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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285623

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231509, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249242

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed at comparing the brain size of mahseer (Tor putitora) in relation to their body weight and standard length, to investigate the potential impact of rearing environment on brain development in fish. The weight of the brain and three of its subdivisions cerebellum (CB), optic tectum (OT), and telencephalon (TC) were measured for both wild and hatchery-reared fish. The data was analysed using multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and discriminate function analysis (DFA). We found the fish reared under hatchery conditions exhibit smaller brain size related to body weight, when compared to the wild ones. A significant (p<0.5) difference was observed in the length of CB and OT concerning the standard body length while no significant difference was found in TC of the fish from both the origins. The results of the current study highlight a logical assumption that neural deficiency affects the behaviour of fish, that's why the captive-reared fish show maladaptive response and face fitness decline when released to the natural environment for wild stock enhancement. The current study concluded that hatchery-reared fish exhibit variations in gross brain morphology as compared to their wild counterpart.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar o tamanho do cérebro de mahseer (Tor putitora) em relação ao seu peso corporal e comprimento padrão, para investigar o impacto potencial do ambiente de criação no desenvolvimento do cérebro em peixes. O peso do cérebro e três de suas subdivisões — cerebelo (CB), tectum óptico (OT) e telencéfalo (TC) — foram medidos para peixes selvagens e criados em incubadoras. Os dados foram analisados usando análise múltipla de covariância (MANCOVA), análise de covariância (ANCOVA) e análise de função discriminante (DFA). Descobrimos que os peixes criados em condições de incubação apresentam menor tamanho do cérebro em relação ao peso corporal quando comparados aos selvagens. Uma diferença significativa (p <0,5) foi observada no comprimento do CB e OT em relação ao comprimento corporal padrão, enquanto nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada no CT dos peixes de ambas as origens. Os resultados do estudo atual destacam uma suposição lógica de que a deficiência neural afeta o comportamento dos peixes. É por isso que os peixes criados em cativeiro mostram uma resposta mal adaptativa e enfrentam declínio de aptidão quando liberados no ambiente natural para o aprimoramento do estoque selvagem. O estudo atual concluiu que os peixes criados em incubadoras exibem variações na morfologia cerebral bruta em comparação com suas contrapartes selvagens.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762572

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762073

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762063

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vectors behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

9.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lipedema, a poorly understood chronic disease of adipose hyper-deposition, is often mistaken for obesity and causes significant impairment to mobility and quality-of-life. To identify molecular mechanisms underpinning lipedema, we employed comprehensive omics-based comparative analyses of whole tissue, adipocyte precursors (adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)), and adipocytes from patients with or without lipedema. METHODS: We compared whole-tissues, ADSCs, and adipocytes from body mass index-matched lipedema (n = 14) and unaffected (n = 10) patients using comprehensive global lipidomic and metabolomic analyses, transcriptional profiling, and functional assays. RESULTS: Transcriptional profiling revealed >4400 significant differences in lipedema tissue, with altered levels of mRNAs involved in critical signaling and cell function-regulating pathways (e.g., lipid metabolism and cell-cycle/proliferation). Functional assays showed accelerated ADSC proliferation and differentiation in lipedema. Profiling lipedema adipocytes revealed >900 changes in lipid composition and >600 differentially altered metabolites. Transcriptional profiling of lipedema ADSCs and non-lipedema ADSCs revealed significant differential expression of >3400 genes including some involved in extracellular matrix and cell-cycle/proliferation signaling pathways. One upregulated gene in lipedema ADSCs, Bub1, encodes a cell-cycle regulator, central to the kinetochore complex, which regulates several histone proteins involved in cell proliferation. Downstream signaling analysis of lipedema ADSCs demonstrated enhanced activation of histone H2A, a key cell proliferation driver and Bub1 target. Critically, hyperproliferation exhibited by lipedema ADSCs was inhibited by the small molecule Bub1 inhibitor 2OH-BNPP1 and by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Bub1 gene depletion. CONCLUSION: We found significant differences in gene expression, and lipid and metabolite profiles, in tissue, ADSCs, and adipocytes from lipedema patients compared to non-affected controls. Functional assays demonstrated that dysregulated Bub1 signaling drives increased proliferation of lipedema ADSCs, suggesting a potential mechanism for enhanced adipogenesis in lipedema. Importantly, our characterization of signaling networks driving lipedema identifies potential molecular targets, including Bub1, for novel lipedema therapeutics.

