxidant enzyme levels. Our study also examined the cytotoxicity and DNA synthesis inhibition by nimesulide in BEL 7402 and Hep G2 cell lines. Cell viability was assessed by [3H]-thymidine uptake procedure. The results obtained by in vitro cell line study, histopathological and biochemical data concluded that nimesulide, a preferential COX-2 inhibitor, has anticancer activity, which is by first reducing the formation of reactive oxygen species and second by inhibiting the PGE2 effect via Wnt signaling pathway (cell invasion, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , DNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
13.
Trop Biomed ; 36(2): 324-334, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597393

RESUMO

Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases in human, livestock, and wildlife globally. The prevalence of CE depends upon human behavioral risk factors, the diversity and ecology of animal host interactions and the genetic diversity within Echinococcus species which differ in their zoonotic potential and pathogenicity. It is a neglected, economic and socio-cultural problem in Pakistan. The available data about the incidence of CE is very limited and no extensive study has been reported in Pakistan. The current study was aimed to analyze the hospital reported cases of CE and the associated risk factors related to the incidence of CE. The hospital-based data of CE for the time period of January 2012-December 2017 was collected from Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Peshawar. The data covered demographic characteristics including age, gender, and cyst localization of infected individuals and socioeconomic determinants. The data was analyzed based upon different risk factors along with the different socioeconomic parameters that has an important impact on the distribution of disease. A total of 228 cases were presented in the selected hospitals of different cities during the study period. Out of total 228 patients, 59.21% were males and 40.78% were females (P<0.001). Most infections have been recorded in young adults (>20-30) showing 22.8% of total infected individuals followed by children (0-10) showing 10.5% (n=24), respectively (P<0.001). Liver was the most vulnerable organ (58.77%, n=134) followed by lungs (14.47%, n=33) (P<0.001). The infection was higher among rural communities (84.2%) than urban (12.8%) (P<0.001). Socioeconomic and demographic factors had an important impact on the intensity of disease (P<0.001). The occurrence of cases in children and young adults was an important finding as it indicated an active transmission of the parasite in Pakistan along with the poverty index. Emergence of echinococcosis in Pakistan showed that emerging health issues in Pakistan could bring the disease to limelight for future research. This finding, together with the fact that 1 hospital reported 214 cases over 6 years 325 underlines the need for a program for prevention/control of this disease in Pakistan. The timely measure needs to be taken to hamper the disease development and establishment. In order to control the disease, complete surveillance should be done which in turn weighs down the disease progress.

14.
Trop Biomed ; 36(2): 559-568, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597418

RESUMO

Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) is the major etiological agent of urinary tract infections. The objectives of this study were to evaluate E. coli isolates from these patients for the phenotypic pattern of antibiotic resistance and to detect the genes responsible for virulence namely fimH, hlyA and usp. A total of 110 E. coli isolates were studied and 30 antibiotics were applied for susceptibility testing. PCR detection of the genes fimH, hlyA and usp was done followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that the isolates were highly resistant to cephalaxin (100%) and cephradine (100%) but displayed high sensitivity to amikacin (96.27%), Imipenem (92.63%) and Meropenem (92.63%). The prevalence of fimH, hlyA and usp was 86%, 83% and 16%, respectively. The sequencing showed 99% similarity with previously reported sequences in NCBI GenBank database. The co-existence of multiple drug-resistant bodies and virulent genes has important implications for the treatment of patients with urinary tract infection. This study provides information about treating drug-resistant E. coli and the relationship of virulent genes with phenotypic resistance patterns.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206823, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418981

