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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244977, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285621

RESUMO

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Resumo O vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é o grave problema de saúde pública das doenças hepáticas. Aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo estão infectadas com HCV; no Paquistão, a doença tem alto índice de ocorrência. O presente estudo prevê uma prevalência atualizada do HCV e distribuição genotípica na população geral do distrito de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. As amostras de sangue de 6.538 indivíduos, incluindo 3.263 homens e 3.275 mulheres, foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite C por teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa (PCR). Verificou-se que 396 (12,13%) de 3.263 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV, enquanto entre as diferentes faixas etárias as maiores incidências de anticorpos anti-HCV foram encontradas na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (11,01%). As amostras positivas para ICT foram posteriormente rastreadas por nested PCR para determinar a existência de HCV-RNA ativo. Identificou-se que 7,11% (3.263) do total da população (6.538) testada foram positivos, dentre os quais 461 (14,07%) mulheres possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV. Nossos dados mostraram que a infecção total pelo HCV na população investigada foi de 5,78%. Maior porcentagem de prevalência de HCV foi detectada em homens do que em mulheres nas faixas etárias de 31-40 e 41-50. Para comparar a prevalência de genótipos de HCV com relação à idade no genótipo masculino e feminino 3a foi encontrado o genótipo mais prevalente seguido por 1a, 2a e 3b, respectivamente.

2.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 4409212, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721735

RESUMO

Background: circulating microRNAs are potential blood biomarkers differentially expressed in many diseases including neuro depression disorders. It controls the expression of human genes and associated cellular and physiological processes in normal and diseased cells. We aimed to evaluate the potential role of circulating miRNAs and their association with both stress hormones and cellular oxidative stress in neuro depression disorders occurred among older adults. Methods: a total of 70 healthy subjects were included in this study. Based upon the profile of mood states (POMS-32 score), the participants classified into two groups; healthy subjects (n =30) and depression (n =40). The expression of microRNAs; miR-124, miR-34a-5p, miR-135, and miR-451-a and their correlation with cellular oxidative stress parameters; cellular NO, genes of SOD2, CAT and iNOS, and hormones; cortisol and serotonin were estimated by a quantitative real-time RT-PCR, high-performance liquid chromatography, and ELISA Immunoassay techniques, respectively. Results: depression was reported in 57.14% of the participants. The results showed a significant increase (p =0.01) in the total mood scores, and relative depression domains in older adults with depression compared to healthy controls. The relative expression levels of miR-124, miR-34a-5p significantly increased and the expression levels of miR-135, and miR-451-a significantly decreased in older adults with depression compared to healthy controls. In addition, the levels of cortisol significantly increased and serotonin (5HT) significantly reduced in all participants with depression. Cellular oxidative stress analysis for depressed subjects showed that serum NO levels and the expression of iNO gene significantly increased conversely with a decline in the molecular expression antioxidative genes; SOD2, CAT, respectively. The results showed that cellular oxidative stress parameters correlated positively with depression scores, cortisol, and negatively with cellular serotonin levels. In depressed subjects, the relative expression of microRNAs correlated positively with depression score, NO, iNOS, cortisol, and negatively associated with SOD2, CAT, and serotonin. Conclusion: The combination of cellular oxidative stress and hormonal levels strongly supports a role for circulating miRNAs; miR-124, miR-34a-5p, miR-135, and miR-451-a in the regulation of depression and mood disorders among older adults. The expressed microRNAs with their related association to cellular oxidative stress and adrenal hormones are a step towards understanding the role of these small RNA molecules in the progression of depression among older adults. Thus, cellular miRNAs might have a prognostic role in the diagnosis and as a target for treatment strategies in depressed subjects.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730611

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Salix , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus , Escherichia coli , Metanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus
4.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 453-461, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608119