10.
Med Arch ; 75(4): 317-320, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759455

RESUMO

Background: Quadriceps or patellar tendon rupture incidence is relatively low, especially simultaneous bilateral rupture, which usually reported as a complication of chronic systemic disorders such as renal failure. Objective: Herein, we report a case of bilateral knee extensor mechanism ruptured in a patient with chronic renal failure on long standing hemodialysis. Case presentation: A 38-year-old white male, a known case of chronic renal failure on long term hemodialysis, presented to our clinic with clinical signs of bilateral simultaneous knee extensor tendons rupture. After proper workup simultaneous quadriceps and contralateral patellar tendons rupture diagnosis was made. The patient was managed with surgical repair of the tendons and within few days after the surgery he started physiotherapy and rehabilitation program, using walking crutches partial weight bearing mobilization was allowed, and a gradual increase of knee flexion within brace was applied. He used the knee braces and the walking crutches for two months, to ensure complete healing of the repaired tendon with a sufficient strength to allow full weight bearing. At four-year follow-up, complete bilateral knee extensor tendons healing and both knees functional outcome was satisfactory. Conclusion: A simultaneous rupture of quadriceps and contralateral patellar tendons is a rare event in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing long term hemodialysis. With early surgical intervention and good physiotherapy, the patient usually has good recovery of both knees function.

11.
ISA Trans ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756463

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel adaptive interval type-2 fuzzy controller (AIT2FC) is proposed for a class of nonlinear networked Wiener systems under packet dropout and time varying delay. The proposed AIT2FC compensates the negative effects of the packet dropout and time varying delay in both forward and feedback loops. The structure of the proposed AIT2FC has three parts, an adaptive interval type-2 Takagi-Sugeno (IT2TS) fuzzy controller, an IT2TS fuzzy Wiener model (IT2TS-FWM), and a time-varying delay and packet dropout compensator. The adaptive IT2TS fuzzy controller has a cascade connection; an IT2TS fuzzy controller followed by an inverse of an autoregressive moving average (IARMA) system. The nonlinear Wiener system is identified online by an IT2TS-FWM. An adaptive Smith predictor (ASP) is proposed to compensate the negative effects related to the time-varying delay. For each communication channel, the packet dropout is compensated via designing a compensation term in the stochastic Bernoulli approach. Based on the Lyapunov stability (LS) function, the parameters of the proposed AIT2FC are updated online. Also, the learning rates are updated online based on the LS function to avoid singularities and guarantee both the stability and fast convergence of the AIT2FC. The results conclude that the proposed controller is better than the other existing controllers.

12.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(4): 1421-1428, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799317

RESUMO

Plumbago europaea L. is a plant utilized in Palestinian ethnomedicine for the treatment of various dermatological diseases. The current investigation was designed to isolate plumbagin from P. europaea leaves, roots and for the first time from the stems. Moreover, it aimed to evaluate the antimycotic activity against three human fungal pathogens causing dermatophytosis, also against an animal fungal pathogen. The qualitative analysis of plumbagin from the leaves, stems, and roots was conducted using HPLC and spectrophotometer techniques, while the structure of plumbagin was established utilizing Proton and Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Infrared (IR) techniques. The entire plant constituents were determined by GC-MS. Moreover, the antimycotic activity against Ascosphaera apis, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was assessed utilizing the poison food technique method. The percentage of plumbagin recorded in the leaves, stems, and roots was found to be 0.51±0.001%, 0.16±0.001%, and 1.65±0.015%, respectively. The GC-MS examination declared the presence of 59 molecules in the plant extract. The plant extract and pure plumbagin exhibited complete inhibition against all tested dermatophytes at 6.0mg/mL for the extracts and 0.2mg/mL for plumbagin. P. europaea root is the best source of plumbagin and the plant extract could represent a potential drug candidate for the treatment of dermatophytosis infections. Further studies required to design suitable dosage forms from the natural P. europaea root extracts or plumbagin alone, to be utilized for the treatment of dermatological and veterinary ailments.

13.
Adv Med Educ Pract ; 12: 1309-1315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795547

RESUMO

Introduction: The use of nitrous oxide/oxygen (N2O/O2) inhalation sedation in dentistry has increased worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the nitrous oxide/oxygen (N2O/O2) inhalation sedation undergraduate teaching curriculum at Kuwait University Faculty of Dentistry. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving dental students in their clinical years (5th, 6th, and 7th years) at Kuwait University Faculty of Dentistry was conducted. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. The Likert scale-based survey comprised 17 statements that assessed various aspects of N2O/O2 inhalation sedation in dental procedures. Continuous data variables were compared among different groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Categorical data variables were compared using either the Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. Results: Fifty-six students participated in this survey-based study. All students attended an approximately equal number of practical hands-on-training sessions, with a mean of 1.7 (± 1.1) sessions (p = 0.813). Most students expressed confidence in administering N2O/O2 inhalation sedation with an insignificant difference between each group (p = 0.276). However, low confidence level was observed in certain intraoperative and postoperative management aspects of providing N2O/O2 to patients. Conclusion: This study indicated that the teaching curriculum regarding N2O/O2 inhalation sedation should be regularly evaluated. The quality of students' educational pathways should also be assessed through surveys to improve and develop dental school curricula to the highest standard levels.

