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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMO

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285623

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240943, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278469

RESUMO

Abstract The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains, which are posing a global health threat has developed the interest of scientists to use bacteriophages instead of conventional antibiotics therapy. In light of an increased interest in the use of phage as a bacterial control agent, the study aimed to isolate and characterize lytic phages from sewage effluent. During the current study, bacteriophage AS1 was isolated from sewage effluent against E.coli S2. The lytic activity of phageAS1 was limited to E.coli S2 strain showing monovalent behavior. The calculated phage titer was 3.5×109 pfu/ml. PhageAS1 was stable at a wide range of pH and temperature. The maximum stability was recorded at 37ºC and pH 7.0, while showing its normal lytic activity at temperature 60ºC and from pH 5.0 to11.0 respectively. At temperature 70ºC, phage activity was somewhat reduced whereas, further increase in temperature and decrease or increase in pH completely inactivated the phage. From the current study, it was concluded that waste water is a best source for finding bacteriophages against multi-drug resistant bacterial strains and can be used as bacterial control agent.


Resumo O surgimento de cepas bacterianas multirresistentes (MDR), que representam uma ameaça global à saúde, desenvolveu o interesse dos cientistas em usar bacteriófagos em vez da terapia convencional com antibióticos. Diante do crescente interesse no uso de fago como agente de controle bacteriano, o estudo visou isolar e caracterizar fagos líticos de efluente de esgoto. Durante o estudo atual, o bacteriófago AS1 foi isolado de efluente de esgoto contra E. coli S2. A atividade lítica de phageAS1 foi limitada à cepa E. coli S2, apresentando comportamento monovalente. O título de fago calculado foi de 3,5 x 109 ufp/ml. PhageAS1 foi estável em uma ampla faixa de pH e temperatura. A estabilidade máxima foi registrada a 37ºC e pH 7,0, enquanto mostrou atividade lítica normal em temperatura de 60ºC e pH 5,0 a 11,0, respectivamente. Na temperatura de 70ºC, a atividade do fago foi um pouco reduzida, enquanto o aumento adicional da temperatura e a diminuição ou aumento do pH inativaram completamente o fago. Com base no estudo atual, concluiu-se que a água residual é a melhor fonte para encontrar bacteriófagos contra cepas bacterianas multirresistentes e pode ser usada como agente de controle bacteriano.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243670, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278509

RESUMO

Abstract For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Resumo Para o bom crescimento dos peixes, é necessário alimentá-los com uma alimentação adequada e balanceada. Um estudo foi realizado para descobrir o efeito de diferentes dietas à base de proteínas em alevinos de Tor putitora (mahseer). Foi preparado um alimento com níveis de proteína dietética de 35%, 40%, 45% e 50%. O efeito de diferentes alimentos à base de proteína no ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento padrão (SGR), taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR), ganho de peso percentual, eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) e taxa de eficiência proteica (PER) foi estudado. Foi observado um aumento na taxa de crescimento com um aumento na concentração de proteína de até 45%. Os alevinos alimentados com dieta de 45% de proteína apresentaram o maior crescimento, seguidos de 50%, 40% e 35%. O valor de SGR foi maior para dieta com 45% de proteína (8,56), seguido de 50% e 40%, enquanto os menores valores foram observados para ração com 35% de proteína (1,57). A mesma tendência foi observada para FCE. Os maiores valores de PER foram observados em peixes alimentados com 45% de ração à base de proteína (0,65), seguido por 50% (0,56), 40% (0,38) e 35% (0,17). A taxa de conversão alimentar foi menor para a dieta com 45% de proteína (3,41), enquanto a maior para a dieta com 35% de proteína (16,85). Concluiu-se que a dieta à base de proteína de 45% foi a melhor formulação alimentar para maior produção de Tor putitora. No entanto, a pesquisa sobre a mesma porcentagem de dieta proteica é recomendada para animais de um ano.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e250778, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285589

