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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339388

RESUMO

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242205, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339332

RESUMO

Abstract Tapeworms of zoonotic importance have been described as a leading public health problem. Current research was aim to assess the prevalence of tapeworms among 5-12years school children residing in district Lower Dir, Pakistan from January 2019-December 2019. The wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods were used for stool examination. Data was analyzed using appropriate descriptive, static methods. Of the 400 children studied 71.7% were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Single infection of cestode species was found in 69 individuals with 17.2% prevalence and multiple parasitic infections were identified in 19.7% (n=79/400) individuals. The multiple infection were comprised as 10% (n=40) double, 6.75% (n=27) triple and 3% (n=12) quadruple. A total of 9 species of helminths and one species of protozoan infection. Among the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent 33.1% (n=95), Taenia saginata 22.6% (n=65), hookworm 19.8% (n=57), Hymenolepis nana 18.8% (n=54), Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis diminuta 1.39% (n=4each), Trichuris trichura 1.04% (n=3), Toxocara spp 0.69% (n=2) and Schistosoma japonicum 0.34% (n=1) were reported. One protozoan species was Cryptosporidium spp 0.69% (n=2) in current study. In case of A.lumbricoides, hookworm, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana and H.diminuta the male children of below 8 years of age were highly infected. Other infections are reported in the same prevalence with slight difference if any. We conclude that there is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness regarding health and hygiene in children and the need for development of effective poverty control programs because deworming alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.


Resumo As tênias de importância zoonótica têm sido descritas como um dos principais problemas de saúde pública. A pesquisa atual teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de tênias entre crianças em idade escolar de 5 a 12 anos que residem no distrito de Lower Dir, Paquistão, de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2019. Os métodos de preparação para montagem úmida em solução salina/iodo foram usados ​​para exame de fezes. Os dados foram analisados ​​usando métodos descritivos e estáticos apropriados. Das 400 crianças estudadas, 71,7% estavam infectadas com uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. Infecção única de espécies de cestóides foi encontrada em 69 indivíduos com prevalência de 17,2% e infecções parasitárias múltiplas foram identificadas em 19,7% (n = 79/400) indivíduos. As infecções múltiplas foram compostas por 10% (n = 40) dupla, 6,75% (n = 27) tripla e 3% (n = 12) quádrupla. Um total de 9 espécies de helmintos e uma espécie de infecção por protozoários. Entre os helmintos, Ascaris lumbricoides foi o mais prevalente 33,1% (n = 95), Taenia saginata 22,6% (n = 65), ancilóstomo 19,8% (n = 57), Hymenolepis nana 18,8% (n = 54), Enterobius vermicularis e Hymenolepis diminuta 1,39% (n = 4cada), Trichuris trichura 1,04% (n = 3), Toxocara spp 0,69% (n = 2) e Schistosoma japonicum 0,34% (n = 1). Uma espécie de protozoário foi Cryptosporidium spp 0,69% (n = 2) no estudo atual. No caso de A.lumbricoides, ancilostomíase, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana e H.diminuta, as crianças do sexo masculino com menos de 8 anos de idade estavam altamente infectadas. Outras infecções são relatadas na mesma prevalência, com ligeira diferença, se houver. Concluímos que há uma necessidade de campanhas em massa para criar consciência sobre saúde e higiene em crianças e a necessidade de desenvolvimento de programas eficazes de controle da pobreza, porque a desparasitação por si só não é adequada para controlar infecções parasitárias.

4.
Anim Nutr ; 7(3): 883-895, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632119

RESUMO

Colonization and development of the gut microbiome is a crucial consideration for optimizing the health and performance of livestock animals. This is mainly attributed to the fact that dietary and management practices greatly influence the gut microbiota, subsequently leading to changes in nutrient utilization and immune response. A favorable microbiome can be implanted through dietary or management interventions of livestock animals, especially during early life. In this review, we explore all the possible factors (for example gestation, colostrum, and milk feeding, drinking water, starter feed, inoculation from healthy animals, prebiotics/probiotics, weaning time, essential oil and transgenesis), which can influence rumen microbiome colonization and development. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of potential strategies used to manipulate gut development and microbial colonization to improve the production and health of newborn calves at an early age when they are most susceptible to enteric disease. Moreover, we provide insights into possible interventions and their potential effects on rumen development and microbiota establishment. Prospects of latest techniques like transgenesis and host genetics have also been discussed regarding their potential role in modulation of rumen microbiome and subsequent effects on gut development and performance in neonatal ruminants.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644726

