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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285613

RESUMO

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246309, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278504

RESUMO

Abstract In the present study, the biochemical composition of some Echinodermata (Holothuroidea, Echinoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt was investigated. The results showed that the highest percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was in Holothuria nobilis and the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria scabra. The highest percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was recorded in Pearsonothuria graeffei while the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. The highest percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was recorded in Holothuria nobilis and the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. The highest percentage of omega-3 fatty acids was recorded in Stichopus hermanni however, the lowest percentage was recorded in Diadema setosum. The highest percentage of omega-6 fatty acids was recorded in Bohadschia vitiensis where, the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. In addition, nonessential amino acid (NEAA) glycine were the highest in all species and serine was the lowest while Essential amino acid (EAA) arginine was the highest and cysteine was the lowest. All of the NEAA recorded highest concentrations in S. hermanni except proline. The recorded essential amino acids were histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and leucine. The latter was high in Pearsonothuria graeffei. Tyrosine, valine, threonine, and arginine were high in Stichopus hermanni. The present study proved that sea cucumbers has great nutritional value.


Resumo No presente estudo, investigou-se a composição bioquímica de algumas espécies Echinodermata (Holothuroidea, Echinoidea) do Mar Vermelho no Egito. Os resultados mostraram que a maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos saturados (SFA) foi na espécie Holothuria nobilis e a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Holothuria scabra. A maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (MUFA) foi registrada na espécie Pearsonothuria graeffei, enquanto a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Holothuria atra. O maior percentual de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (PUFA) foi registrado em Holothuria nobilis e o menor percentual foi registrado em Holothuria atra. A maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos ômega-3 foi registrada na espécie Stichopus hermanni, entretanto, a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Diadema setosum. A maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos ômega-6 foi registrada em Bohadschia vitiensis e a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Holothuria atra. Além disso, o nível de aminoácido não-essencial (NEAA) glicina foi o mais alto em todas as espécies e o de serina foi o mais baixo, enquanto o nível de aminoácido essencial (EAA) arginina foi o mais alto e a cisteína foi o mais baixo. Todos os NEAA registraram concentrações mais altas em S. hermanni, exceto prolina. Os aminoácidos essenciais registrados foram histidina, isoleucina, fenilalanina e leucina. A leucina apresentou alto nível na espécie Pearsonothuria graeffei. Tirosina, valina, treonina e arginina apresentaram níveis elevados em Stichopus hermanni. Assim, o presente estudo comprovou que o pepino-do-mar possui grande valor nutricional.

3.
Value Health ; 24(10): 1446-1453, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Migraine is a highly prevalent neurological disorder. The most characteristic symptom of migraine is moderate to severe recurrent headache along with other neurological symptoms. In this study, we modeled the potential reduction in migraine days and corresponding avoided productivity losses if erenumab was prescribed to the patient population indicated for prophylactic migraine treatment (≥ 4 monthly migraine days [MMDs]) in Germany from 2020 to the end of 2027. METHODS: We simulated the incremental benefits of erenumab against the standard of care. Response rates, transition probabilities, discontinuation rates, and productivity estimates were derived from the erenumab clinical trial program. Patients had a probability of residing in 1 of 7 states, given the MMDs in addition to the probability of death. Based on accrued MMDs in every cycle, days of absenteeism and presenteeism for paid and unpaid work were derived. Paid work was monetized according to gross value added using the human capital approach, whereas unpaid work was valuated according to the proxy good method. In addition, downstream macroeconomic effects were captured using value-added multipliers. Direct medical costs were concomitantly calculated. RESULTS: Our results show that prescribing erenumab for the indicated population in Germany could lead to a reduction of 166 million migraine days annually and reduce productivity losses in the range of €27 billion. This includes €13.1 billion from direct productivity and €13.5 billion from economic value chain effects. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the macroeconomic effects of a systematic introduction of novel inhibitors of the calcitonin gene-related peptide pathway for migraine in Germany.