RESUMO

Abstract Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) now a possible safer microbial control measure that could be considered as a substitute for chemical control of insect pests. Three EPF viz., Metarihizium anisopliae, Isaria furnosoroseus and Beauveria bassiana were evaluated for their virulence against the grubs of Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium (Everts) under laboratory conditions. The isolates were applied by two methods viz., diet incorporation and an immersion method with 3rd instar 20 grubs of T. granarium for each. The virulence of EPF was determined using percent mortality. Significantly higher mortality was observed in M. anisopliae applied through immersion (98.33%) and diet incorporation (93.33%) methods followed by B. bassiana (90.83 and 85.83%, respectively). The mortality caused by I. furnosoroseus was statistically lower in immersion and diet incorporation methods i.e. 81.67 and 73.33%, respectively. Based on the immersion method, all EPF were studied for multiple conidial concentration i.e., 1×104, 1×105, 1×106, 1×107 and 1×108 under the same in-vitro conditions. All the isolates were pathogenic to grub of T. granarium at the highest conidial concentration. M. anisopliae was proved the most effective virulent resulting in 98.33% mortality of the pest with LT50 4.61 days at 1 × 108 conidial concentration followed by 90.83 and 81.67 percent mortality with 5.07 and 8.01 days LT50, in the application of B. bassiana and I. furnosoroseus, respectively. M. anisopliae showed higher efficacy and could be considered as promising EPF for the development of myco-insecticides against effective biocontrol of T. granarium.


Resumo Os fungos entomopatogênicos (FPE) são agora a possível medida de controle microbiano mais segura, que pode ser considerada um substituto para o controle químico de pragas de insetos. Três EPF viz., Metarihizium anisopliae, Isaria furnosoroseus e Beauveria bassiana foram avaliados quanto à sua virulência contra as larvas do besouro Khapra, Trogoderma granarium (Everts) em condições de laboratório. Os isolados foram aplicados por dois métodos, a saber: incorporação de dieta e um método de imersão com 20 larvas de T. granarium de 3º ínstar para cada um. A virulência do EPF foi determinada usando a mortalidade percentual. Mortalidade significativamente maior foi observada em M. anisopliae aplicado pelos métodos de imersão (98,33%) e incorporação de dieta (93,33%), seguido por B. bassiana (90,83% e 85,83%, respectivamente). A mortalidade causada por I. furnosoroseus foi estatisticamente menor nos métodos de imersão e incorporação de dieta, ou seja, 81,67% e 73,33%, respectivamente. Com base no método de imersão, todos os EPFs foram estudados para múltiplas concentrações de conídios, ou seja, 1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106, 1 × 107 e 1 × 108 nas mesmas condições in vitro. Todos os isolados foram patogênicos à larva de T. granarium na maior concentração de conídios. M. anisopliae provou ser o virulento mais eficaz, resultando em 98,33% de mortalidade da praga com LT50 4,61 dias na concentração de 1 × 108 conídios seguido por 90,83% e 81,67% de mortalidade com 5,07 e 8,01 dias LT50, na aplicação de B. bassiana e I. furnosoroseus, respectivamente. M. anisopliae apresentou maior eficácia e pode ser considerada como um PFE promissor para o desenvolvimento de micoinseticidas contra o biocontrole efetivo de T. granarium.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240725, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249235

RESUMO

Abstract Molecular based identification of bat fauna in Pakistan has been relatively less explored. The current study was therefore planned to report for the first time the molecular classification of insectivorous bats (Pipistrellus coromandra) based on mitochondrion gene (COI) from Punjab, Pakistan. Specimens were collected from five different locations followed by DNA extraction with subsequent gene amplification and sequencing. All samples in the study had shown close identity matches with species (Pipistrellus coromandra) from India and (Pipistrellus tenuis) from Vietnam with percentage identity score of 96.11 and 95.58 respectively except one sequence which only revealed 86.78% identity match on Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and could only be assigned to genus level Pipistrellus sp. The results indicated negligible intra-population genetic distance among collected samples whereas the comparison with species from other countries had shown high intraspecific (P. coromandra) and interspecific (P. tenuis) mean genetic distances. The current study hence successfully proved the efficiency of COI gene as a molecular marker for species identification and in analyzing the patterns of genetic variation with species from other countries.


