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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285623

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762572

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762073

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762063

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vectors behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231509, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249242

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed at comparing the brain size of mahseer (Tor putitora) in relation to their body weight and standard length, to investigate the potential impact of rearing environment on brain development in fish. The weight of the brain and three of its subdivisions cerebellum (CB), optic tectum (OT), and telencephalon (TC) were measured for both wild and hatchery-reared fish. The data was analysed using multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and discriminate function analysis (DFA). We found the fish reared under hatchery conditions exhibit smaller brain size related to body weight, when compared to the wild ones. A significant (p<0.5) difference was observed in the length of CB and OT concerning the standard body length while no significant difference was found in TC of the fish from both the origins. The results of the current study highlight a logical assumption that neural deficiency affects the behaviour of fish, that's why the captive-reared fish show maladaptive response and face fitness decline when released to the natural environment for wild stock enhancement. The current study concluded that hatchery-reared fish exhibit variations in gross brain morphology as compared to their wild counterpart.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar o tamanho do cérebro de mahseer (Tor putitora) em relação ao seu peso corporal e comprimento padrão, para investigar o impacto potencial do ambiente de criação no desenvolvimento do cérebro em peixes. O peso do cérebro e três de suas subdivisões — cerebelo (CB), tectum óptico (OT) e telencéfalo (TC) — foram medidos para peixes selvagens e criados em incubadoras. Os dados foram analisados usando análise múltipla de covariância (MANCOVA), análise de covariância (ANCOVA) e análise de função discriminante (DFA). Descobrimos que os peixes criados em condições de incubação apresentam menor tamanho do cérebro em relação ao peso corporal quando comparados aos selvagens. Uma diferença significativa (p <0,5) foi observada no comprimento do CB e OT em relação ao comprimento corporal padrão, enquanto nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada no CT dos peixes de ambas as origens. Os resultados do estudo atual destacam uma suposição lógica de que a deficiência neural afeta o comportamento dos peixes. É por isso que os peixes criados em cativeiro mostram uma resposta mal adaptativa e enfrentam declínio de aptidão quando liberados no ambiente natural para o aprimoramento do estoque selvagem. O estudo atual concluiu que os peixes criados em incubadoras exibem variações na morfologia cerebral bruta em comparação com suas contrapartes selvagens.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

9.
J Prosthodont ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626145

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different durations of silane coupling agent application compared to a universal adhesive system regarding the shear bond strength of two ceramic materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 human molars were ground to the dentinal coronal third and then fixed into an acrylic resin holder. Lithium disilicate specimens were divided into two main groups according to the ceramic type: computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing IPS e.max CAD and heat-pressed Initial LiSi Press GC (dimensions of 4×3×3 mm). Each main group was subdivided into 6 subgroups (n = 10) according to the duration of the silane and universal adhesive system application (20, 60, or 120 seconds) on the ceramic surface before cementation; then, the cementation procedures were performed. All specimens were subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles at 5 and 55°C before testing. The shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. ANOVA and Scheffe post-hoc test multiple comparisons tests were conducted (α = 0.05). RESULTS: The shear bond strength increased as the duration of the silane and universal adhesive system application increased. The highest bond value for each material was found for the silane application at 120 seconds, with a significant difference between 120 and 60, and 20 seconds for both materials (P = 0.029 and P˂0.001, respectively). No significant difference was found between 60 and 20 seconds when silane and universal adhesive system applied for both CAD and LiSi materials (P = 0.169 and P = 0.120, respectively). All groups treated with the silane primer showed significantly higher values than the universal adhesive system for each application time (P˂0.001). CONCLUSION: Increasing the duration of the silane coupling agent and universal adhesive system application to 120 seconds on the ceramic surface before cementation improved the shear bond strength of the ceramic-cement interface. Ceramic pretreatment with silane could be an essential step for bonding ceramic to dentin regardless of silane presence in the universal adhesive system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5664-5673, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive dysfunction among the elderly is a devastating condition preceded by accumulation of neuropathology leading to accelerated cognitive decline. Many epidemiologic studies have reported the relation between indoor air pollution exposure and cognitive impairment. To clarify the nature of the association, a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis included all observational studies, including cross-sectional studies, prospective and retrospective cohort studies. Experimental studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and controlled clinical trials were excluded. Studies on the relationships of indoor air pollution and cognition published before 30 April 2021 which are peer-reviewed scientific publications available in English were included after performing a structured literature search through electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and clinical trial.gov. A total of 146 articles were collected, and after screening thoroughly only, 9 studies were selected. Meta-analysis for the final set of selected studies was performed using the R software. RESULTS: The quality of all the studies was adequate as almost all reported an association between at least one pollutant and cognitive dysfunction. However, relatively few studies considered outcomes that provide the most substantial evidence for a causal effect. In total, 5 studies have reported on cognitive function. The pooled mean of cognitive function was 12.16 (95% CI: 10.73 to 13.58). However, the heterogeneity was very high (I2=100%; chi-square test for heterogeneity = p<0.001). We used a modified JBI structured risk of the bias assessment tool, and it was minimal among the included studies as most of the studies have followed a random sampling method and explicitly mention it in their methods. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to indoor air pollution through fuels used for cooking and heating was significantly associated with cognitive dysfunction among elderly women. Given the limitations, a more extensive meta-analysis and longitudinal studies are recommended to investigate the biological mechanism behind the impact of indoor air pollution on cognitive health.

