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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 00264, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339364

RESUMO

Abstract Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Resumo Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades antioxidantes, em comparação com o bulbo interno. As informações obtidas pelo presente estudo podem promover o uso de outras partes vegetais além do mesocarpo comestível para futuras aplicações em alimentos, ao invés de serem desperdiçadas.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151351, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740667

RESUMO

Integrating disruptive technologies within smart cities improves the infrastructure needed to potentially deal with disasters. This paper provides a perspective review of disruptive technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), image processing, artificial intelligence (AI), big data and smartphone applications which are in use and have been proposed for future improvements in disaster management of urban regions. The key focus of this paper is exploring ways in which smart cities could be established to harness the potential of disruptive technologies and improve post-disaster management. The key questions explored are a) what are the gaps or barriers to the utilization of disruptive technologies in the area of disaster management and b) How can the existing methods of disaster management be improved through the application of disruptive technologies. To respond to these questions, a novel framework based on integrated approaches based on big data analytics and AI is proposed for developing disaster management solutions using disruptive technologies.

4.
Arch Razi Inst ; 76(3): 507-519, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824744

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serovars are considered a significant threat to veterinary and public health. Developing new antimicrobial compounds that can treat the infection caused by these notorious pathogens is a big challenge. Bacteriophages can be adsorbed on and inhibit the growth of bacteria, providing optimal and promising alternatives to chemical antimicrobial compounds against foodborne pathogens due to their abundance in nature and high host specificity. The objective of the current study was to isolate and characterize new phages from poultry farms and sewage and to evaluate their efficacy against S. Enteritidis isolates. The study reports three lytic phages designated as ϕSET1, ϕSET2, and ϕSET3 isolated from poultry carcasses and sewage samples in Qalubiya governorate Egypt. The effectiveness of phages was evaluated against multidrug-resistant S. Enteritidis strains. Electron microscopy showed that these phages belong to the Siphoviridae family. Phages were tested against 13 bacterial strains to determine their host range. They could infect four S. Enteritidis and one S. Typhimurium; however, they did not infect other tested bacterial species, indicating their narrow infectivity. The bacteriophage's single-step growth curves revealed a latent period of 20 min for ϕSET1 and 30 min for ϕSET2 and ϕSET3. The isolated Salmonella phages prevented the growth of S. Enteritidis for up to 18 hrs. The findings revealed that Salmonella phages could be used as alternative natural antibacterial compounds to combat infection with MDR S. Enteritidis in the poultry industry and represent a step forward to using large panels of phages for eliminating Salmonella from the food chain.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Egito , Fazendas , Salmonella enteritidis , Sorogrupo
5.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(21)2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771860

RESUMO

The flexural strength of Slender steel tube sections is known to achieve significant improvements upon being filled with concrete material; however, this section is more likely to fail due to buckling under compression stresses. This study investigates the flexural behavior of a Slender steel tube beam that was produced by connecting two pieces of C-sections and was filled with recycled-aggregate concrete materials (CFST beam). The C-section's lips behaved as internal stiffeners for the CFST beam's cross-section. A static flexural test was conducted on five large scale specimens, including one specimen that was tested without concrete material (hollow specimen). The ABAQUS software was also employed for the simulation and non-linear analysis of an additional 20 CFST models in order to further investigate the effects of varied parameters that were not tested experimentally. The numerical model was able to adequately verify the flexural behavior and failure mode of the corresponding tested specimen, with an overestimation of the flexural strength capacity of about 3.1%. Generally, the study confirmed the validity of using the tubular C-sections in the CFST beam concept, and their lips (internal stiffeners) led to significant improvements in the flexural strength, stiffness, and energy absorption index. Moreover, a new analytical method was developed to specifically predict the bending (flexural) strength capacity of the internally stiffened CFST beams with steel stiffeners, which was well-aligned with the results derived from the current investigation and with those obtained by others.