4.
Saudi Med J ; 42(10): 1117-1124, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the degree of public awareness, beliefs, and attitudes regarding major depression and available treatment options in the Saudi population. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study of 1,188 participants was carried out from March to April 2021 in Ha'il, Saudi Arabia using an online self-administered questionnaire. Using a snowball sampling technique, the authors targeted the Saudi population living in Ha'il region. RESULTS: Overall, 65.6% of the participants had good awareness regarding depression disorder in total. Of the participants, 72.9% had good awareness regarding general awareness, 85.4% regarding depression symptoms, 12.3% regarding risk factors, and 15.7% regarding treatments. Of the participants, 67.3% believed that depression was caused by lack of faith and 45.5% believed that depression was caused by "the evil eye" or black magic. Of the participants, 56% believed in faith healers as a legitimate treatment approach. Of the participants, 63.9% were willing to work with individuals with depression, 62.7% were willing to establish friendships with them, and 27.9% believed that individuals with depression had weak personalities. CONCLUSION: The general population exhibited good general awareness regarding depression and its symptoms, but knowledge of risk factors and treatments was poor. Our findings underscore the need for public educational programs to increase public awareness about the risk factors and treatment options for depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Humanos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105394, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619468

RESUMO

Novel diarylpyrazole (5a-d, 6a-e, 12, 13, 14, 15a-c and 11a-g) derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their dual COX-2/sEH inhibitory activities via recombinant enzyme assays to explore their anti-inflammatory activities and cardiovascular safety profiles. Comprehensively, the structures of the synthesized compounds were established via spectral and elemental analyses, followed by the assessment of both their in vitro COX inhibitory and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. The most active compounds as COX inhibitors were further evaluated for their in vitro 5-LOX and sEH inhibitory activities, alongside with their in vivo analgesic and ulcerogenic effects. Compounds 6d and 11f showed excellent inhibitory activities against both COX-2 and sEH (COX-2 IC50 = 0.043 and 0.048 µM; sEH IC50 = 83.58 and 83.52 µM, respectively). Moreover, the compounds demonstrated promising results as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents with considerable ED50 values and gastric safety profiles. Remarkably, the most active COX inhibitors 6d and 11f possessed improved cardiovascular safety profiles, if compared to celecoxib, as shown by the laboratory evaluation of both essential cardiac biochemical parameters (troponin-1, prostacyclin, tumor necrosis factor-α, lactate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione and creatine kinase-M) and histopathological studies. On the other hand, docking simulations confirmed that the newly synthesized compounds displayed sufficient structural features required for binding to the target COX-2 and sEH enzymes. Also, in silico ADME studies prediction and drug-like properties of the compounds revealed favorable oral bioavailability results. Collectively, the present work could be featured as a promising future approach towards novel selective COX-2 inhibitors with declined cardiovascular risks.

6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 703, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623531

RESUMO

The Nile River is the soul of Egypt, providing more than 95% of its freshwater demand. However, it receives different pollutants discharged into the water body along its stretch from Aswan (downstream of the High Dam) to Cairo, which is approximately 950 km. Alternatively, sediments play an important role in the dynamics of the entire aquatic environment and act as a sink or a source of pollution in the overlying water under various conditions. This study assessed sediment quality and its heavy metal levels. Several indices and human health risks were determined to assess the potential ecological risk of the Nile River sediment. On the basis of the index results, Cd registered the highest pollution ranking, whereas Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Ni had the lowest effect. In another context, southern sites represented the lowest ecological risk relative to the central and northern sectors. The results of the noncarcinogenic hazard indices, hazard quotient, and hazard index in addition to the lifetime cancer risk were below the acceptable international limits, confirming that there are no adverse effects on the exposed population due to the Nile sediment.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641560