RESUMO

Tapeworms of zoonotic importance have been described as a leading public health problem. Current research was aim to assess the prevalence of tapeworms among 5-12years school children residing in district Lower Dir, Pakistan from January 2019-December 2019. The wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods were used for stool examination. Data was analyzed using appropriate descriptive, static methods. Of the 400 children studied 71.7% were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Single infection of cestode species was found in 69 individuals with 17.2% prevalence and multiple parasitic infections were identified in 19.7% (n=79/400) individuals. The multiple infection were comprised as 10% (n=40) double, 6.75% (n=27) triple and 3% (n=12) quadruple. A total of 9 species of helminths and one species of protozoan infection. Among the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent 33.1% (n=95), Taenia saginata 22.6% (n=65), hookworm 19.8% (n=57), Hymenolepis nana 18.8% (n=54), Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis diminuta 1.39% (n=4each), Trichuris trichura 1.04% (n=3), Toxocara spp 0.69% (n=2) and Schistosoma japonicum 0.34% (n=1) were reported. One protozoan species was Cryptosporidium spp 0.69% (n=2) in current study. In case of A.lumbricoides, hookworm, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana and H.diminuta the male children of below 8 years of age were highly infected. Other infections are reported in the same prevalence with slight difference if any. We conclude that there is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness regarding health and hygiene in children and the need for development of effective poverty control programs because deworming alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Criança , Fezes , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468515

RESUMO

During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird's houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Columbidae , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246243, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468516

RESUMO

The present study reports the existence of cliff racer, Platyceps rhodorachis from the plains of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 10 specimens were captured during the field surveys from June to September, 2018 from different sites of Punjab. Platyceps rhodorachis was identify on the basis of morphology and confirmed through COI gene sequences. The obtained DNA sequences have shown reliable and exact species identification. Newly produced DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MK936174.1, MK941839.1 and MT790210.1). N-J tree based on COI sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis clearly separated as out-group with other members of family Colubridae based on p-distance. The intra-specific genetic variation ranges from 12% to 18%. The DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis kashmirensis, Platyceps rhodorachis ladacensis, Platyceps ventromaculatus, Platyceps ventromaculatus bengalensis and Platyceps ventromaculatus indusai are not available at NCBI to validate their taxonomic positions. In our recommendations, a large scale molecular based identification of Pakistan's herpetofauna is required to report more new or subspecies from country.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia , Filogeografia
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247181, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495161

RESUMO

The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , China , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378683

RESUMO

The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Carboidratos
10.
J Vasc Res ; 58(6): 379-387, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pressurized myography is useful for the assessment of small artery structures and function. However, this procedure requires technical expertise for sample preparation and effort to choose an appropriate sized artery. In this study, we developed an automatic artery/vein differentiation and a size measurement system utilizing machine learning algorithms. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used 654 independent mouse mesenteric artery images for model training. The model yielded an Intersection-over-Union of 0.744 ± 0.031 and a Dice coefficient of 0.881 ± 0.016. The vessel size and lumen size calculated from the predicted vessel contours demonstrated a strong linear correlation with manually determined vessel sizes (R = 0.722 ± 0.048, p < 0.001 for vessel size and R = 0.908 ± 0.027, p < 0.001 for lumen size). Last, we assessed the relation between the vessel size before and after dissection using a pressurized myography system. We observed a strong positive correlation between the wall/lumen ratio before dissection and the lumen expansion ratio (R = 0.832, p < 0.01). Using multivariate binary logistic regression, 2 models estimating whether the vessel met the size criteria (lumen size of 160-240 µm) were generated with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.761 for the upper limit and 0.747 for the lower limit. CONCLUSION: The U-Net-based image analysis method could streamline the experimental approach.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3429, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103514

RESUMO

Neuroscience research in Africa remains sparse. Devising new policies to boost Africa's neuroscience landscape is imperative, but these must be based on accurate data on research outputs which is largely lacking. Such data must reflect the heterogeneity of research environments across the continent's 54 countries. Here, we analyse neuroscience publications affiliated with African institutions between 1996 and 2017. Of 12,326 PubMed indexed publications, 5,219 show clear evidence that the work was performed in Africa and led by African-based researchers - on average ~5 per country and year. From here, we extract information on journals and citations, funding, international coauthorships and techniques used. For reference, we also extract the same metrics from 220 randomly selected publications each from the UK, USA, Australia, Japan and Brazil. Our dataset provides insights into the current state of African neuroscience research in a global context.