14.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(2): 835-841, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795742

RESUMO

Objective: To provide a grading system that accurately reflects the grades of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) severity. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Assiut University Hospital. It included 500 women who answered the Arabic version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) after getting their consent. A gradient of FSD severity was created, classifying FSD into five grades: severe, moderate, mild to moderate, mild, and no FSD. Results: According to our grading system, FSD was detected in 339 women (67.8 %); Mild FSD in 20.4%, mild to moderate in 41.6%, moderate in 15.3%, and severe in 22.7%. Mean scores of desire show a linear trend of reduction from 3.8 in mild to 3.36 in mild to moderate to 2.25 in moderate and markedly reduced to 2.1 in severe grade. This difference was highly statistically significant (p= 0.002). The same was reported in arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains, while in lubrication and pain domains, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: In this study, our grading system was complementary to the FSFI. Moreover, it seems to be more practical and useful in grading the severity of FSD.

15.
J Prosthet Dent ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799082

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Fractures of interim fixed restorations are a common complication. The autopolymerized polymethyl methacrylate resin materials used for interim fixed restorations have limited mechanical properties, but whether adding treated zirconium dioxide nanoparticles improves mechanical properties is unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of treated zirconium dioxide nanoparticles on the flexural strength and elastic modulus of autopolymerized polymethyl methacrylate resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A split-metal mold (60×10×3.3 mm) was used to fabricate 40 autopolymerized acrylic resin specimens. The specimens were divided into 4 groups (n=10) according to zirconium dioxide nanoparticle concentration: control (unmodified resin) and zirconium dioxide nanoparticle contents of 1, 2.5, and 5 wt%. The specimens were mixed and polymerized according to the manufacturer's instructions and stored in distilled water for 48 ±2 hours at 37 °C. The flexural strength and elastic modulus were evaluated based on the 3-point bend test where data were analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests (α=.05). RESULTS: The flexural strength of the 1-wt% zirconium dioxide nanoparticle specimens was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<.001) but did not significantly increase further with the higher nanoparticle content (P>.05). Elastic modulus significantly decreased with 2.5-wt% zirconium dioxide nanoparticles (P=.019), while no significant changes were found with other test groups (P>.05). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of treated zirconium dioxide nanoparticles at low concentrations increased the flexural strength of autopolymerized polymethyl methacrylate resins used in fixed interim restorations.

16.
Eur J Dent ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794201

RESUMO

Implant abutments are essential components in restoring dental implants. Titanium base abutments were introduced to overcome issues related to existing abutments, such as the unesthetic appearance of titanium abutments and the low fracture strength of ceramic abutments. This study aimed to comprehensively review studies addressing the mechanical and clinical behaviors of titanium base abutments. A search was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases to find articles that were published in English until December 2020 and that addressed the review purpose. A total of 33 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included for data extraction and review. In vitro studies showed that titanium base abutments had high fracture strength, adequate retention values, particularly with resin cement, and good marginal and internal fit. Although the clinical assessment of titanium base abutments was limited, they showed comparable performance with conventional abutments in short-term evaluation, especially in the anterior and premolar areas. Titanium base abutments can be considered a feasible treatment option for restoring dental implants, but long-term clinical studies are required for a better assessment.

17.
Saudi Dent J ; 33(7): 620-627, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803310

RESUMO

Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the flexural strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of two heat-pressed and one CAD/CAM processed lithium disilicate (LD) ceramics. Material and methods: A total of 45 specimens with dimensions 16 × 4 × 1.2 ± 0.2 mm were fabricated out of three LD ceramics. For heat-pressed LD specimens, acrylate polymer blocks were cut and divided into two groups (n = 15 per group); a GC LiSi Press LD group (LP) and an IPS e.max Press group (EP). Specimens for each group were pressed corresponding to the manufacturer's recommendations. For the CAD-CAM Group (EC), IPS e.max CAD blocks were cut to obtain specimens (n = 15) to the desired dimensions. Flexural strength and Young's modulus tests were executed using a universal testing machine. A one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tuckey's tests were applied to analyze the results (p ≤ 0.05). Results: Regarding flexural strength, the EC group showed higher statistically substantial difference than the EP and LP groups (p = 0.001), while there was no pronounced difference between the EP and LP groups (p = 0.065). For Young's modulus test, all the three tested groups had no statistically substantial difference (p = 0.798). Conclusion: The IPS e.max CAD group had higher mechanical performance than the IPS e.max Press and GC LiSi Press groups.