11.
Photochem Photobiol ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612527

RESUMO

Azobenzene has attracted substantial attention as a photoswitchable molecule due to its applications range from energy and data storage to biomedical applications. This work reports a new type of thin-film based on azobenzene derivative anchored to Cerium oxide nanoparticles CeO2 NPs for photoswitching applications. The trans - cis isomerization and reverse isomerization occurs by UV-light exposure and thermal relaxation process, respectively. The photoisomerization and reverse isomerization kinetics for CeO2 NPs-MR thin films are studied, investigated, and analyzed using UV-Vis absorbance spectra, FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in addition to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement to study the energy storage capacity. The results found that anchoring azobenzene to CeO2 NPs is successful in multi-source storage of solar energy applications.

12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 484, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570262

RESUMO

Vector-borne bacterial diseases (VBBD) are a diverse group of tropical and subtropical zoonotic diseases. This study investigated the possibility of domestic animals to carry certain vector-borne bacterial microorganisms (VBBMs), as well as the presence of these targeted DNAs in their ectoparasites in different localities of Egypt using molecular analyses. For this study, 234 animal hosts (112 cattle, 38 sheep, 28 goats, 26 buffaloes, 22 donkeys, and 8 horses) in addition to 115 ectoparasites (95 ticks and 20 lice) were investigated for the molecular detection of Bartonella spp., Borrelia spp., and Rickettsia spp., targeting 16S-23S rRNAITS, 16S rRNA, and gltA genes, respectively. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of VBBD was observed in 17 animals (7.26%), of which 16 (6.84%) were positive for Bartonella spp. and one (0.43%) was positive for Borrelia theileri. All blood samples were negative for the DNA of Rickettsia spp. In addition, the results demonstrated that all ectoparasites were free from VBBDNA. Furthermore, of the animals examined for ectoparasite infestation, 28 (11.97%) and 5 (2.14%) represented Rhipicephalus annulatus ticks and Haematopinus tuberculatus lice, respectively, which infested animals. Analysis of epidemiological factors revealed that gender, age, and ectoparasitic infestation of animals had a significant effect on Bartonella infection, whereas no significant difference between animal species was observed. Hence, we report a potential novel Bartonella sp. from cattle and buffaloes, including a new genotype of Bo. theileri from cattle, in Egypt.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Rhipicephalus , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Bovinos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Egito/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Epidemiologia Molecular , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ovinos
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 417, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The future productivity of wheat (T. aestivum L.) as the most grown crop worldwide is of utmost importance for global food security. Thousand kernel weight (TKW) in wheat is closely associated with grain architecture-related traits, e.g. kernel length (KL), kernel width (KW), kernel area (KA), kernel diameter ratio (KDR), and factor form density (FFD). Discovering the genetic architecture of natural variation in these traits, identifying QTL and candidate genes are the main aims of this study. Therefore, grain architecture-related traits in 261 worldwide winter accessions over three field-year experiments were evaluated. RESULTS: Genome-wide association analysis using 90K SNP array in FarmCPU model revealed several interesting genomic regions including 17 significant SNPs passing false discovery rate threshold and strongly associated with the studied traits. Four of associated SNPs were physically located inside candidate genes within LD interval e.g. BobWhite_c5872_589 (602,710,399 bp) found to be inside TraesCS6A01G383800 (602,699,767-602,711,726 bp). Further analysis reveals the four novel candidate genes potentially involved in more than one grain architecture-related traits with a pleiotropic effects e.g. TraesCS6A01G383800 gene on 6A encoding oxidoreductase activity was associated with TKW and KA. The allelic variation at the associated SNPs showed significant differences betweeen the accessions carying the wild and mutated alleles e.g. accessions carying C allele of BobWhite_c5872_589, TraesCS6A01G383800 had significantly higher TKW than the accessions carying T allele. Interestingly, these genes were highly expressed in the grain-tissues, demonstrating their pivotal role in controlling the grain architecture. CONCLUSIONS: These results are valuable for identifying regions associated with kernel weight and dimensions and potentially help breeders in improving kernel weight and architecture-related traits in order to increase wheat yield potential and end-use quality.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/genética , Triticum/anatomia & histologia , Triticum/genética , Grão Comestível/anatomia & histologia , Grão Comestível/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518755