Assuntos
Neurociências/tendências , Publicações/tendências , África , Autoria , Internacionalidade , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Neurociências/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia
12.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(5): 1274-1283, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870976

RESUMO

Current knowledge suggests that hypertension is in part mediated by immune mechanisms. Both interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-17 are up-regulated in several experimental hypertensive rodent models, as well as in hypertensive humans in observational studies. Recent preclinical studies have shown that either IL-23 or IL-17A treatment induce blood pressure elevation. However, the IL-23/IL-17 axis has not been a major therapeutic target in hypertension, unlike in other autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of these cytokines in immune mechanisms contributing to hypertension, and discuss the potential of IL-23/IL-17-targeted therapy for treatment of hypertension.

13.
Med J Malaysia ; 75(4): 356-362, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Problematic smartphone use (PSU) is the development of pathological dependence at the expense of performing activities of daily living, thus having negative health and psychological impact on the users. Previous PSU studies focused on medical students and little is known regarding its effect on students undergoing other courses. The objective of this study is to identify the pattern of smartphone usage and determine the psychological factors affecting PSU among undergraduate students in Malaysia and compare the pattern among students from different fields of study. METHOD: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the validated Smartphone Addiction Scale-Malay version (SAS-M) questionnaire. One-way ANOVA was used to determine the correlation between the PSU among the students categorised by their ethnicity, hand dominance and by their field of study. MLR analysis was applied to predict PSU based on socio-demographic data, usage patterns, psychological factors and fields of study. RESULTS: A total of 1060 students completed the questionnaire. Most students had some degree of problematic usage of the smartphone. Students used smartphones predominantly to access SNAs, namely Instagram. Longer duration on the smartphone per day, younger age at first using a smartphone and underlying depression carried higher risk of developing PSU, whereas the field of study (science vs. humanities based) did not contribute to an increased risk of developing PSU. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study can help better inform university administrators about at- risk groups of undergraduate students who may benefit from targeted intervention designed to reduce their addictive behaviour patterns.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Estudantes , Universidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 24(1): 36-42, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005305

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Adherence to treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is an important predictor of treatment outcomes. The World Health Organization guidelines recommend a patient-centred approach to adherence support; however, the extent to which policies in high-burden countries facilitate this approach remains uncertain.DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of current national patient care and support policies in high TB burden countries was performed.RESULT: Responses were provided by TB care programmes in 23 of the 30 high TB burden countries, comprising 77.4% of TB cases globally. Clinic-based and household adherence support and patient education were recommended in all countries, while policies for digital technologies and social supports have been adopted in a small minority of countries. Financial or material support (such as reimbursement for transportation) and psychological support to patients-if included in the policies-was mainly recommended only for specific sub-groups of patients.CONCLUSION: National policies in many countries have not yet fully adopted global recommendations for patient care and support. Further scale-up of evidence-based approaches to care is required to improve quality of care for patients in high TB burden settings.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente , Políticas , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/terapia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
Cardiol Young ; 30(3): 444-445, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066513

RESUMO

We report a case of Figulla-II Occlutech septal occluder malposition with residual shunt at posteriosuperior margin of an atrial septal defect. Improvising its bioptome type delivery cable, same system was used to recapture the device and redeploy it successfully. This report highlights a potential malfunction of Figulla-II Occlutech disc and the advantage of its delivery system for retrieval of the device.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Comunicação Interatrial/terapia , Falha de Prótese , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Adolescente , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Trop Biomed ; 37(2): 333-356, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612803

