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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238337, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249249

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243633, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249273

RESUMO

Abstract Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc:


Resumo A truta das neves (Schizothorax plagiostomus) é um peixe de água doce economicamente importante, encontrado principalmente nas áreas ao norte de reservatórios de água do Paquistão. O presente estudo foi realizado em River Swat para analisar a bioacumulação de metais pesados (Pb, Cr, Ni e Zn) em tecidos de Schizothorax plagiostomus. Os tecidos foram extraídos e dissolvidos em ácido perclórico (HClO4) e ácido nítrico (HNO3) com placa de aquecimento. Os metais pesados zinco (Zn), chumbo (Pb), cromo (Cr) e níquel (Ni) foram determinados usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica Perkin Elmer 2380. Os resultados mostram grande variação no conteúdo do metal relacionado ao tipo de tecido e locais de amostragem. Uma alta concentração de bioacumulação foi relatada em Charbagh, enquanto a mais baixa, em Odigram: Charbagh > Landakai > Odigram. Da mesma forma, Cr foi o metal pesado mais acumulado, seguido por Pb, Ni e Zn.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243670, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278509

RESUMO

Abstract For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Resumo Para o bom crescimento dos peixes, é necessário alimentá-los com uma alimentação adequada e balanceada. Um estudo foi realizado para descobrir o efeito de diferentes dietas à base de proteínas em alevinos de Tor putitora (mahseer). Foi preparado um alimento com níveis de proteína dietética de 35%, 40%, 45% e 50%. O efeito de diferentes alimentos à base de proteína no ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento padrão (SGR), taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR), ganho de peso percentual, eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) e taxa de eficiência proteica (PER) foi estudado. Foi observado um aumento na taxa de crescimento com um aumento na concentração de proteína de até 45%. Os alevinos alimentados com dieta de 45% de proteína apresentaram o maior crescimento, seguidos de 50%, 40% e 35%. O valor de SGR foi maior para dieta com 45% de proteína (8,56), seguido de 50% e 40%, enquanto os menores valores foram observados para ração com 35% de proteína (1,57). A mesma tendência foi observada para FCE. Os maiores valores de PER foram observados em peixes alimentados com 45% de ração à base de proteína (0,65), seguido por 50% (0,56), 40% (0,38) e 35% (0,17). A taxa de conversão alimentar foi menor para a dieta com 45% de proteína (3,41), enquanto a maior para a dieta com 35% de proteína (16,85). Concluiu-se que a dieta à base de proteína de 45% foi a melhor formulação alimentar para maior produção de Tor putitora. No entanto, a pesquisa sobre a mesma porcentagem de dieta proteica é recomendada para animais de um ano.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762561

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leislers Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leislers Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431905

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243670, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161428

RESUMO

For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cyprinidae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076166

RESUMO

Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978080

RESUMO

Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia
10.
J Clin Imaging Sci ; 11: 26, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948341

RESUMO

Synovial hemangioma is a rare intra articular lesion and it has several more common differentials. Therefore, our main objective is to consider the possibility of hemangioma in any intra-articular mass to prevent diagnostic delay of unnoticed or untreated hemangioma occurring within the knee joint. Ultrasound can be useful method in assessing the lesions. Surgical excision is the definitive treatment for such lesions.

11.
J Theor Biol ; 524: 110728, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Random walks (RWs) have proved to be a powerful modelling tool in ecology, particularly in the study of animal movement. An application of RW concerns trapping which is the predominant sampling method to date in insect ecology and agricultural pest management. A lot of research effort has been directed towards modelling ground-dwelling insects by simulating their movement in 2D, and computing pitfall trap counts, but comparatively very little for flying insects with 3D elevated traps. METHODS: We introduce the mathematics behind 3D RWs and present key metrics such as the mean squared displacement (MSD) and path sinuosity, which are already well known in 2D. We develop the mathematical theory behind the 3D correlated random walk (CRW) which involves short-term directional persistence and the 3D Biased random walk (BRW) which introduces a long-term directional bias in the movement so that there is an overall preferred movement direction. In this study, we focus on the geometrical aspects of the 3D trap and thus consider three types of shape; a spheroidal trap, a cylindrical trap and a rectangular cuboidal trap. By simulating movement in 3D space, we investigated the effect of 3D trap shapes and sizes and of movement diffusion on trapping efficiency. RESULTS: We found that there is a non-linear dependence of trap counts on the trap surface area or volume, but the effect of volume appeared to be a simple consequence of changes in area. Nevertheless, there is a slight but clear hierarchy of trap shapes in terms of capture efficiency, with the spheroidal trap retaining more counts than a cylinder, followed by the cuboidal type for a given area. We also showed that there is no effect of short-term persistence when diffusion is kept constant, but trap counts significantly decrease with increasing diffusion. CONCLUSION: Our results provide a better understanding of the interplay between the movement pattern, trap geometry and impacts on trapping efficiency, which leads to improved trap count interpretations, and more broadly, has implications for spatial ecology and population dynamics.