RESUMO

Larviciding is an effective control method in managing mosquito-borne diseases. However, most of the current larvicide formulations have raised environmental concerns due to the presence of non-biodegradable inert or carrier materials. Therefore, the utilisation of biodegradable natural cellulosic fibres has created much attention. This study aims to evaluate the application of biodegradable kenaf cellulose nanofibre (KCNF) in larvicide formulation where the larvicide, namely temephos, is impregnated onto the fibre matrix (KCNF+T). The bioefficacy of the formulation was evaluated against Aedes aegypti ( A. aegypti) mosquito larvae. The presence of the temephos on the KCNF was evaluated through micro- morphological analysis using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), while the quantity of temephos impregnated, released, and retained on the fibres upon dispersion in water were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was observed that 97% of the temephos (0.1 mg) were impregnated on the KCNF. Upon dispersion in water, 53% of the temephos were released from the KCNF+T and the retention of temephos on the KCNF+T gradually decreased to 30%, 17%, and 7% on the first, third, and fifth month, respectively. Exposure of the A. aegypti larvae to the KCNF+T at concentrations ranging between 0.006 to 0.01 mg/L was effective in killing A. aegypti larvae at 17-25 folds as compared to using the temephos without KCNF. Microscopic examination revealed the accumulation of the KCNF on the larval appendages. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the utilisation of KCNF in pesticide formulation is an effective way of delivering the temephos to control A. aegypti mosquito larva.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21278, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711908

RESUMO

In this work, mode-locked thulium-doped fiber lasers operating in the 2 µm wavelength region were demonstrated using tantalum aluminum carbide (Ta2AlC)-based saturable absorbers (SAs) utilizing the evanescent wave interaction. The Ta2AlC MAX Phase was prepared by dissolving the Ta2AlC powder in isopropyl alcohol and then deposited onto three different evanescent field-based devices, which were the tapered fiber, side-polished fiber, and arc-shaped fiber. Flame-brushing and wheel-polishing techniques were used to fabricate the tapered and arc-shaped fibers, respectively, while the side-polished fiber was purchased commercially. All three SA devices generated stable mode-locked pulses at center wavelengths of 1937, 1931, and 1929 nm for the tapered, side-polished, and arc-shaped fibers. The frequency of the mode-locked pulses was 10.73 MHz for the tapered fiber, 9.58 MHz for the side-polished fiber, and 10.16 MHz for the arc-shaped fiber. The measured pulse widths were 1.678, 1.734, and 1.817 ps for each of the three SA devices. The long-term stability of the mode-locked lasers was tested for each configuration over a 2-h duration. The lasers also showed little to no fluctuations in the center wavelengths and the peak optical intensities, demonstrating a reliable, ultrafast laser system.

6.
Diabetologia ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657182

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes confers a greater relative increase in CVD risk in women compared with men. We examined sex differences in intraorgan fat and hepatic VLDL1-triacylglycerol (VLDL1-TG) export before and after major dietary weight loss. METHODS: A group with type 2 diabetes (n = 64, 30 male/34 female) and a group of healthy individuals (n = 25, 13 male/12 female) were studied. Intraorgan and visceral fat were quantified by magnetic resonance and VLDL1-TG export by intralipid infusion techniques. RESULTS: Triacylglycerol content of the liver and pancreas was elevated in people with diabetes with no sex differences (liver 16.4% [9.3-25.0%] in women vs 11.9% [7.0-23.1%] in men, p = 0.57, and pancreas 8.3 ± 0.5% vs 8.5 ± 0.4%, p = 0.83, respectively). In the absence of diabetes, fat levels in both organs were lower in women than men (1.0% [0.9-1.7%] vs 4.5% [1.9-8.0%], p = 0.005, and 4.7 ± 0.4% vs 7.6 ± 0.5%, p< 0.0001, respectively). Women with diabetes had higher hepatic VLDL1-TG production rate and plasma VLDL1-TG than healthy women (559.3 ± 32.9 vs 403.2 ± 45.7 mg kg-1 day-1, p = 0.01, and 0.45 [0.26-0.77] vs 0.25 [0.13-0.33] mmol/l, p = 0.02), whereas there were no differences in men (548.8 ± 39.8 vs 506.7 ± 29.2 mg kg-1 day-1, p = 0.34, and 0.72 [0.53-1.15] vs 0.50 [0.32-0.68] mmol/l, p = 0.26). Weight loss decreased intraorgan fat and VLDL1-TG production rates regardless of sex, and these changes were accompanied by similar rates of diabetes remission (65.4% vs 71.0%) and CVD risk reduction (59.8% vs 41.5%) in women and men, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In type 2 diabetes, women have liver and pancreas fat levels as high as those of men, associated with raised hepatic VLDL1-TG production rates. Dynamics of triacylglycerol turnover differ between sexes in type 2 diabetes and following weight loss. These changes may contribute to the disproportionately raised cardiovascular risk of women with diabetes.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20325, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645884

