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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231509, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249242

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed at comparing the brain size of mahseer (Tor putitora) in relation to their body weight and standard length, to investigate the potential impact of rearing environment on brain development in fish. The weight of the brain and three of its subdivisions cerebellum (CB), optic tectum (OT), and telencephalon (TC) were measured for both wild and hatchery-reared fish. The data was analysed using multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and discriminate function analysis (DFA). We found the fish reared under hatchery conditions exhibit smaller brain size related to body weight, when compared to the wild ones. A significant (p<0.5) difference was observed in the length of CB and OT concerning the standard body length while no significant difference was found in TC of the fish from both the origins. The results of the current study highlight a logical assumption that neural deficiency affects the behaviour of fish, that's why the captive-reared fish show maladaptive response and face fitness decline when released to the natural environment for wild stock enhancement. The current study concluded that hatchery-reared fish exhibit variations in gross brain morphology as compared to their wild counterpart.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar o tamanho do cérebro de mahseer (Tor putitora) em relação ao seu peso corporal e comprimento padrão, para investigar o impacto potencial do ambiente de criação no desenvolvimento do cérebro em peixes. O peso do cérebro e três de suas subdivisões — cerebelo (CB), tectum óptico (OT) e telencéfalo (TC) — foram medidos para peixes selvagens e criados em incubadoras. Os dados foram analisados usando análise múltipla de covariância (MANCOVA), análise de covariância (ANCOVA) e análise de função discriminante (DFA). Descobrimos que os peixes criados em condições de incubação apresentam menor tamanho do cérebro em relação ao peso corporal quando comparados aos selvagens. Uma diferença significativa (p <0,5) foi observada no comprimento do CB e OT em relação ao comprimento corporal padrão, enquanto nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada no CT dos peixes de ambas as origens. Os resultados do estudo atual destacam uma suposição lógica de que a deficiência neural afeta o comportamento dos peixes. É por isso que os peixes criados em cativeiro mostram uma resposta mal adaptativa e enfrentam declínio de aptidão quando liberados no ambiente natural para o aprimoramento do estoque selvagem. O estudo atual concluiu que os peixes criados em incubadoras exibem variações na morfologia cerebral bruta em comparação com suas contrapartes selvagens.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762572

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762073

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762063

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vectors behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5664-5673, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive dysfunction among the elderly is a devastating condition preceded by accumulation of neuropathology leading to accelerated cognitive decline. Many epidemiologic studies have reported the relation between indoor air pollution exposure and cognitive impairment. To clarify the nature of the association, a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis included all observational studies, including cross-sectional studies, prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Experimental studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and controlled clinical trials were excluded. Studies on the relationships of indoor air pollution and cognition published before 30 April 2021 which are peer-reviewed scientific publications available in English were included after performing a structured literature search through electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and clinical trial.gov. A total of 146 articles were collected, and after screening thoroughly only, 9 studies were selected. Meta-analysis for the final set of selected studies was performed using the R software. RESULTS: The quality of all the studies was adequate as almost all reported an association between at least one pollutant and cognitive dysfunction. However, relatively few studies considered outcomes that provide the most substantial evidence for a causal effect. In total, 5 studies have reported on cognitive function. The pooled mean of cognitive function was 12.16 (95% CI: 10.73 to 13.58). However, the heterogeneity was very high (I2=100%; chi-square test for heterogeneity = p<0.001). We used a modified JBI structured risk of the bias assessment tool, and it was minimal among the included studies as most of the studies have followed a random sampling method and explicitly mention it in their methods. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to indoor air pollution through fuels used for cooking and heating was significantly associated with cognitive dysfunction among elderly women. Given the limitations, a more extensive meta-analysis and longitudinal studies are recommended to investigate the biological mechanism behind the impact of indoor air pollution on cognitive health.