RESUMO

Regulation of mRNA stability by RNA-protein interactions contributes significantly to quantitative aspects of gene expression. We have identified potential mRNA targets of the AU-rich element binding protein AUF1. Myc-tagged AUF1 p42 was induced in mouse NIH/3T3 cells and RNA-protein complexes isolated using anti-myc tag antibody beads. Bound mRNAs were analyzed with Affymetrix microarrays. We have identified 508 potential target mRNAs that were at least 3-fold enriched compared to control cells without myc-AUF1. 22.3% of the enriched mRNAs had an AU-rich cluster in the ARED Organism database, against 16.3% of non-enriched control mRNAs. The enrichment towards AU-rich elements was also visible by AREScore with an average value of 5.2 in the enriched mRNAs versus 4.2 in the control group. Yet, numerous mRNAs were enriched without a high ARE score. The enrichment of tetrameric and pentameric sequences suggests a broad AUF1 p42-binding spectrum at short U-rich sequences flanked by A or G. Still, some enriched mRNAs were highly unstable, as those of TNFSF11 (known as RANKL), KLF10, HES1, CCNT2, SMAD6, and BCL6. We have mapped some of the instability determinants. HES1 mRNA appeared to have a coding region determinant. Detailed analysis of the RANKL and BCL6 3'UTR revealed for both that full instability required two elements, which are conserved in evolution. In RANKL mRNA both elements are AU-rich and separated by 30 bases, while in BCL6 mRNA one is AU-rich and 60 bases from a non AU-rich element that potentially forms a stem-loop structure.


Assuntos
Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo D/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/genética , Ligante RANK/genética , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Elementos Ricos em Adenilato e Uridilato/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Células HEK293 , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Heterogênea D0 , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo D/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
16.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 16(11): 845-855, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296387

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Compared to other direct oral anticoagulants, betrixaban has a longer half-life, smaller peak-trough variance, minimal renal clearance, and minimal hepatic Cytochrome P (CYP) metabolism. The Acute Medically Ill VTE Prevention with Extended Duration Betrixaban (APEX) trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of extended duration betrixaban compared to standard duration enoxaparin in acutely ill hospitalized patients. Areas covered: This article describes the role of betrixaban in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in acutely ill medical patients. This article provides a consolidated summary of the primary APEX study findings as well as prespecified and exploratory substudies. This article also provides a review of the results of studies in which other direct factor Xa inhibitors have been evaluated in an extended duration regimen in this patient population. Expert commentary: While previous agents have demonstrated that extended duration VTE prophylaxis can be efficacious, betrixaban is the first agent to demonstrate efficacy without an increase in major bleeding. The totality of the data from the APEX trial supports extended duration betrixaban for VTE prophylaxis in the acute medically ill patient population. As such, betrixaban has been approved in the USA for extended VTE prophylaxis in at-risk acute medically ill patients.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 32(2): 379-384, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685022