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association of psychological variants, including fear, anxiety, and depression, with functional outcomes, including measures of functions and physical performance, among people with spinal cord injury (SCI). An observational study was conducted at the university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Thirty patients, including 19 males (63.33%) and 11 females (36.67%) with a history of traumatic SCI, aged 18-30 years, 1-3 years postinjury T2 and below, with motor complete paraplegia, permanent neurological loss, and the ability to rise from sitting and stand for at least one minute, were included in this study. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire-Physical Activity (FABQ-PA) were used to assess the psychological variants of participants. The Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) and Walking Index of Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI-II) were used to assess the functional outcomes. Psychological variants showed a strong negative correlation with functional outcomes (p < 0.05) among people with SCI. In addition, a significant difference was found between females and males with SCI for the scores of psychological variants and functional outcomes. Psychological variants, including fear, anxiety, and depression, were found to be strongly and negatively associated with functional outcomes, including measures of functions and physical performance, and were especially higher among females than males with SCI. Thus, a higher level of fear, anxiety, and depression results in a lower level of measures of functions and physical performance among people with SCI. Depression is the strongest factor that affects the functional outcomes most among people with SCI.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562213

RESUMO

Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a commonly used flavor enhancer, has been reported to induce hepatic and renal dysfunctions. In this study, the palliative role of protocatechuic acid (PCA) in MSG-administered rats was elucidated. Adult male rats were assigned to four groups, namely control, MSG (4 g/kg), PCA (100 mg/kg), and the last group was co-administered MSG and PCA at aforementioned doses for 7 days. Results showed that MSG augmented the hepatic and renal functions markers as well as glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels. Moreover, marked increases in malondialdehyde levels accompanied by declines in glutathione levels and notable decreases in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were observed in MSG-treated group. The MSG-mediated oxidative stress was further confirmed by downregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression levels in both tissues. In addition, MSG enhanced the hepatorenal inflammation as witnessed by increased inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1b and tumor necrosis factor-α) and elevated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) levels. Further, significant increases in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) levels together with decreases in B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) levels were observed in MSG administration. Histopathological screening supported the biochemical and molecular findings. In contrast, co-treatment of rats with PCA resulted in remarkable enhancement of the antioxidant cellular capacity, suppression of inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. These effects are possibly endorsed for activation of Nrf-2 and suppression of NF-kB signaling pathways. Collectively, addition of PCA counteracted MSG-induced hepatorenal injuries through modulation of oxidative, inflammatory and apoptotic alterations.

9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2561502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568490