9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706025

RESUMO

Hyperhydricity is a serious physiological disorder and affects In vitro propagation of many plants and as well of Salvia santolinifolia. The donor material to initiate the in vitro culture was the callus taken from the in vitro shoots produced on Murashig and Skoogs (MS) medium at 4.0 mg/l BA. This callus formed numerous hyperhydric shoots on culturing upon the medium of the same composition. The aim was to systematically evaluate the effect of cytokinins (Benzyladnine (BA) and N6-(-2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), culture vessels magnitude, medium solidification, source of nitrogen and calcium chloride for the alleviation of hyperhydricity. In the tissue cultures of S. santolinifolia BA and 2iP induced severe hyperhydricity, when other factors i.e. culture vessels magnitude and a suitable concentration of agar, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3) & calcium chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) were not optimized. After 30 days' culture, we observed 83.82% hyperhydric shoots at increased level (1.5 mg/l 2iP) and 81.59% at decreased levels (1.0 mg/l 2iP). On the other hand, hyperhydricity percentage at decreased (0.4%) and at increased (0.8%) levels of agar were 72.37% and 39.08%, respectively. MS medium modification with NH4NO3 (412 mg/l), KNO3 (475 mg/l) and CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg/l) was found the best medium to reduced hyperhydricity (23.6%).


Assuntos
Salvia , Meios de Cultura , Brotos de Planta
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(17): 5561-5577, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533807

RESUMO

We aimed this systematic review to analyze and review the currently available published literature related to long COVID, understanding its pattern, and predicting the long-term effects on survivors. We thoroughly searched the databases for relevant articles till May 2021. The research articles that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed and reviewed by two independent researchers. After preliminary screening of the identified articles through title and abstract, 249 were selected. Consequently, 167 full-text articles were assessed and reviewed based on our inclusion criteria and thus 20 articles were regarded as eligible and analyzed in the present analysis. All the studies included adult population aged between 18 and above 60 years. The median length of hospital stay of the COVID-19 patients during the acute infection phase ranged from 8 days to 17 days. The most common prevalent long-term symptoms in COVID-19 patients included persistent fatigue and dyspnea in almost all of the studies. Other reported common symptoms included: shortness of breath, cough, joint pain, chest pain or tightness, headache, loss of smell/taste, sore throat, diarrhea, loss of memory, depression, anxiety. Associated cardiovascular events included arrhythmias, palpitations and hypotension, increased HR, venous thromboembolic diseases, myocarditis, and acute/decompensated heart failure as well. Among neurological manifestations headache, peripheral neuropathy symptoms, memory issues, concentration, and sleep disorders were most commonly observed with varying frequencies. Mental health issues affecting mental abilities, mood fluctuations namely anxiety and depression, and sleep disorders were commonly seen. Further, diarrhea, vomiting, digestive disorders, and Loss of appetite or weight loss are common gastrointestinal manifestations. Therefore, appropriate clinical evaluation is required in long COVID cases which in turn may help us to identify the risk factors, etiology, and to my help, we treat them early with appropriate management strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(15): 4909-4918, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence, patterns and contributing factors for tobacco usage amongst Saudi population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April and June 2013, a cross-sectional study was organized among 10735 individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey consisted of face-face interview for collecting data on socio-demographics, tobacco usage, diet, physical activity and comorbidities. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to check for the association of prevalence (both smoked and smokeless) with socio-demographic factors. The strength of association was examined by approximating odds ratios (OR) with their 95% CI using SPSS software and p-value set at < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 10195 respondents aged from 15 to 101 were considered. Overall prevalence of current smoking was 12.8%. Daily smoking was reported by 12% of the population. Sex, age group, education, married and occupation were strong predictors of tobacco use in both univariate and multivariable model. From multivariable model, men were 14.54 times more likely to smoke tobacco (aOR 14.54, 95% CI 11.07-19.11) when compared with women. Respondents between 15 to 30 years, 31 to 45 years, were 3.36 times (aOR 3.36, 95% CI 2.29-4.93) and 3.51 times (aOR 3.51, 95% CI 2.47-4.98) more likely to smoke tobacco when compared to >60 years. CONCLUSIONS: The results of present study indicate a significant, but differing purpose of sex, age group, education, marital status and work status on tobacco usage in the country.