Resumo A identificação com base molecular da fauna de morcegos no Paquistão tem sido relativamente menos explorada. Portanto, o estudo atual foi planejado para relatar pela primeira vez a classificação molecular de morcegos insetívoros (Pipistrellus coromandra) com base no gene da mitocôndria (COI) de Punjab, Paquistão. As amostras foram coletadas em cinco locais diferentes, seguidas pela extração de DNA com subsequente amplificação e sequenciamento do gene. Todas as amostras no estudo mostraram coincidências de identidade próximas com espécies (Pipistrellus coromandra) da Índia e (Pipistrellus tenuis) do Vietnã, com pontuação de identidade percentual de 96,11 e 95,58, respectivamente, exceto uma sequência que revelou apenas 86,78% de correspondência de identidade na Ferramenta de Pesquisa de Alinhamento Local Básico (BLAST), a qual só poderia ser atribuída ao nível de gênero Pipistrellus sp. Os resultados indicaram distância genética intrapopulacional desprezível entre as amostras coletadas, enquanto a comparação com espécies de outros países mostrou altas distâncias genéticas intraespecíficas (P. coromandra) e interespecíficas (P. tenuis) médias. O presente estudo, portanto, comprovou com sucesso a eficiência do gene COI como marcador molecular para identificação de espécies e análise dos padrões de variação genética com espécies de outros países.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231509, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249242

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed at comparing the brain size of mahseer (Tor putitora) in relation to their body weight and standard length, to investigate the potential impact of rearing environment on brain development in fish. The weight of the brain and three of its subdivisions cerebellum (CB), optic tectum (OT), and telencephalon (TC) were measured for both wild and hatchery-reared fish. The data was analysed using multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and discriminate function analysis (DFA). We found the fish reared under hatchery conditions exhibit smaller brain size related to body weight, when compared to the wild ones. A significant (p<0.5) difference was observed in the length of CB and OT concerning the standard body length while no significant difference was found in TC of the fish from both the origins. The results of the current study highlight a logical assumption that neural deficiency affects the behaviour of fish, that's why the captive-reared fish show maladaptive response and face fitness decline when released to the natural environment for wild stock enhancement. The current study concluded that hatchery-reared fish exhibit variations in gross brain morphology as compared to their wild counterpart.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar o tamanho do cérebro de mahseer (Tor putitora) em relação ao seu peso corporal e comprimento padrão, para investigar o impacto potencial do ambiente de criação no desenvolvimento do cérebro em peixes. O peso do cérebro e três de suas subdivisões — cerebelo (CB), tectum óptico (OT) e telencéfalo (TC) — foram medidos para peixes selvagens e criados em incubadoras. Os dados foram analisados usando análise múltipla de covariância (MANCOVA), análise de covariância (ANCOVA) e análise de função discriminante (DFA). Descobrimos que os peixes criados em condições de incubação apresentam menor tamanho do cérebro em relação ao peso corporal quando comparados aos selvagens. Uma diferença significativa (p <0,5) foi observada no comprimento do CB e OT em relação ao comprimento corporal padrão, enquanto nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada no CT dos peixes de ambas as origens. Os resultados do estudo atual destacam uma suposição lógica de que a deficiência neural afeta o comportamento dos peixes. É por isso que os peixes criados em cativeiro mostram uma resposta mal adaptativa e enfrentam declínio de aptidão quando liberados no ambiente natural para o aprimoramento do estoque selvagem. O estudo atual concluiu que os peixes criados em incubadoras exibem variações na morfologia cerebral bruta em comparação com suas contrapartes selvagens.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243633, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249273

RESUMO

Abstract Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc:


Resumo A truta das neves (Schizothorax plagiostomus) é um peixe de água doce economicamente importante, encontrado principalmente nas áreas ao norte de reservatórios de água do Paquistão. O presente estudo foi realizado em River Swat para analisar a bioacumulação de metais pesados (Pb, Cr, Ni e Zn) em tecidos de Schizothorax plagiostomus. Os tecidos foram extraídos e dissolvidos em ácido perclórico (HClO4) e ácido nítrico (HNO3) com placa de aquecimento. Os metais pesados zinco (Zn), chumbo (Pb), cromo (Cr) e níquel (Ni) foram determinados usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica Perkin Elmer 2380. Os resultados mostram grande variação no conteúdo do metal relacionado ao tipo de tecido e locais de amostragem. Uma alta concentração de bioacumulação foi relatada em Charbagh, enquanto a mais baixa, em Odigram: Charbagh > Landakai > Odigram. Da mesma forma, Cr foi o metal pesado mais acumulado, seguido por Pb, Ni e Zn.