RESUMO

The prolapsed intervertebral disc (PIVD) at the lumbar spine is one of the most common causes of low back pain (LBP) affecting humans worldwide. Lumbar traction is widely used as a part of physiotherapeutic modalities for its treatment; however, reports on its effectiveness and dosage are conflicting. This study is aimed at comparing the acute effects of three traction forces on the straight leg raise (SLR) test and LBP intensity. A total of 45 (age 35.53 yrs., ±3.09) participants with 15 participants in each group were recruited for the study. Participants were divided into groups A, B, and C wherein traction forces equal to one-fifth, one-third, and one-half of their bodyweight were applied, respectively. SLR range of motion (ROM) and pain were examined before and immediately after the application of traction. Significant improvement was observed in SLR ROM in all three groups (p < 0.05). However, for pain, significant improvement (p < 0.05) was observed only in the group with one-half of bodyweight force. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the three groups for both variables. All three forces were equally effective in immediately improving SLR ROM in patients suffering from lumbar PIVD; however, pain improvement was observed with one-half of bodyweight only.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burnout is an emerging critical issue facing specialists and trainees in all disciplines and not particularly studied among physiatry specialists and trainees in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To assess physiatrist burnout, depression, anxiety, and stress during the current COVID-19 pandemic crisis in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: By distributing an electronic survey, the researcher assessed burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) Human Services Survey (HSS) in the midst of the curfew that Saudi authorities imposed. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred one participating trainees, specialists, and consultants. RESULTS: Of the 101 study participants, the majority (73.3%) were between the ages of 24 and 34 years old, with the rest distributed within the age group ranging from 35 to 65 years old. Junior residents represented 34.7%, senior residents 22.8%, physiatrist specialists 26.7%, and consultants 15.8%. The sample included 55.4% males and 44.6% females; 64.4% of the participants were married, 29.7% were still single, and 5.9% were divorced. Among the total group participating, 25.7% were handling COVID-19 patients. In the total participant sample, 80.2% reported experiencing burnout, 10.9% experienced stress, and 22.8% and 6.9% experienced anxiety and depression, respectively. CONCLUSION: Burnout in Saudi Arabia exists among more than two-thirds of practicing physiatrists in Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R), and that did not appear to have a statistically significant influence on stress, anxiety, or depression (p > 0.05). The current COVID-19 global pandemic might escalate burnout and influence mental health outcomes. The healthcare authority and administration should take the lead in identifying the challenges, overcoming the obstacles, and optimizing clinician well-being, delivering up-to-date solutions, and promptly checking their effectiveness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fisiatras , Adulto , Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents and ethnic subgroups have been identified at high risks of overweight and its associated complications. Although some studies have investigated overweight, obesity, nutritional status, physical activity, and associated factors among Saudi students, no studies have examined these characteristics among non-Saudi students or compared non-Saudi to Saudi adolescent students. The objective of this study was to compare differences between Saudi and non-Saudi adolescent students regarding time spent watching television, using computers, engaging in physical activity, and their food preferences. The relationships between these lifestyle behaviors and body mass index by Saudi nativity and gender were tested. METHODS: Students aged 12 to 18 years (n = 214) from various schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, completed a self-administered questionnaire that included questions about demographic and anthropometric characteristics, daily after-school routine, physical activity, watching television, using computers, and food preferences. Non-parametric (Mann-Whitney U) tests assessed the statistical differences between Saudi and non-Saudi respondents, and males and females were separately tested. RESULTS: Saudi boys who reported physical activity two to five times per week, the most television time, the most computer time, and the highest frequency of eating fast food and drinking soft drinks had a significantly higher mean body mass index than the non-Saudi boys in their categories. However, there were no significant differences found between the Saudi and non-Saudi girls. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of sedentary and low levels of physical activities as well as high consumption of high-fat fast foods and high-sugar drinks threaten the health of Saudi adolescents. Cultural differences in lifestyle between Saudi and non-Saudi families should be considered when developing programs to improve knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding diet quality and physical activity. The objective of this study is more important in the current situation where increased time spent on computers and mobile phones due to online teaching in schools or working from home, decreased physical activity due to precautionary lockdowns, and unchecked eating patterns while spending more time in sedentary activities in homes has become our COVID-19 pandemic lifestyle in all the age groups. A similar study should be replicated on a large scale to study the effect of this lifestyle on our lives in all the age groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Preferências Alimentares , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Computadores , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita , Comportamento Sedentário , Televisão
12.
Eur J Radiol Open ; 8: 100371, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485627