RESUMO

A cost-effective adsorbent was prepared by carbonization of pre-treated Phragmites australis reed at 500 °C. Phragmites australis was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analyses. XRD of the as-prepared adsorbent exhibited a partially crystalline structure with a specific surface area of 211.6 m2/g and an average pore diameter of 4.2 nm. The biosorption potential of novel biosorbent Phragmites australis reed was investigated with a batch scale and continuous flow study. The study was conducted at different constraints to obtain optimum pH conditions, adsorbent dose, contact time, agitation speed, and initial TDS concentration. In order to analyze the properties of the procedure and determine the amount of sodium removal, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms were tested. The optimal values of contact time, pH, and adsorbent dose were found to be 150 min, 4, and 10 g/L, respectively, with an agitation speed of 300 rpm at room temperature (27 °C). The three tested isotherms show that the adsorption of Na+ onto the prepared adsorbent is a hybrid process from physi- and chemisorption. For industrial application, the adsorbent was tested using the adsorbent column technique. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and diffusion models were connected, and it was discovered that the information fit best to the pseudo-second-arrange active model. According to the intraparticle diffusion model, the mechanism goes through four stages before reaching equilibrium. The periodicity test shows that the adsorption ability of Phragmites australis can be recovered by washing with 0.1 M HCl.

8.
Microsc Microanal ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610853

RESUMO

Cyprinid fishes have one of the simplest types of gastrointestinal tract among vertebrates. Those fish species do not possess a true stomach that is replaced by a simple dilatation at the anterior part of the intestine called the intestinal bulb. Twenty adult specimens of grass carp were used in the present study to identify the cellular components as well as the immunohistochemical and surface architectural characteristics of the intestinal bulb. The mucosa of the intestinal bulb shows numerous, deep longitudinal folds arranged in zigzagging-like patterns. The epithelium is composed mainly of absorptive columnar cells covered by microvilli and mucous goblet cells. Spindle-shaped enteroendocrine cells and some migratory immune cells such as intraepithelial lymphocytes and rodlet cells could be identified between the absorptive cells. The epithelium also contains many secretory granules and large numbers of vacuoles containing digestive enzymes mostly in the basal part. The immunohistochemistry revealed that CD20-positive B-lymphocytes are immunolocalized mainly in the connective tissue core lamina propria of the mucosal folds. However, CD3-immunopositive T-lymphocytes are highly concentrated in the lamina propria. In addition, intraepithelial T-lymphocytes expressed immunopositivity to CD3. The current study presented many types of immune cells and suggests their essential immunological role for the intestinal blub.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Limited literature has examined the epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and fibrosis among young adults in Egypt, a country with one of the highest obesity rates globally. We assessed the prevalence of steatosis and fibrosis among college students in Egypt. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited students unaware of having fatty liver via a call-for-participation at a private university in the Dakahlia governorate of Egypt. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of steatosis as determined by the controlled attenuation parameter component of transient elastography and fibrosis as determined by the liver stiffness measurement component of transient elastography. Secondary outcomes were clinical parameters and socioeconomic factors associated with the presence and severity of steatosis and fibrosis. RESULTS: Of 132 participants evaluated for the study, 120 (91%) were included (median (IQR) age, 20 (19-21) years; 65 (54.2%) female). A total of 38 participants (31.6%) had steatosis, among whom 22 (57.9%) had S3 (severe) steatosis. There was a higher risk for steatosis in persons with overweight (adjusted OR 9.67, 95% CI (2.94 to 31.7, p<0.0001) and obesity (adjusted OR 13.87, 95% CI 4.41 to 43.6, p<0.0001) compared with lean persons. Moreover, higher level of parental education was associated with progressing steatosis stages (S1-S3). Six (5%) participants had transient elastography values equivalent to F2-F3 fibrosis (four with F2 fibrosis (≥7.9 kPa), and two with F3 fibrosis (≥8.8 kPa)). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of college students in Egypt, around 1 in 3 had steatosis, and 1 in 20 had moderate-to-advanced fibrosis, an established risk factor for hepatic and extrahepatic morbidity and mortality. These data underscore the urgency to address the silent epidemic of NAFLD among young adults in the Middle East-North Africa region.