9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614125

RESUMO

We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Peixes , Animais
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19697, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608193

RESUMO

The nano heat transport has gained much significance in recent era. The micro-level devices are enganged succssfully in diverse fields like electronics, biomedical, navel structures, manufacturing, transportation, and automotive industries in order to improve the heat transfer for cooling and heating. Owing to this fact, the current article illustrates the features of irreversibility and thermal jump in peristaltic transport of hybrid nanoliquid. Here, water is used as base liquid while nanoparticles include polystyrene and graphene oxide. The flow is carried out in a non-uniform channel where the walls of channel flexible nature. Additionally, magnetic field impacts on flow and Joule heating analysis are examined. The aspect featuring heat absorption is introduced. Nanoparticle's shapes effect is also incorporated in flow analysis. Under the consideration of small Rynold number and long wavelength, the relevent equations are reduced by implementing non-dimensional variables. Involved pertinent parameters influence the peristaltic flow characteristics are displayed graphically and discussed concisely. The result indicates that temperature curves are dominant for pure water as compared to P/water nanofluid and P-GO/water hybrid nanofluid. Moreover, the convergent channel shows least entropy effects and extreme effects are noted for divergent case whereas uniform channel stays behind the divergent one.

11.
Trials ; 22(1): 695, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of screening for sepsis using an electronic sepsis alert vs. no alert in hospitalized ward patients on 90-day in-hospital mortality. METHODS: The SCREEN trial is designed as a stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial. Hospital wards (total of 45 wards, constituting clusters in this design) are randomized to have active alert vs. masked alert, 5 wards at a time, with each 5 wards constituting a sequence. The study consists of ten 2-month periods with a phased introduction of the intervention. In the first period, all wards have a masked alert for 2 months. Afterwards the intervention (alert system) is implemented in a new sequence every 2-month period until the intervention is implemented in all sequences. The intervention includes the implementation of an electronic alert system developed in the hospital electronic medical records based on the quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA). The alert system sends notifications of "possible sepsis alert" to the bedside nurse, charge nurse, and primary medical team and requires an acknowledgment in the health information system from the bedside nurse and physician. The calculated sample size is 65,250. The primary endpoint is in-hospital mortality by 90 days. DISCUSSION: The trial started on October 1, 2019, and is expected to complete patient follow-up by the end of October 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04078594 . Registered on September 6, 2019.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Sepse , Eletrônica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Pacientes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/terapia
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244593, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468512

RESUMO

': Kinnow' mandarin (Citrus nobilis L.× Citrus deliciosa T.) is an important marketable fruit of the world. It is mainstay of citrus industry in Pakistan, having great export potential. But out of total production of the country only 10% of the produce meets the international quality standard for export. Pre-harvest fruit drop and poor fruit quality could be associated with various issues including the plant nutrition. Most of the farmers do not pay attention to the supply of micro nutrients which are already deficient in the soil. Furthermore, their mobility within plants is also a question. Zinc (Zn) is amongst those micronutrients which affect the quality and postharvest life of the fruit and its deficiency in Pakistani soils is already reported by many researchers. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the influence of pre-harvest applications of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4; 0, 0.4%, 0.6% or 0.8%) on pre-harvest fruit drop, yield and fruit quality of 'Kinnow' mandarin at harvest. The treatments were applied during the month of October i.e. 4 months prior to harvest. The applied Zn sprays had significant effect on yield and quality of the "Kinnow" fruit. Amongst different foliar applications of ZnSO4applied four months before harvest, 0.6% ZnSO4 significantly reduced pre-harvest fruit drop (10.08%) as compared to untreated control trees (46.45%). Similarly, the maximum number of fruits harvested per tree (627), fruit weight (192.9 g), juice percentage (42.2%), total soluble solids (9.5 °Brix), ascorbic acid content (35.5 mg 100 g-1) and sugar contents (17.4) were also found significantly higher with 0.6% ZnSO4 treatment as compared to rest of treatments and control. Foliar application of 0.6% ZnSO4 also significantly improved total antioxidants (TAO) and total phenolic contents (TPC) in fruit. In conclusion, foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.6%) four months prior to harvest reduced pre-harvest fruit drop, increase yield with improved quality of 'Kinnow' mandarin fruit.