RESUMO

Purpose: Aim of this study was to develop quantitative parameters for diagnosing Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) using brain MRI scans. Methods: This is a case control study with 48 cases and 192 matched controls. Optic nerve diameter (OND), Pituitary height (PH), Meckel's cave diameter (MCD), and Neck fat thickness (NFT) were measured for both groups. Consequently, means were obtained for the different parameters in both groups with subsequent establishment of best cutoffs using Receiver Operator Curve (ROC) analysis. Results: For IIH patients the means of OND, PH, MCD, and NFT were 6.2 mm, 3.9 mm, 5 mm, 1.4 cm, respectively while for controls the means were 4.6 mm, 4.5 mm, 4.3 mm, and 0.8 cm with statistical significance between the two groups. ROC analysis showed the cutoff points with best accuracy for the above parameters in diagnosing IIH to be 5.4 mm for OND with sensitivity of 0.77 and specificity of 0.85 representing high accuracy, while for PH a cutoff point of 3 mm showed low accuracy with sensitivity of 0.54 and specificity of 0.7, and a MCD cutoff of 4.5 mm also showed low accuracy with sensitivity of 0.6 and specificity of 0.59, meanwhile a cutoff point of 1.1 cm for NFT was moderately accurate with sensitivity of 0.70 and specificity of 0.81. Conclusion: Statistical difference in the means for OND, PH, MCD, and NFT between IIH patients and controls is established. Also, we provide cut off points for these parameters to diagnose IIH on brain MRI.

13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5533241, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337021

RESUMO

Purpose: There may be a strong association among stress urinary incontinence (SUI), low back pain (LBP), and core muscle endurance (CME) in married women. This study is aimed at evaluating the prevalence and clinical association between SUI, CME, and LBP among married women in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study was based on a case-control research design, conducted among 143 women with LBP (mean age, 32 ± 7.4 years) and 160 healthy women (mean age, 31.7 ± 6.7 years). SUI, CME, and functional disability were assessed using the international consultation on the Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), prone plank test (PP), and Oswestry Disability Index for LBP-United Arab Emirates edition (ODI-UAE). Results: The prevalence of SUI was found to be 60% in the LBP group while 20% in the control group. CME revealed a stronger negative correlation with SUI in the LBP group (r s = -0.75) than in the control group (r s = -0.63). Conclusions: The prevalence of SUI was observed higher in women with LBP than healthy women. CME exhibited a stronger association with SUI than LBP among women with LBP compared to healthy women in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the role of CME in SUI development or vice versa among married women with LBP may be subjected to further research.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Casamento , Músculos/fisiopatologia , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
14.
Heliyon ; 7(8): e07744, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430735

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05699.].

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nurses are frequently involved in different types of patient handling activities in different departments of the hospitals. Mishandling the patients causes accumulative stress on their spine that results in occupational back pain (OBP), substantial morbidity, and incurred cost. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to observe the influence of work-related safety and health guidelines on knowledge and prevalence of occupational back pain among rehabilitation nurses in Saudi Arabia. METHODOLOGY: This cohort study was conducted with the inclusion of a total of 116-registered rehabilitation nurses (97-female, 19-male, mean age = 39.6-years) from different regions of Saudi Arabia. After the invitation, these nurses attended an ergonomic workshop focusing on work-related safety and patient handling guidelines, risk assessment, and control of OBP. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, risk, and prevalence of OBP at baseline and 6-months follow-up. RESULTS: The perceived knowledge score significantly improved (95% CI; t = 4.691; p < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.72) at 6-month follow-up (mean ± SD = 81.6 ± 18.2) from its baseline score (mean ± SD = 68.2 ± 19.2). Likewise, the prevalence score of OBP markedly reduced from 71.5% (baseline) to 65.0% (6-month follow-up). CONCLUSION: The level of knowledge highly improved and the prevalence of OBP markedly reduced within a span of 6-month among rehabilitation nurses in Saudi Arabia after attending an ergonomic workshop. Importantly, the nurses learned and geared up themselves for practicing the safe patient handling guidelines to avoid occupational back pain in the future. Therefore, rehabilitation nurses should update their knowledge and awareness about occupational safety and health guidelines, risk assessments, and control of OBP at a regular interval for increasing the knowledge and reducing the prevalence of OBP among them.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Doenças Profissionais , Adulto , Dor nas Costas , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(12): 3963-3981, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455452