10.
Mar Drugs ; 19(9)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564140

RESUMO

Chemical analysis of an M1 agar plate cultivation of a marine fish-gut-derived fungus, Chrysosporium sp. CMB-F214, revealed the known chrysosporazines A-D (11-14) in addition to a suite of very minor aza analogues 1-6. A microbioreactor (MATRIX) cultivation profiling analysis failed to deliver cultivation conditions that significantly improved the yields of 1-6; however, it did reveal that M2 agar cultivation produced the new natural product 15. A precursor-directed biosynthesis strategy adopting supplementation of a CMB-F214 M1 solid agar culture with sodium nicotinate enhanced production of otherwise inaccessible azachrysposorazines A1 (1), A2 (2), B1 (3), C1 (4), C2 (5) and D1 (6), in addition to four new chrysosporazines; chrysosporazines N-P (7-9) and spirochrysosporazine A (10). Structures inclusive of absolute configurations were assigned to 1-15 based on detailed spectroscopic and chemical analyses, and biosynthetic considerations. Non-cytotoxic to human carcinoma cells, azachrysosporazies 1-5 were capable of reversing doxorubicin resistance in P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing human colon carcinoma cells (SW620 Ad300), with optimum activity exhibited by the C-2' substituted analogues 3-5.

11.
Mar Drugs ; 19(9)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564165

RESUMO

This review presents an account of the microbial biodiscovery methodology developed and applied in our laboratory at The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, with examples drawn from our experiences studying natural products produced by Australian marine-derived (and terrestrial) fungi and bacteria.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiparametric MRI localizes cancer in the prostate, allowing for MRI guided biopsy (MRI-GB) 43 alongside transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic biopsy (TRUS-GB). Three MRI-GB approaches exist; visual estimation (COG-TB); fusion software-assisted (FUS-TB) and MRI 'in-bore' biopsy (IB-TB). It is unknown whether any of these are superior. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to address three questions. First, whether MRI-GB is superior to TRUS-GB at detecting clinically significant PCa (csPCa). Second, whether MRI-GB is superior to TRUS-GB at avoiding detection of insignificant PCa. Third, whether any MRI-GB strategy is superior at detecting csPCa. METHODS: A systematic literature review from 2015 to 2019 was performed in accordance with the START recommendations. Studies reporting PCa detection rates, employing MRI-GB and TRUS-GB were included and evaluated using the QUADAS-2 checklist. 1553 studies were found, of which 43 were included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: For csPCa, MRI-GB was superior in detection to TRUS-GB (0.83 vs. 0.63 [p = 0.02]). MRI-GB was superior in detection to TRUS-GB at avoiding detection of insignificant PCa. No MRI-GB technique was superior at detecting csPCa (IB-TB 0.87; COG TB 0.81; FUS-TB 0.81, [p = 0.55]). There was significant heterogeneity observed between the included studies. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected PCa on MRI, MRI-GB offers superior rates of csPCa detection and reduces detection of insignificant PCa compared to TRUS-GB. No individual MRI-GB technique was found to be better in csPCa detection. Prospective adequately powered randomized controlled trials are required.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5706, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588441

RESUMO

Genetic code expansion technologies supplement the natural codon repertoire with assignable variants in vivo, but are often limited by heterologous translational components and low suppression efficiencies. Here, we explore engineered Escherichia coli tRNAs supporting quadruplet codon translation by first developing a library-cross-library selection to nominate quadruplet codon-anticodon pairs. We extend our findings using a phage-assisted continuous evolution strategy for quadruplet-decoding tRNA evolution (qtRNA-PACE) that improved quadruplet codon translation efficiencies up to 80-fold. Evolved qtRNAs appear to maintain codon-anticodon base pairing, are typically aminoacylated by their cognate tRNA synthetases, and enable processive translation of adjacent quadruplet codons. Using these components, we showcase the multiplexed decoding of up to four unique quadruplet codons by their corresponding qtRNAs in a single reporter. Cumulatively, our findings highlight how E. coli tRNAs can be engineered, evolved, and combined to decode quadruplet codons, portending future developments towards an exclusively quadruplet codon translation system.