RESUMO

The current study was designed to evaluate bioactive compounds under the influence of biotic stress on seedlings of Peganum harmala. Biologically active compounds were determined by using different techniques. The HPLC and GC-MS analyses detected the significant amount of phenolic acids and active biological compound. Total protein content, activity of proteases, α-amylases, catalases and peroxidases were observed to be accelerated under fungal stress. The seedling extracts exhibited prominent antifungal and antimicrobial activity against selected strains. The present study showed that P. harmala is a good candidate to be used in natural therapies and medicine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peganum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
18.
Br J Surg ; 105(3): 209-222, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to carry out phase 4 international field-testing of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) breast reconstruction (BRECON) module. The primary objective was finalization of its scale structure. Secondary objectives were evaluation of its reliability, validity, responsiveness, acceptability and interpretability in patients with breast cancer undergoing mastectomy and reconstruction. METHODS: The EORTC module development guidelines were followed. Patients were recruited from 28 centres in seven countries. A prospective cohort completed the QLQ-BRECON15 before mastectomy and the QLQ-BRECON24 at 4-8 months after reconstruction. The cross-sectional cohort completed the QLQ-BRECON24 at 1-5 years after reconstruction, and repeated this 2-8 weeks later (test-retest reliability). All participants completed debriefing questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 438 patients were recruited, 234 in the prospective cohort and 204 in the cross-sectional cohort. A total of 414 reconstructions were immediate, with a comparable number of implants (176) and donor-site flaps (166). Control groups comprised patients who underwent two-stage implant procedures (72, 75 per cent) or delayed reconstruction (24, 25 per cent). Psychometric scale validity was supported by moderate to high item-own scale and item-total correlations (over 0·5). Questionnaire validity was confirmed by good scale-to-sample targeting, and computable scale scores exceeding 50 per cent, except nipple cosmesis (over 40 per cent). In known-group comparisons, QLQ-BRECON24 scales and items differentiated between patient groups defined by clinical criteria, such as type and timing of reconstruction, postmastectomy radiotherapy and surgical complications, with moderate effect sizes. Prospectively, sexuality and surgical side-effects scales showed significant responsiveness over time (P < 0·001). Scale reliability was supported by high Cronbach's α coefficients (over 0·7) and test-retest (intraclass correlation more than 0·8). One item (finding a well fitting bra) was excluded based on high floor/ceiling effects, poor test-retest and weak correlations in factor analysis (below 0·3), thus generating the QLQ-BRECON23 questionnaire. CONCLUSION: The QLQ-BRECON23 is an internationally validated tool to be used alongside the EORTC QLQ-C30 (cancer) and QLQ-BR23 (breast cancer) questionnaires for evaluating quality of life and satisfaction after breast reconstruction.


Assuntos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Mamoplastia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 65(2): 534-546, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034593

RESUMO

We report the laboratory analysis of 125 clinical samples from suspected cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and Asian buffalo collected in Pakistan between 2008 and 2012. Of these samples, 89 were found to contain viral RNA by rRT-PCR, of which 88 were also found to contain infectious FMD virus (FMDV) by virus isolation (VI), with strong correlation between these tests (κ = 0.96). Samples that were VI-positive were serotyped by antigen detection ELISA (Ag-ELISA) and VP1 sequence acquisition and analysis. Sequence data identified FMDV serotypes A (n = 13), O (n = 36) and Asia-1 (n = 41), including three samples from which both serotypes Asia-1 and O were detected. Serotype A viruses were classified within three different Iran-05 sublineages: HER-10, FAR-11 and ESF-10. All serotype Asia-1 were within Group VII (Sindh-08 lineage), in a genetic clade that differs from viruses isolated prior to 2010. All serotypes O were classified as PanAsia-2 within two different sublineages: ANT-10 and BAL-09. Using VP1 sequencing as the gold standard for serotype determination, the overall sensitivity of Ag-ELISA to correctly determine serotype was 74%, and serotype-specific sensitivity was 8% for serotype A, 88% for Asia-1 and 89% for O. Serotype-specific specificity was 100% for serotype A, 93% for Asia-1 and 94% for O. Interestingly, 12 of 13 serotype A viruses were not detected by Ag-ELISA. This study confirms earlier accounts of regional genetic diversity of FMDV in Pakistan and highlights the importance of continued validation of diagnostic tests for rapidly evolving pathogens such as FMDV.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Variação Genética , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Búfalos , Bovinos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Paquistão , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sorogrupo
20.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 2594-2597, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060430

RESUMO

Concussion management has become one of the most popular topics in sports medicine. Significant resources are being invested in developing protocols for professional sport associations such as the NFL and FIFA. These protocols are often expensive and require substantial resources to implement. The problem, however, runs much deeper than just professional sports. Currently there exists little infrastructure to effectively manage concussion in amateur settings such as high school, club and university sport. A more holistic approach is required to ensure that the same standard of concussion management is being implemented across the board, regardless of the available medical and financial resources. An application was developed that will allow for easily accessible baseline testing and access to a player's concussion history from anywhere in the world. The application will be used to monitor players from the day they start playing sport until they potentially become professional sport players.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas , Humanos , Esportes , Medicina Esportiva
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