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Fine mapping of barley 6H pericentromeric region identified FHB QTL with opposite effects, and high grain protein content was associated with increased FHB severity. Resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB), kernel discoloration (KD), deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation and grain protein content (GPC) are important traits for breeding malting barley varieties. Previous work mapped a Chevron-derived FHB QTL to the pericentromeric region of 6H, coinciding with QTL for KD resistance and GPC. The Chevron allele reduced FHB and KD, but unfavorably increased GPC. To determine whether the correlations are caused by linkage or pleiotropy, a fine mapping approach was used to dissect the QTL underlying these quality and disease traits. Two populations, referred to as Gen10 and Gen10/Lacey, derived from a recombinant near-isogenic line (rNIL) were developed. Recombinants were phenotyped for FHB, KD, DON, GPC and other agronomic traits. Three FHB, two DON and two KD QTLs were identified. One of the three FHB QTLs, one DON QTL and one KD QTL were coincident with the GPC QTL, which contains the Hv-NAM1 locus affecting grain protein accumulation. The Chevron allele at the GPC QTL increased GPC and FHB and decreased DON and KD. The other two FHB QTL and the other DON and KD QTL were identified in the regions flanking the Hv-NAM1 locus, and the Chevron alleles decreased FHB, DON and KD. Our results suggested that the QTL associated with FHB, KD, DON and GPC in the pericentromeric region of 6H was controlled by both pleiotropy and tightly linked loci. The rNILs identified in this study with low FHB severity and moderate GPC may be used for breeding malting barley cultivars.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436660

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The main sources of post-cholecystectomy bile leakage (PCBL) not involving major duct injuries are the cystic duct and subvesical/hepatocystic ducts. Of the many studies on the diagnosis and management of PCBL, few addressed measures to avoid this serious complication. The aim of this study was to examine the causes and mechanisms leading to PCBL and to evaluate the effects of specific preventative strategies. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database of 5675 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies was analysed. Risk factors for post-cholecystectomy bile leakage were identified and documented and technical modifications and strategies were adopted to prevent this complication. The incidence, causes and management of patients who suffered bile leaks were studied and their preoperative characteristics, operative data and postoperative outcomes were compared with patients where potential risks were identified and PCBL avoided and with the rest of the series. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (0.4%) had PCBL (7 expected and less than half requiring reintervention): 11 from cystic ducts (0.2%), 3 from subvesical ducts (0.05%) and 11 from unconfirmed sources (0.2%). The incidence of cystic duct leakage was significantly lower with ties (0.15%) than with clips (0.7%). Fifty-two percent had difficulty grades IV or V, 36% had empyema or acute cholecystitis and 16% had contracted gallbladders. Twelve patients required 17 reinterventions before PCBL resolved; 7 percutaneous drainage, 6 ERCP and 4 relaparoscopy. The median hospital stay was 17 days with no mortality. Hepatocystic ducts were encountered in 72 patients (1.3%) and were secured with loops (54.2%), ties (25%) or sutures (20.8%) with no PCBL. Eighteen sectoral ducts were identified and secured. CONCLUSION: Ligation of the cystic duct reduces the incidence of PCBL resulting from dislodged endoclips. Careful blunt dissection in the proper anatomical planes avoiding direct or thermal injury to subvesical and sectoral ducts and a policy of actively searching for hepatocystic ducts during gallbladder separation to identify and secure them can reduce bile leakage from such ducts.