Assuntos
Citrus , Frutas , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247061, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468524

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of common antibiotics against different microorganisms in apparently healthy cattle in Shandong province and its suburb. A total of 220 nasal swab samples were collected and cultured for bacteriological evaluation. All the bacteria isolates after preliminary identification were subjected to antibiogram studies following disc diffusion method. It was found in the study that E. coli is the most commonly associated isolate (21%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (18%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13%), Salmonella spp. (15%), Shigella spp (12%), and Proteus spp (11%). While the antibiogram studies reveled that highest number of bacterial isolates showed resistance to Ampicillin (95%), followed by Augmentin (91%), Cefuroxime (85%) and Tetracycline (95%) of (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp). In the case of pseudomonas spp. and Salmonella the highest resistance was showed by Ampicillin (90%) followed by Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid (80%), Cefixime (90%), and Erythromycin (80%). In Shigella spp and Salmonella spp highest resistance was showed by Amoxicillin, Ceftazidime, Augmentin (60%), and Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid (50%). It is concluded that in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher resistance for Ampicillin, Augmentin, Cefuroxime, Cefixime, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, and Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid. The high multiple Antibiotics resistance indexes (MARI) observed in all the isolates in this study ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. MARI value of >0.2 is suggests multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and indicate presence of highly resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Animais , Bovinos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Lactamas , Fenótipo
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468529

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen associated to food intoxication and other multiple infections in human being. Its presence in salted food is a serious issue due to its salt tolerance potential. A study was conducted to analyze the presence of enterotoxins producing drug resistance S. aureus in salted sea fish from Gwadar. Freshly persevered samples (n=50) of salted fish were subjected to analyze the presence of S. aureus using 16S rRNA and Nuc genes primers. The isolates were then evaluated for drug resistance and enterotoxins producing potential using specific primers for MecA (methicillin resistance gene), (SEA) staphylococcal enterotoxin A and (SEB) staphylococcal enterotoxin B genes. Total 13/50 (26%) of the samples were found positive for the presence of S. aureus, preliminary confirmed with biochemical profiling and finally with the help of target genes presence. The isolates were found showing 100% resistant to methicillin, which were molecularly confirmed by the presence of MecA gene present in genome. The isolates 5/13 (38%) were positive for SEA and 3/13 (23%) for SEB genes, whereas 2/13 (15%) were confirmed having both SEA and SEB genes in its genome. It was also confirmed that all the isolates were capable to form biofilm over the glass surfaces. It was concluded that the study confirmed the presence of enterotoxigenic methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA) in salted fish product, that poses gross food safety concern. Preventive and control measures are necessary to handle this serious food safety concern.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Produtos Pesqueiros , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
15.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247181, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495161

RESUMO

The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , China , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia
16.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248420, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495163

RESUMO

Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Paquistão , Caramujos
17.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e253009, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495170

RESUMO

Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Etanol , Biotransformação , Fermentação , Estudos Prospectivos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Água
18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(9): 092302, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506195

RESUMO

The event-by-event correlations between three flow amplitudes are measured for the first time in Pb-Pb collisions, using higher-order symmetric cumulants. We find that different three-harmonic correlations develop during the collective evolution of the medium when compared to correlations that exist in the initial state. These new results cannot be interpreted in terms of previous lower-order flow measurements since contributions from two-harmonic correlations are explicitly removed in the new observables. A comparison to Monte Carlo simulations provides new and independent constraints for the initial conditions and system properties of nuclear matter created in heavy-ion collisions.

19.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1268-1273, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479078

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers (HCWs) in Saudi Arabia are a unique population who have had exposures to the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). It follows that HCWs from this country could have pre-existingMERS-CoV antibodies that may either protect from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection or cause false SARS-CoV-2 seropositive results. In this article, we report the seroprevalence of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 among high-risk healthcare workers in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study enrolling 420 high-risk HCWs who are physically in contact with COVID-19 patients in three tertiary hospitals in Riyadh city. The participants were recruited between the 1st of July to the end of December 2020. A 3 ml of the venous blood samples were collected and tested for the presence of IgG antibodies against the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in high-risk HCWs was 14.8% based on SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing while only 7.4% were positive by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for viral RNA. Most of the SARS-CoV-2 seropositive HCWs had symptoms and the most frequent symptoms were body aches, fever, cough, loss of smell and taste, and headache. The seroprevalence of MERS-CoV IgG was 1% (4 participants) and only one participant had dual seropositivity against MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Three MERS-CoV positive samples (75%) turned to be negative after using in-house ELISA and none of the MERS-CoV seropositive samples had detectable neutralization activity. CONCLUSION: Our SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence results were higher than reported regional seroprevalence studies. This finding was expected and similar to other international findings that targeted high-risk HCWs. Our results provide evidence that the SARS-CoV-2- seropositivity in Saudi Arabia similar to other countries was due to exposure to SARS-CoV-2 rather than MERS-CoV antibody.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Anticorpos Antivirais , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524376

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Resistência à Insulina , Glucose , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Homeostase , Humanos
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