RESUMO

In addition to the scarcity of forensic entomology baseline data on oviposition of necrophagous insects and completion of their life cycles in the Borneo region, similar data derived from caves remain unreported. Since entomological baseline data can differ from one biogeoclimatic region to another, the lack of such data would limit the practical values of applying entomological evidence in estimating minimum postmortem interval (mPMI). Therefore, this present research that investigated oviposition and completion of life cycles of necrophagous flies infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in Mount Kapur Cave and its surrounding forest habitat in Kuching, Sarawak merits forensic consideration. In general, 13 taxa of necrophagous flies were identified viz. Hypopygiopsis violacea, Hypopygiopsis fumipennis, Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Hemipyrellia tagaliana, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya villeneuvi, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya chani, Chrysomya pinguis, Chrysomya nigripes, Ophyra spinigera and Ophyra chalcogaster, as well as unidentified Sarcophagidae. In addition, Hyp. violacea and Hyp. fumipennis were the two earlier necrophagous flies that oviposited in all rabbit carcasses decomposing in both habitats. While all these necrophagous flies were observed infesting carcasses in Mount Kapur Cave, Hem. ligurriens and Hem. tagaliana were not found infesting carcasses in the surrounding forest habitat. Complete life cycles for six and five different necrophagous fly species were successfully observed in Mount Kapur Cave and its surrounding forest habitat, respectively. Significant delay in oviposition, as well as longer durations for completing the life cycles in several necrophagous fly species were observed in Mount Kapur Cave when compared with those of surrounding forest habitat (p < 0.05). These findings deserve consideration as the first ever forensic empirical baseline data on oviposition and completion of life cycles for necrophagous flies in Sarawak as well as in a cave habitat, in view of its practical values for estimating mPMI for forensic practical caseworks.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Dípteros/classificação , Entomologia Forense , Animais , Cadáver , Feminino , Larva , Malásia , Oviposição , Coelhos
17.
Cardiol Young ; 27(1): 26-36, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27133447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with large patent arterial ducts and severe pulmonary hypertension, the natural history of progression of pulmonary hypertension is very variable. Whether to close or not to close is often a difficult decision, as there are no established haemodynamic parameters predicting reversibility. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the results of device closure of large patent arterial ducts with severe pulmonary hypertension after 2 years of age and to determine haemodynamic variables associated with its regression during long-term follow-up. METHODS: A total of 45 patients, with median age of 10 (2-27) years, with large patent arterial ducts and severe pulmonary hypertension, were considered. Haemodynamic variables were assessed in air, oxygen, and after occlusion. The follow-up was performed to assess regression of pulmonary hypertension. RESULTS: Device closure was successful in 43 (96%) patients. Pulmonary artery systolic and mean pressures decreased from 79 to 67 mmHg and from 59 to 50 mmHg, respectively (p25% (both in oxygen) (p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Device closure of large patent arterial ducts with severe pulmonary hypertension is safe and effective. Pulmonary vascular resistance index and systolic and mean pulmonary artery pressures in oxygen are the key prognostic variables predicting regression of pulmonary hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/cirurgia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aortografia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/complicações , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Pediatr Cardiol ; 9(3): 210-5, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27625517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the delay in diagnosis of various types of congenital heart defects in children and factors associated with such delay. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this observational study, 354 patients having congenital heart disease (CHD) presenting for the first time to the Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, between January 1, 2015 and June 30, 2015, were enrolled after obtaining informed verbal consent from the guardian of each child. Demographical profile and various factors under observation were recorded. RESULTS: Among the 354 enrolled children (M: F 1.7:1) with age ranging from 1 to 176 months (median 24 months), 301 (85.1%) had delayed diagnosis of CHD (mainly acyanotic 65.3%), with median delay (8 months). Main factors for delay were delayed first consultation to a doctor (37.2%) and delayed diagnosis by a health professional (22.5%). Other factors included delayed referral to a tertiary care hospital (13.3%), social taboos (13.0%), and financial constraints (12.3%). Most children were delivered outside hospital settings (88.7%). Children with siblings less than two (40%) were less delayed than those having two or more siblings (60%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of congenital heart defect was delayed in majority of patients. Multiple factors such as lack of adequately trained health system and socioeconomic constraints were responsible for the delay. There is a need to develop an efficient referral system and improve public awareness in developing countries for early diagnosis and management of such children.

19.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 97(4): e93-5, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24694456

RESUMO

Enteric cysts are uncommon posterior mediastinal cysts, usually presenting with respiratory symptoms in infancy. We present a rare case of posterior mediastinal enteric cyst extending from below the diaphragm and perforating into the left atrium, causing a thromboembolic cerebral infarct in a 5-year-old boy.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Trombose Intracraniana/etiologia , Cisto Mediastínico/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Cardiol Young ; 24(4): 756-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24016801

RESUMO

Incomplete involution of valve of systemic venous sinus can present across a spectrum of anatomical lesions ranging from eustachian valve to division of right atrium (cor triatriatum dexter) with overlapping features. We present the case of a neonate presenting with cyanosis, having persistent valve of systemic venous sinus with anatomical details of the redundant tissue in right atrium suggesting an intermediate form between Chiari network and division of right atrium.


Assuntos
Cianose/etiologia , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/anormalidades , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Comunicação Interatrial/complicações , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Veia Cava Inferior/anormalidades
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