Assuntos
Insetos , Movimento , Animais , Difusão , Caminhada
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5957, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235190

RESUMO

Metals and polymers are dissimilar materials in terms of their physicochemical properties, but complementary in terms of functionality. As a result, metal-organic structures can introduce a wealth of novel applications in small-scale robotics. However, current fabrication techniques are unable to process three-dimensional metallic and polymeric components. Here, we show that hybrid microstructures can be interlocked by combining 3D lithography, mold casting, and electrodeposition. Our method can be used to achieve complex multi-material microdevices with unprecedented resolution and topological complexity. We show that metallic components can be combined with structures made of different classes of polymers. Properties of both metals and polymers can be exploited in parallel, resulting in structures with high magnetic responsiveness, elevated drug loading capacity, on-demand shape transformation, and elastic behavior. We showcase the advantages of our approach by demonstrating new microrobotic locomotion modes and controlled agglomeration of swarms.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 552088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013388

RESUMO

Several ecdysteroid acetonides act as adjuvant chemo-sensitizing agents against various cancer cell lines, and they can be formulated to self-assembling nanoparticle (NP) pro-drugs through a hydrolysable conjugation with squalene. In the bloodstream such squalenoylated nanoparticles dissolve into low-density lipoprotein (LDL) that allows targeting tissues containing high levels of LDL-receptors. In this work, ajugasterone C 2,3;20,22-diacetonide (3) and 11α-hydroxypoststerone 2,3-acetonide (4) were squalenoylated to obtain two new ecdysteroid pro-drugs (6 and 7) and their nano-assemblies (6NP and 7NP ). A complete NMR signal assignment of 6 and 7 was achieved. Interaction of compounds 3 and 4 with chemotherapeutics was studied by the Chou-Talalay method. Compound 3 showed strong synergism with doxorubicin on a multi-drug resistant lymphoma cell line. In contrast, its nanoassembly 6NP significantly decreased the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin on these MDR cells, strongly suggesting that at least the 2,3-acetonide group was cleaved by the acidic pH of lysosomes after endocytosis of the prodrug. Further, compound 4 acted in strong antagonism with paclitaxel on MCF-7 cells and its nanoassemby 7NP also protected MCF-7 cells from the effect of paclitaxel. Our results suggest that acid-resistant A-ring substitution would be crucial to design adjuvant antitumor squalenoylated ecdysteroid prodrugs. Additionally, our results may be considered as a serendipitous discovery of a novel way to deliver cytoprotective, adaptogen ecdysteroids to healthy tissues with upregulated LDL-R.

15.
Health Econ Rev ; 10(1): 25, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigate the effect of the external environmental and institutional factors on the efficiency and the performance of the public hospitals affiliated to the Ministry of Health (MOH) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We estimate the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of catchment populations that explain the demand for health services. METHODS: We apply descriptive analysis to explore what external factors (demographic and socioeconomic factors) can explain the observed differences in technical efficiency scores. We use Spearman's rank correlation, multivariate Tobit regression and Two-part model to measure the impact of the explanatory variables (i.e. population density, nationality, gender, age groups, economic status, health status, medical interventions and geographic location) on the efficiency scores. RESULTS: The analysis shows that the external factors had a significant influence on efficiency scores. We find significant associations between hospitals efficiency scores and number of populations in the catchment area, percentage of children (0-5 years old), the prevalence of infectious diseases, and the number of prescriptions dispensed from hospital's departments. Also, the scores significantly associate with the number of populations who faced financial hardships during medical treatments, and those received financial support from social administration. That indicates the hospitals that serve more patients in previous characteristics are relatively more technically efficient. CONCLUSIONS: The environmental and institutional factors have a crucial effect on efficiency and performance in public hospitals. In these regards, we suggested improvement of health policies and planning in respect to hospital efficiency and resource allocation, which consider the different demographic, socioeconomic and health status of the catchment populations (e.g., population density, poverty, health indicators and services utilization). The MOH should pay more attention to ensure appropriate allocation mechanisms of health resources and improve utilization of health services among the target populations, for securing efficient and equitable health services.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) is a component of WNKSPAK/OSR1 signaling pathway that plays an essential role in blood pressure regulation. The function of SPAK is mediated by its highly conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that interacts with RFXV/I motifs of upstream activators, WNK kinases, and downstream substrate, cation-chloride cotransporters. OBJECTIVE: To determine and validate the three-dimensional structure of the CTD of SPAK and to study and analyze its interaction with the RFXV/I motifs. METHODS: A homology model of SPAK CTD was generated and validated through multiple approaches. The model was based on utilizing the OSR1 protein kinase as a template. This model was subjected to 100 ns molecular dynamic (MD) simulation to evaluate its dynamic stability. The final equilibrated model was used to dock the RFQV-peptide derived from WNK4 into the primary pocket that was determined based on the homology sequence between human SPAK and OSR1 CTDs. The mechanism of interaction, conformational rearrangement and dynamic stability of the binding of RFQV-peptide to SPAK CTD were characterized by molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation. RESULTS: The MD simulation suggested that the binding of RFQV induces a large conformational change due to the distribution of salt bridge within the loop regions. These results may help in understanding the relation between the structure and function of SPAK CTD and to support drug design of potential SPAK kinase inhibitors as antihypertensive agents. CONCLUSION: This study provides deep insight into SPAK CTD structure and function relationship.