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which emerged in December 2019, continues to be a serious health concern worldwide. There is an urgent need to develop effective drugs and vaccines to control the spread of this disease. In the current study, the main phytochemical compounds of Nigella sativa were screened for their binding affinity for the active site of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzyme of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The binding affinity was investigated using molecular docking methods, and the interaction of phytochemicals with the RdRp active site was analyzed and visualized using suitable software. Out of the nine phytochemicals of N. sativa screened in this study, a significant docking score was observed for four compounds, namely α-hederin, dithymoquinone, nigellicine, and nigellidine. Based on the findings of our study, we report that α-hederin, which was found to possess the lowest binding energy (-8.6 kcal/mol) and hence the best binding affinity, is the best inhibitor of RdRp of SARS-CoV-2, among all the compounds screened here. Our results prove that the top four potential phytochemical molecules of N. sativa, especially α-hederin, could be considered for ongoing drug development strategies against SARS-CoV-2. However, further in vitro and in vivo testing are required to confirm the findings of this study.

15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(17): 5561-5577, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533807

RESUMO

We aimed this systematic review to analyze and review the currently available published literature related to long COVID, understanding its pattern, and predicting the long-term effects on survivors. We thoroughly searched the databases for relevant articles till May 2021. The research articles that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed and reviewed by two independent researchers. After preliminary screening of the identified articles through title and abstract, 249 were selected. Consequently, 167 full-text articles were assessed and reviewed based on our inclusion criteria and thus 20 articles were regarded as eligible and analyzed in the present analysis. All the studies included adult population aged between 18 and above 60 years. The median length of hospital stay of the COVID-19 patients during the acute infection phase ranged from 8 days to 17 days. The most common prevalent long-term symptoms in COVID-19 patients included persistent fatigue and dyspnea in almost all of the studies. Other reported common symptoms included: shortness of breath, cough, joint pain, chest pain or tightness, headache, loss of smell/taste, sore throat, diarrhea, loss of memory, depression, anxiety. Associated cardiovascular events included arrhythmias, palpitations and hypotension, increased HR, venous thromboembolic diseases, myocarditis, and acute/decompensated heart failure as well. Among neurological manifestations headache, peripheral neuropathy symptoms, memory issues, concentration, and sleep disorders were most commonly observed with varying frequencies. Mental health issues affecting mental abilities, mood fluctuations namely anxiety and depression, and sleep disorders were commonly seen. Further, diarrhea, vomiting, digestive disorders, and Loss of appetite or weight loss are common gastrointestinal manifestations. Therefore, appropriate clinical evaluation is required in long COVID cases which in turn may help us to identify the risk factors, etiology, and to my help, we treat them early with appropriate management strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos
16.
J Prosthodont ; 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480386

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This in vitro study aims to assess the impact of various surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two types of artificial teeth and denture base resins (DBRs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of DBRs (CAD/CAM-milled and heat-polymerized) and two types of denture teeth (acrylic and composite) were investigated. Teeth were cut into slices (5 × 5 × 2 mm) and divided according to surface treatment into four subgroups (n = 10): no treatment (control), air abrasion (Alumina-blasting; AB), bur roughening, and dichloromethane (DCM) subgroups. According to manufacturer recommendations, the treated tooth slices were bonded to the acrylic disk of DBRs. The SBS test was performed using a universal testing machine. ANOVA was used for results analysis followed by Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: DCM and AB increased the SBS of acrylic teeth to heat-polymerized DBR compared with other groups (p < 0.001). All surface treatments showed no significant difference in CAD/CAM DBR with acrylic teeth (p = 0.059; AB, p = 0.319; bur roughening, p = 0.895; DCM), while there was a significant decrease in SBS with composite teeth (p ˂ 0.001). Between teeth, acrylic teeth showed a statistically significant increase in SBS compared to composite teeth (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: AB and DCM application improved the SBS for acrylic teeth with the heat-polymerized DBR when compared with the untreated group, but none of the surface treatment agents showed significant improvement with CAD/CAM DBR. All surface treatment agents reduced the SBS for composite teeth with CAD/CAM DBR while AB only increased the SBS with heat-polymerized DBR.