6.
Transplant Proc ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are widely used alternatives to warfarin, because they do not require routine monitoring and have better safety profile. There is limited experience for NOACs in organ transplant recipients. METHODS: This study assessed NOAC safety and efficacy among renal transplant recipients in a single center. A retrospective matched cohort study was conducted among the adult renal transplant recipients concomitantly administered calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus or cyclosporin) and NOACs between November 2015 and December 2019. RESULTS: The study included 16 patients divided into 2 equal groups on NOACs and warfarin. Male patients constitute 50% and 75% of the NOAC group and warfarin group, respectively, and 75% and 87.5% of cases are post living donor transplants in the NOAC group and warfarin group, respectively. In the NOAC group, the most common indication for anticoagulation was atrial fibrillation (62.5%), followed by deep vein thrombosis (37.5%), whereas in the warfarin group, the most common indication was atrial fibrillation (50%), followed by valve replacement (25%). In the NOAC group, 6 patients (75%) received rivaroxaban, 1 patient (12.5%) received dabigatran, and 1 patient (12.5%) received apixaban; 68.75% of patients were on a tacrolimus-based regimen. There were no thromboembolic events, rejection episodes, bleeding, or admissions due to NOAC adverse events. There were 3 cases of bleeding in the warfarin group. Calcineurin inhibitor levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate did not change significantly in the NOAC group (P = .34 and .96, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to warfarin, NOACs are well tolerated and effective for preventing and treating thromboembolic events in renal transplant recipients. A larger randomized controlled study is required.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(14): 141801, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652194

RESUMO

A search for new phenomena is presented in final states with two leptons and one or no b-tagged jets. The event selection requires the two leptons to have opposite charge, the same flavor (electrons or muons), and a large invariant mass. The analysis is based on the full run-2 proton-proton collision dataset recorded at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=13 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb^{-1}. No significant deviation from the expected background is observed in the data. Inspired by the B-meson decay anomalies, a four-fermion contact interaction between two quarks (b, s) and two leptons (ee or µµ) is used as a benchmark signal model, which is characterized by the energy scale and coupling, Λ and g_{*}, respectively. Contact interactions with Λ/g_{*} lower than 2.0 (2.4) TeV are excluded for electrons (muons) at the 95% confidence level, still far below the value that is favored by the B-meson decay anomalies. Model-independent limits are set as a function of the minimum dilepton invariant mass, which allow the results to be reinterpreted in various signal scenarios.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: 00264, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669793

RESUMO

Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cebolas , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Suínos , alfa-Glucosidases
9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680270

RESUMO

The Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant neoplastic syndrome defined by hamartomatous polyps through the gastrointestinal tract, development of characteristic mucocutaneous pigmentations, and an elevated lifetime cancer risk. The majority of cases are due to a mutation in the STK11 gene located at 19p13.3. The estimated incidence of PJS ranges from 1:50,000 to 1:200,000. PJS carries an elevated risk of malignancies including gastrointestinal, breast, lung, and genitourinary (GU) neoplasms. Patients with PJS are at a 15- to 18-fold increased malignancy risk relative to the general population. Radiologists have an integral role in the diagnosis of these patients. Various imaging modalities are used to screen for malignancies and complications associated with PJS. Awareness of various PJS imaging patterns, associated malignancies, and their complications is crucial for accurate imaging interpretation and patient management. In this manuscript, we provide a comprehensive overview of PJS, associated malignancies, and surveillance protocols.

10.
Sci Robot ; 6(58): eabf3368, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516746

RESUMO

Bionic prostheses have restorative potential. However, the complex interplay between intuitive motor control, proprioception, and touch that represents the hallmark of human upper limb function has not been revealed. Here, we show that the neurorobotic fusion of touch, grip kinesthesia, and intuitive motor control promotes levels of behavioral performance that are stratified toward able-bodied function and away from standard-of-care prosthetic users. This was achieved through targeted motor and sensory reinnervation, a closed-loop neural-machine interface, coupled to a noninvasive robotic architecture. Adding touch to motor control improves the ability to reach intended target grasp forces, find target durometers among distractors, and promote prosthetic ownership. Touch, kinesthesia, and motor control restore balanced decision strategies when identifying target durometers and intrinsic visuomotor behaviors that reduce the need to watch the prosthetic hand during object interactions, which frees the eyes to look ahead to the next planned action. The combination of these three modalities also enhances error correction performance. We applied our unified theoretical, functional, and clinical analyses, enabling us to define the relative contributions of the sensory and motor modalities operating simultaneously in this neural-machine interface. This multiperspective framework provides the necessary evidence to show that bionic prostheses attain more human-like function with effective sensory-motor restoration.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572781

RESUMO

The lymphatic system is an anatomically complex vascular network that is responsible for interstitial fluid homeostasis, transport of large interstitial particles and cells, immunity, and lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. This network of specially adapted vessels and lymphoid tissue provides a major pathway for metastatic spread. Many malignancies produce vascular endothelial factors that induce tumoral and peritumoral lymphangiogenesis, increasing the likelihood for lymphatic spread. Radiologic evaluation for disease staging is the cornerstone of oncologic patient treatment and management. Multiple imaging modalities are available to access both local and distant metastasis. In this manuscript, we review the anatomy, physiology, and imaging of the lymphatic system.