15.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105363, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555629

RESUMO

We have discovered a family of synthetic oxazole-based macrocycles to be active against SARS-CoV-2. The synthesis, pharmacological properties, and docking studies of the compounds are reported in this study. The structure of the new macrocycles was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Compounds 13, 14, and 15a-c were evaluated for their anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity on SARS-COV-2 (NRC-03-nhCoV) virus in Vero-E6 cells. Isopropyl triester 13 and triacid 14 demonstrated superior inhibitory activities against SARS-CoV-2 compared to carboxamides 15a-c. MTT cytotoxicity assays showed that the CC50 (50% cytotoxicity concentration) of 13, 14, and 15a-c ranged from 159.1 to 741.8 µM and their safety indices ranged from 2.50 to 39.1. Study of the viral inhibition via different mechanisms of action (viral adsorption, replication, or virucidal property) showed that 14 had mild virucidal (60%) and inhibitory effects on virus adsorption (66%) at 20 µM concentrations. Compound 13 displayed several inhibitory effects at three levels, but the potency of its action is primarily virucidal. The inhibitory activity of compounds 13, 14, and 15a-c against the enzyme SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was evaluated. Isopropyl triester 13 had a significant inhibition activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with an IC50 of 2.58 µM. Large substituents on the macrocyclic template significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of the compounds. Study of the docking of the compounds in the SARS CoV-2-Mpro active site showed that the most potent macrocycles 13 and 14 exhibited the best fit and highest affinity for the active site binding pocket. Taken together, the present study shows that the new macrocyclic compounds constitute a new family of SARS CoV-2-Mpro inhibitors that are worth being further optimized and developed.

16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5638, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561441

RESUMO

In bacteria, ribosome kinetics are considered rate-limiting for protein synthesis and cell growth. Enhanced ribosome kinetics may augment bacterial growth and biomanufacturing through improvements to overall protein yield, but whether this can be achieved by ribosome-specific modifications remains unknown. Here, we evolve 16S ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) from Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae towards enhanced protein synthesis rates. We find that rRNA sequence origin significantly impacted evolutionary trajectory and generated rRNA mutants with augmented protein synthesis rates in both natural and engineered contexts, including the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids. Moreover, discovered consensus mutations can be ported onto phylogenetically divergent rRNAs, imparting improved translational activities. Finally, we show that increased translation rates in vivo coincide with only moderately reduced translational fidelity, but do not enhance bacterial population growth. Together, these findings provide a versatile platform for development of unnatural ribosomal functions in vivo.

17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1622270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409099

RESUMO

This study investigates the antioxidant activities of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate extracts from the marine mollusk Perna canaliculus. Lipids were extracted using acetone, which was followed by protein extraction using the broad-spectrum enzyme Alcalase and then carbohydrate extraction using cetylpyridinium chloride. Eighty white BALB/c mice were divided into eight groups according to the administered extracts. Groups 1 and 5 were the control and toxin control groups, respectively. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were administered lipid, protein, and carbohydrate extracts, respectively. The other groups were administered P. canaliculus extracts as well as gentamicin and acetaminophen, known as ethanolic extracts, derived from Nerium oleander to induce oxidation stress. All groups showed significant improvements in body weight (p < 0.05). The lipid extract group showed a significant decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05). After the toxin injection, all groups treated with P. canaliculus extracts showed increased antioxidant effects on hepatocytes (p < 0.05). The lipid extracts induced antioxidant effects to protect the kidney by increasing lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05) and catalase activities (p < 0.05). Also, protein extracts showed antioxidant effects by increasing glutathione and catalase levels significantly (p < 0.005). In conclusion, P. canaliculus extracts, especially lipids and proteins, have potent antioxidant activities that protect vital organs from oxidation stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Perna (Organismo)/química , Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Carboidratos/isolamento & purificação , Carboidratos/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/farmacologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Animais , Nerium/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas/farmacologia
18.
Adv Mater ; 33(39): e2103000, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397123