18.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 677136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276445

RESUMO

Background: Anxiety symptoms, stress, poor sleep, and inadequate sleep hygiene are common in university students and these affect their learning and increase attrition. However, limited knowledge exists about the inter-relationship between these factors among university students in low-middle income countries. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and their relationship with sleep quality, sleep hygiene practices, and psychological stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a randomly selected sample of students in Mizan-Aman, Ethiopia. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included questions about socio-demographics, socio-economic factors, the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire-Mizan, Sleep hygiene index, Perceived stress scale-10 (PSS-10), and Generalized anxiety disorder-7 scale (GAD-7). Results: The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was about 22%. Multivariate regression analysis showed that both anxiety status χ2[(13, N = 480) = 82.68, p < 0.001], and increasing levels of anxiety (model adjusted R2 = 0.204, p < 0.001) were associated with greater psychological stress, inadequate sleep hygiene practices, and poor sleep quality scores after adjusting for age, gender, attendance, substance use, years of university education, time spent in athletic activity every day, and frequency of tea/coffee consumption. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in this study population, and this condition was associated with psychological stress, poor sleep, and inadequate sleep hygiene parameters. These results suggest a need to address the various aspects of mental health and its diverse sleep correlates in university students.

19.
J Pain Res ; 14: 2029-2037, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262337

RESUMO

Objective: The current case-control study aimed to evaluate generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) and its association with pain intensity, cellular oxidative stress, and collagen-associated disorders in university students aged 18-25 years old. Background: Joint hypermobility has been recognized in healthy subjects and people who are carriers of cellular disorders in connective tissues. Cellular tissue oxidative stress and collagen-associated disorders were shown to be associated with joint hypermobility (JH). Materials and Methods: A total of 300 university students aged 18-25 years were randomly invited from different medical and science faculties in Mansoura university, Mansoura, Egypt to participate in this case-control study. Only 280 university students who had no exclusion criteria like chronic health problems, physical disability, musculoskeletal disorders, and body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 underwent an initial clinical interview and Beighton scoring as measures of GJH. Pain intensity, physical activity, oxidative stress parameters; TAC, TOC, OSI, and collagen-associated parameters; cellular prolidase activity and hydroxyproline were evaluated by using a prevalidated questionnaire, colorimetric, and immunoassay techniques. Results: GJH was significantly reported in 57.1% of the study population, and most of them are females. Compared to men, females with GJH showed poor physical activity, lower TAC, and significantly higher levels of TOC, OSI, cellular prolidase activity, and hydroxyproline. Based on our findings, a high Beighton score is closely related to the tissue levels of prolidase, hydroxyproline, antioxidant activity, pain intensity, and poor physical activity in the female with GJH compared to men. Conclusion: GJH was significantly reported in 57.1% of the study population, and most of them are females. The incidence of GJH showed to be associated with poor physical activity, abnormal cellular oxidative stress, and collagen abnormalities measured by significant increase in change in cellular prolidase activity and hydroxyproline.

20.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(7): 953-959, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stretching is believed to decrease muscle strength. The aim of this paper was to examine the time course (immediate, and 10- and 20-minutes post-stretching) for the effects of 2, 4, and 8 minutes of static-stretching (SS) on the isometric maximum voluntary contraction force (MVCF) of hamstring muscles with a pretest-post-test experiment design. METHODS: A total of 14 subjects with a mean age of 25 years participated in three experimental trials on three different days. Day I for static stretching for 2 minutes (SS2), day II for 4 minutes (SS4), and day III for 8 minutes (SS8). Testing was conducted before (pre), immediately after (post), and at 10- and 20-minutes post-stretching. MVCF was measured using the strain gauze as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: MVCF increased with SS2 at 0 minutes (1.31%), 10 minutes (3.4%), and 20 minutes (4.1%) postintervention. MVCF increased with SS4 at 0 minutes (1.13%), 10 minutes (9.6%) and 20 minutes (7.1%) postintervention. MVCF decreased with SS8 at 0 minutes (2.9%), but increased at 10 minutes (1.86%) and 20 minutes (0.99%) postintervention. All these changes were not statistically significant (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In hamstring stretching, 2, 4 and 8 minutes increased MVCF, but results were not statistically significant. Thus, 2 to 8 minutes long-duration stretching exercises could safely be performed before a strength-training session.


Assuntos
Músculos Isquiossurais , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Adulto , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Fatores de Tempo
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