12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(12): 4308-4316, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease (NCD) with metabolic dysfunction that has attained epidemic proportions worldwide. Vascular complications account for the mortality and morbidity associated with diabetes. Hence, the study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional national multistage survey, the Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS), was used in this study, which surveyed individuals aged 15 years or older. After inclusion and exclusion criteria, 1240 diabetic patients' data were analyzed for sociodemographic data, risk factors, and prevalence of micro and macrovascular complications. Binary logistic regression with stepwise backward elimination was performed to build the optimal model to assess the determinants of macrovascular complications in diabetic patients. The strength of the associations was examined by estimating adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with their 95% CI. p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. R Studio Version 1.2.1093 was used for statistical analysis RESULTS: Prevalence of micro and macrovascular complications in the diabetic patients was 6.05%, in which 3.5% had myocardial infarction, 1.2% had stroke and 1.9% had renal failure. The optimal model showed that for each year increase in age (aOR=1.05, 95%CI 1.02-1.07; p-value=0.000), smoking history (aOR=4.02, 95%CI 2.23-7.26; p-value=0.000), hypertensive patients (aOR=2.71, 95%CI 1.47-4.99; p-value=0.001), patients with low physical activity (aOR=4.32, 95%CI 1.26-14.82; p-value=0.001) were more likely to develop macro and microvascular complications in diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetic patients poses a serious threat to public health in Saudi Arabia. A multisectoral approach needs to be undertaken to properly control and modify common risk factors at the community level.

13.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238339, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161423

RESUMO

The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Paquistão
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3737-3744, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to mineral oil and petroleum derivatives is common among motor vehicle repair workers, leading to occupation-related dermatological conditions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence of contact dermatitis among workers of car garages in the unorganized sector and to explore their personal safety measures. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective community-based study was conducted among 200 workers aged 18 years and above employed at 70 car garages in Majmaah City, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected by a trained medical student using a standardized questionnaire on age, nationality, type of work, working hours, past history of dermatitis, clinical examination, personal safety equipment, and treatment-seeking behavior of workers. Descriptive analysis and chi-square test of significance were done using SPSSv25.0. RESULTS: The self-reported prevalence of eczema/contact dermatitis within the past year was 14.5% (n=29), with hand lesions being the commonest (63%). Participants aged 18-30 years, working as car mechanics, and working for more than 10 hours had a statistically significant higher prevalence of contact dermatitis as compared to their counterparts. Most of them wore some or the other safety wares like safety shoes (20.9%), gloves (20.3%), Face masks (20%), earmuffs (10%), and helmets (2.8%). However, only 30% of cases sought treatment for the condition, reflecting poor healthcare-seeking behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of contact dermatitis among workers of car garages was found to be lower than in other countries in KSA, probably due to stringent implementation of Occupation and Health Safety laws. However, workers had poor treatment-seeking behavior for this condition, which needs to be improved by taking appropriate public health measures.

15.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e231509, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076158

RESUMO

The present study was aimed at comparing the brain size of mahseer (Tor putitora) in relation to their body weight and standard length, to investigate the potential impact of rearing environment on brain development in fish. The weight of the brain and three of its subdivisions cerebellum (CB), optic tectum (OT), and telencephalon (TC) were measured for both wild and hatchery-reared fish. The data was analysed using multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and discriminate function analysis (DFA). We found the fish reared under hatchery conditions exhibit smaller brain size related to body weight, when compared to the wild ones. A significant (p<0.5) difference was observed in the length of CB and OT concerning the standard body length while no significant difference was found in TC of the fish from both the origins. The results of the current study highlight a logical assumption that neural deficiency affects the behaviour of fish, that's why the captive-reared fish show maladaptive response and face fitness decline when released to the natural environment for wild stock enhancement. The current study concluded that hatchery-reared fish exhibit variations in gross brain morphology as compared to their wild counterpart.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Animais , Peso Corporal , Encéfalo , Meio Ambiente
16.
Pituitary ; 24(5): 698-713, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973152