17.
Psychol Trauma ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Emotion dysregulation theoretically and empirically explains the link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttrauma reckless and self-destructive behaviors (RSDBs). METHOD: The current study uniquely examined the role of emotion dysregulation in the association between the four heterogeneous PTSD clusters (intrusions, avoidance, negative alterations in cognitions and mood [NACM], and alterations in arousal and reactivity [AAR]) and an overall measure of posttrauma RSDBs. Trauma-exposed participants (n = 411) completed self-report measures assessing PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale-16), and engagement in RSDBs (Posttrauma Risky Behaviors Questionnaire). RESULTS: Direct and indirect effects were examined using PROCESS Model 4. The bias-corrected bootstrap revealed a significant indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in posttrauma RSDBs' relation with PTSD's intrusions (B = -.13, SE = .04, 95% CI [-.23, -.06]), avoidance (B =.15, SE =.07, 95% CI [.04, .33]), NACM (B =.17, SE =.05, 95% CI [.09, .27]), and AAR (B =.14, SE =.05, 95% CI [.05, .27]). CONCLUSIONS: Emotion dysregulation explained associations between the severity of each PTSD symptom cluster and overall posttrauma RSDBs. PTSD treatments targeting emotion dysregulation may help to reduce posttrauma RSDBs for trauma-exposed individuals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

18.
Health Place ; 72: 102677, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592679

RESUMO

The features of the urban environment can support human health as well as harm it, but less is known about such influences in the context of middle eastern countries. The association between green space and the political classifications of the urban environment and the risk of chronic illness was investigated in a novel setting, the twin cities of Ramallah and Albireh in the occupied Palestinian territory. We used a generalised multi-level regression analysis to link the 2017 census data with Geographic Information System data. We modelled individuals at level one (n = 54693) and areas of residence at level two (n = 228), adjusting for individual demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The proportions of 'mixed' trees in residential areas had a significant inverse association with the risk of chronic illness. On the political dimension, only living in a refugee camp had a significant positive association with chronic illness; however, this was largely explained and rendered non-significant when green space variables were entered into the models. Our ability to differentiate between several types of green space was important, as findings demonstrated that not all types were associated with reduced risk of chronic illness. Our results from a middle eastern setting add to the largely Western existing evidence, that trees in urban settings are important and beneficial to human health. Researchers and policymakers should pay more attention to the health consequences of refugee camps but also the role of trees in benefiting individuals' health in such a disadvantaged context.

19.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 55: 151810, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482217

RESUMO

The diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) relies primarily on identifying peripheral blood cytopenia and morphologic dysplasia as well as detecting cytogenetic aberrations in a subset of patients. Accumulating data points to the importance of examining certain immunophenotypic changes characteristic of MDS, most of which are tested by flow cytometry. The role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnostic workup of MDS is less known. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to survey the expression patterns of CD177, P53, CD105 and c- kit in a cohort of MDS bone marrow specimens (n = 57) and compared the results with a control group of patients who had cytopenia for other benign conditions (n = 49). MDS cases showed significant higher rates of: CD177-loss (13/57, 23% vs 1/49, 2%; P = .0016), P53 overexpression (8/57, 14% vs none; P = .005) and the presence of clusters of CD105-positive cells (6/57, 11% vs none; P = .021). Increased c-kit-positive cells was more common in MDS patients, but not statistically significant (17/57, 30% vs 8/49, 16%; P = .102). On multivariate analysis, only loss of CD177 expression was significantly higher in MDS group (P = .014). These findings suggest that a panel of immunohistochemical stains could serve as an adjunct tool in investigating unexplained cytopenias and warrant further comparative studies with flow cytometry.

20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404670

RESUMO

A family of three siblings affected with gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina is presented. Ultrawide field fundus imaging was used to monitor the progression of the disease objectively over 5 years.


Assuntos
Atrofia Girata , Adolescente , Atrofia/patologia , Criança , Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Corioide/patologia , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Atrofia Girata/complicações , Atrofia Girata/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Ornitina , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia
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