RESUMO

The competing and non-equilibrium phase transitions, involving dynamic tunability of cooperative electronic and magnetic states in strongly correlated materials, show great promise in quantum sensing and information technology. To date, the stabilization of transient states is still in the preliminary stage, particularly with respect to molecular electronic solids. Here, a dynamic and cooperative phase in potassium-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (K-TCNQ) with the control of pulsed electromagnetic excitation is demonstrated. Simultaneous dynamic and coherent lattice perturbation with 8 ns pulsed laser (532 nm, 15 MW cm-2 , 10 Hz) in such a molecular electronic crystal initiates a stable long-lived (over 400 days) conducting paramagnetic state (≈42 Ωcm), showing the charge-spin bistability over a broad temperature range from 2 to 360 K. Comprehensive noise spectroscopy, in situ high-pressure measurements, electron spin resonance (ESR), theoretical model, and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) studies provide further evidence that such a transition is cooperative, requiring a dedicated charge-spin-lattice decoupling to activate and subsequently stabilize nonequilibrium phase. The cooperativity triggered by ultrahigh-strain-rate (above 106 s- 1 ) pulsed excitation offers a collective control toward the generation and stabilization of strongly correlated electronic and magnetic orders in molecular electronic solids and offers unique electro-magnetic phases with technological promises.

19.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 49(9): 2006-2029, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378121

RESUMO

The most common forms of tissue impairment are fracture bones and significant bone disorders caused by multiple traumas or normal aging. Surgical care sometimes necessitates the placement of a temporary or permanent prosthesis, which continues to be a challenge for orthopedic surgeons, including those with large bone defects. Electrospun scaffolds made from natural and synthetic nanofiber-based polymers are studied as natural extracellular matrix (ECM)-like scaffolds for tissue engineering. Besides, nanostructured materials have properties and functions depending on the scale of natural materials such as hydroxyapatite (HAP), ranging from 1 to 100 nm, which activity was proficient upon enrolled in nanofiber mats. The use of nanofibers in combination with nano-HAP has increased the scaffold's ability to replicate the construction of natural bone tissue that is the aim of the present text. In bone engineering, nanofiber substrates facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation, while HAP induces cells to secrete ECM for bone mineralization and development. This review aims to draw the reader's attention to the critical issues with synthetic and natural polymers containing HAP in bone tissue engineering; co-substituted hydroxyapatite has also been mentioned.

20.
Bioorg Chem ; 115: 105233, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390968

RESUMO

Up to date, the current clinical practice employs only symptomatic treatments for management of Parkinson's disease (PD) but unable to stop disease progression. The discovery of new chemical entities endowed with potent and selective human monoamine oxidase B (hMAO-B) inhibitory activity is a clinically relevant subject. Herein, a structural optimization strategy for safinamide (a well-known second generation hMAO-B inhibitor) afforded a series of thirty-six safinamide-derived new analogs (4aa-bj). Most compounds showed promising inhibitory activities against hMAO-B (>70% inhibition at a single dose concentration of 10 µM), with no apparent effect on hMAO-A at 100 µM. Moreover, while six compounds (4ak, 4as, 4az, 4be, 4bg, and 4bi) exhibited potent double-digit nanomolar activities over hMAO-B with IC50 values of 29.5, 42.2, 22.3, 18.8, 42.2, and 33.9 nM, respectively, three derivatives (4aq, 4at, and 4bf), possessing the same carboxamide moiety (2-pyrazinyl), showed the most potent single-digit nanomolar activities (IC50 = 9.7, 5.1, and 3.9 nM, respectively). Compound 4bf revealed an excellent selectivity index (SI > 25641) with a 29-fold increase compared to safinamide (SI > 892). A structure activity relationship along with molecular docking simulations provided insights into enzyme - inhibitor interactions and a rational for the observed activity. In an in vivo MPTP-induced mouse model of PD, oral administration of compound 4bf significantly protected nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons as revealed by tyrosine hydroxylase staining and prevented MPTP-induced Parkinsonism as revealed by motor behavioral assays. Accordingly, we present compound 4bf as a novel, highly potent, and selective hMAO-B inhibitor with an effective therapeutic profile for relieving PD.

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