18.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 2001210, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757863

RESUMO

Alpha (B.1.1.7) SARS-COV-2 variant was detected in September 2020 in minks and humans in Denmark and UK. This variant has several mutations in the spike region (S) which could increase the transmissibility of the virus 43-90% over previously circulating variants. The National Center for Disease Control (NCDC) announced on 24 February 2021 a 25% frequency of B.1.1.7 strain in Libya using a reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR assay. This assay relies on the specific identification of the H69-V70 deletion in S gene which causes its failure of amplification (SGTF). This deletion is not specific for B.1.1.7, but is also characteristic of two other SARS-COV-2 variants. This study aimed to estimate the frequency of B.1.1.7 and identify other variants circulating in Libya in February 2021. We performed whole genome sequencing of 67 positive SARS-COV-2 samples collected on 25 February 2021 in Libya which were also tested by RT-qPCR for SGTF. Our results showed that 55% of samples had mutations specific to B.1.525 strain and only ~3% of samples belonged to B.1.1.7. These findings suggested that B.1.525 was spreading widely in Libya. The use of such RT-qPCR assay, although useful to track some variants, cannot discriminate between variants with H69-V70 deletion. RT-qPCR assays could be multiplexed to identify multiple variants and screen samples prior to sequencing. We emphasize on the need for providing whole-genome sequencing to the main COVID-19 diagnostic laboratories in Libya as well as establishing international collaboration for building capacity and advancing research in this time of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Líbia/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Eur J Dent ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nanodiamond (ND) addition to repair resin with repair gap modifications on the flexural and impact strength of repaired polymethylmethacrylate denture base. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens (N = 100/test) were prepared and sectioned to half creating two repair gaps: 2.5- and 0 mm with 45 degrees beveling. They were further divided into subgroups (n = 20) according to ND concentration (control, 0.25%ND, and 0.50%ND), thermocycling (500 cycles) was done to half the specimens in each subgroup. Flexural strength was tested using 3-point bending test and impact strength was tested by Charpy's impact test. Analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's tests were performed for data analysis (α = 0.05). Scanning electron microscope was employed for fracture surface analysis and ND distribution. RESULTS: Before and after thermocycling, the addition of ND significantly increased the flexural strength and elastic modulus in comparison to control group (p ˂ 0.001), while 0 mm repair gap showed insignificant difference between ND-reinforced groups (p ˃ 0.05). Regarding impact strength, ND addition increased the impact strength with 0 mm gap in comparison to control and 2.5 mm with ND (p˂0.001), while later groups showed no significant in between (p ˃ 0.05). Comparing thermocycling effect per respective concentration and repair gap, thermocycling adversely affected all tested properties except elastic modulus with 0 mm-0.25 and 0 mm-0.5% and impact strength with 2.5 mm, 2.5 mm-0.25%, 2.5 mm- 0.5% (p ˃ 0.05). CONCLUSION: ND addition combined with decreased repair gap improved the flexural strength, elastic modulus, and impact strength of repaired denture resin, while thermocycling has a negative effect on denture repair strength.

20.
Int J Dent ; 2021: 5861848, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804165

RESUMO

Background: The effect of beverages on nanocomposite denture base materials is neglected. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of different beverages (coffee, tea, cola, and mineral water) on the color stability of nanoparticles-modified denture base materials (DBMs). Materials and Methods: A total of 280 specimens (n = 10/group) were prepared from heat-polymerized acrylic resin modified with different concentrations (3% and 7%) of zirconium dioxide (nano-ZrO2), titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2), and silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2) nanoparticles, while 0% was taken as a control. Color change (∆E) of the specimens was evaluated after simulating 6-month immersion time in four commonly used beverages, coffee, tea, cola, and mineral water, as experimental groups. Color stability was measured using a spectrophotometer, and then values were converted to National Bureau of Standards units (NBS units). The one-way ANOVA test was applied to compare color change (ΔE) results followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results: The results showed that the heat-polymerized acrylic resin modified with different types of nanoparticles showed lower color changes after being immersed in beverage solutions compared to the unmodified group (P < 0.001), so the color stability of heat-polymerized acrylic resin was significantly enhanced by the addition of several nanoparticles; nano-ZrO2 showed the lowest ΔE followed by nano-TiO2 and then nano-SiO2. Regardless of the filler type, 3% concentration showed lower mean ΔE than 7% concentration. Regarding the beverage solutions, the greatest color change was found in the coffee group followed by tea and cola, while water showed the least changes. Conclusion: Modification of heat-polymerized acrylic resin with certain amounts of nano-ZrO2, nano-TiO2, and nano-SiO2 may be useful in improving color stability.

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