17.
Med J Malaysia ; 75(4): 428-429, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724008

RESUMO

We report a 39-year-old male with accidental findings of posterior mediastinum mass at right superior aspects, located at T2 with close proximity to trachea, superior vena cava, azygus vein, right subclavian artery and oesophagus. Apart from intermittent right shoulder pain, there was no other significant symptom. He opted for conservative management initially, given the benign nature and proximity to important structures. We postulated that robotic approach will be of advantage for this particular case which was successfully performed with uneventful recovery. This case illustrated the advantages of robotic-assisted surgery, compared to conventional VATS in otherwise potentially difficult case to undertake.


Assuntos
Mediastino/fisiopatologia , Mediastino/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Cirurgia Torácica , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e031924, 2020 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assess the performance of public hospitals in Saudi Arabia. We detect the sources of inefficiency and estimate the optimal levels of the resources that provide the current level of health services. We enrich our analysis by employing locations and capacities of the hospitals. DESIGN: We employ data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the technical efficiency of 91 public hospitals. We apply the input-oriented Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes, and Banker, Charne, Cooper models under Constant and Variable Returns-to-Scale. The assessment includes four inputs, and six output variables taken from the Ministry of Health databases for 2017. We conducted the assessment via PIM-DEA V.3.2 software. SETTING: Ministry of health-affiliated hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: Findings identified 75.8% (69 of 91) of public hospitals as technically inefficient. The average efficiency score was 0.76, indicating that hospitals could have reduced their inputs by 24% without reduction in health service provision. Small hospitals (efficiency score 0.79) were more efficient than medium-sized and large hospitals. Hospitals in the central region were more efficient (efficiency score 0.83), than those located in other geographical locations. More than half of the hospitals (62.6%) were operating suboptimally in terms of the scale efficiency, implying that to improve efficiency, they need to alter their production capacity. Performance analysis identified overuse of physician's numbers and shortage of health services production, as major causes of inefficiency. CONCLUSION: Most hospitals were technically inefficient and operating at suboptimal scale size and indicate that many hospitals may improve their performance through efficient utilisation of health resources to provide the current level of health services. Changes in the production capacity are required, to facilitate optimal use of medical capacity. The inefficient hospitals could benefit from these findings to benchmarking their system and performance in light of the efficient hospital within their capacity and geographical location.


Assuntos
Benchmarking/métodos , Eficiência Organizacional/normas , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Humanos , Arábia Saudita
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(2): 216-220, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Underestimation of leptospirosis cases is happening in many countries. The most common factor of underreporting is misdiagnosis. Considering the limitations of direct detection of pathogen and serological diagnosis for leptospirosis, clinical features and blood tests though non-specific are usually referred in making presumptive diagnosis to decide disease management. METHODS: In this single-centre retrospective study, comparative analysis on clinical presentations and laboratory findings was performed between confirmed leptospirosis versus non-leptospirosis cases. RESULTS: In multivariate logistic regression evidenced by a Hosmer-Lemeshow significance value of 0.979 and Nagelkerke R square of 0.426, the predictors of a leptospirosis case are hypocalcemia (calcium <2.10mmol/L), hypochloremia (chloride <98mmol/L), and eosinopenia (absolute eosinophil count <0.040×109/L). The proposed diagnostic scoring model has a discriminatory power with area under the curve (AUC) 0.761 (p<0.001). A score value of 6 reflected a sensitivity of 0.762, specificity of 0.655, a positive predictive value of 0.38, negative predictive value of 0.91, a positive likelihood ratios of 2.21, and a negative likelihood ratios of 0.36. CONCLUSION: With further validation in clinical settings, implementation of this diagnostic scoring model is helpful to manage presumed leptospirosis especially in the absence of leptospirosis confirmatory tests.


Assuntos
Agranulocitose/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Eosinófilos/patologia , Hipocalcemia/sangue , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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