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea (CSFR) remains a frequent complication of endonasal approaches to pituitary and skull base tumours. Watertight skull base reconstruction is important in preventing CSFR. We sought to systematically review the current literature of available skull base repair techniques. METHODS: Pubmed and Embase databases were searched for studies (2000-2020) that (a) reported on the endonasal resection of pituitary and skull base tumours, (b) focussed on skull base repair techniques and/or postoperative CSFR risk factors, and (c) included CSFR data. Roles, advantages and disadvantages of each repair method were detailed. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed where possible. RESULTS: 193 studies were included. Repair methods were categorised based on function and anatomical level. There was absolute heterogeneity in repair methods used, with no independent studies sharing the same repair protocol. Techniques most commonly used for low CSFR risk cases were fat grafts, fascia lata grafts and synthetic grafts. For cases with higher CSFR risk, multilayer regimes were utilized with vascularized flaps, gasket sealing and lumbar drains. Lumbar drain use for high CSFR risk cases was supported by a randomised study (Oxford CEBM: Grade B recommendation), but otherwise there was limited high-level evidence. Pooled CSFR incidence by approach was 3.7% (CI 3-4.5%) for transsphenoidal, 9% (CI 7.2-11.3%) for expanded endonasal, and 5.3% (CI 3.4-7%) for studies describing both. Further meaningful meta-analyses of repair methods were not performed due to significant repair protocol heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Modern reconstructive protocols are heterogeneous and there is limited evidence to suggest the optimal repair technique after pituitary and skull base tumour resection. Further studies are needed to guide practice.

17.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238735, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037077

RESUMO

Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Simbiose
18.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825759

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
19.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787717

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
20.
Foot (Edinb) ; 46: 101720, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531204

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the incidence of spring ligament failure in patients who have complete deltoid ruptures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The authors retrospectively analysed ankle fractures in our trauma database from January 2015 to January 2019. 61 patients who sustained ankle fractures with complete deltoid ligament ruptures based on an AP ankle radiographs with increased medial joint space were identified. 25 patients attended clinic for assessment. Of these, 5 were found to have gross planovalgus with pre-existing spring ligament laxity in the uninjured control foot and these were excluded from the analysis. 20 patients were assessed for spring ligament failure /laxity. For each patient, the uninjured foot was used as the control. RESULTS: The TMT instability score and the lateral translation score showed statistically significant increases in the injured compared to the uninjured foot. The ratio of increase in both TMT instability and lateral translation scores (strain) in the injured versus the uninjured foot was assessed. A strong correlation (+0.62 pearson correlation coefficient) was found between the two ratios. CONCLUSION: All 20 patients showed increased spring ligament laxity and 19 patients showed increased TMT instability. Our results show that with complete deltoid rupture, there is likely greater disruption of the medial ligamentous structures of the foot than previously recognised. The degree of increase in the spring ligament strain also correlates with the degree of strain at the plantar TMT joint ligaments, and thus first ray instability. This finding has significant implications for the long-term assessment and management of ankle fractures involving complete deltoid disruption. Early intervention with orthotics in this cohort may prevent progressive destabilisation of the midfoot and the first ray. This evolving understanding may lead to the prospect of earlier surgical intervention to reconstitute the integrity of the spring ligament and protect the foot progressing to stage 2 AAFD.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Tornozelo , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Tornozelo/epidemiologia , Articulação do Tornozelo , Humanos , Incidência , Ligamentos Articulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
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