12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468526

RESUMO

Military conflicts have been significant obstacles in detecting and treating infectious disease diseases due to the diminished public health infrastructure, resulting in malaria endemicity. A variety of violent and destructive incidents were experienced by FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas). It was a struggle to pursue an epidemiological analysis due to continuing conflict and Talibanization. Clinical isolates were collected from Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai agencies from May 2017 to May 2018. For Giemsa staining, full blood EDTA blood samples have been collected from symptomatic participants. Malaria-positive microscopy isolates were spotted on filter papers for future Plasmodial molecular detection by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) of small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes specific primers. Since reconfirming the nPCR, a malariometric study of 762 patients found 679 positive malaria cases. Plasmodium vivax was 523 (77%), Plasmodium falciparum 121 (18%), 35 (5%) were with mixed-species infection (P. vivax plus P. falciparum), and 83 were declared negative by PCR. Among the five agencies of FATA, Khyber agency has the highest malaria incidence (19%) with followed by P. vivax (19%) and P. falciparum (4.1%). In contrast, Kurram has about (14%), including (10.8%) P. vivax and (2.7%) P. falciparum cases, the lowest malaria epidemiology. Surprisingly, no significant differences in the distribution of mixed-species infection among all five agencies. P. falciparum and P. vivax were two prevalent FATA malaria species in Pakistan's war-torn area. To overcome this rising incidence of malaria, this study recommends that initiating malaria awareness campaigns in school should be supported by public health agencies and malaria-related education locally, targeting children and parents alike.


Assuntos
Plasmodium , Criança , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholecystectomy is one of the most commonly performed abdominal operations. Rising demands on acute operating theatre availability and resource utilization in the daytime have led to acute cholecystectomy being performed out-of-hours (in the evenings, at night, or on weekends), although it remains unknown whether outcomes differ between out-of-hours and in-hours (during the daytime on weekdays) acute cholecystectomy. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare outcomes following out-of-hours versus in-hours acute cholecystectomy. METHODS: The study protocol was prospectively registered on PROSPERO (ID:CRD42021226127). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were systematically for studies comparing outcomes following out-of-hours and in-hours acute cholecystectomy in adults with any acute benign gallbladder disease. The outcomes of interest were rates of bile leakage, bile duct injury (BDI), overall post-operative complications, conversion to open cholecystectomy, specific intra- and post-operative complications, length of stay (LOS), readmission and mortality. Subgroup (evening/night-time vs. daytime, weekend vs. weekday, acute surgical unit (ASU)-only, non-ASU, and laparoscopic-only) and sensitivity analyses of adjusted multivariate regression analysis results was also performed. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. There were no differences between out-of-hours and in-hours acute cholecystectomy for rates of bile leakage, BDI, overall post-operative complications, conversion to open cholecystectomy, operative duration, readmission, mortality, and post-operative LOS. Higher rates of post-operative sepsis (odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% CI: 1.04-2.41; p = 0.03) and pneumonia (OR 1.55, 95% CI: 1.06-2.26; p = 0.02) were observed following out-of-hours acute cholecystectomy on univariate meta-analysis, but not after the adjusted multivariate meta-analysis. Higher conversion rates were observed when out-of-hours cholecystectomy was performed in centres without an ASU. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis has not shown an increased risk in overall or specific complications associated with out-of-hours compared with in-hours acute cholecystectomy. However, future studies should assess the potential impact of structural hospital factors, such as an ASU, on outcomes following out-of-hours acute cholecystectomy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(36): 42635-42649, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469119

RESUMO

Thin film composite (TFC) membranes of the prototypical polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) have been prepared by dip-coating on a highly porous electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibrous support. Prior to coating, the support was impregnated in a non-solvent to avoid the penetration of PIM-1 inside the PVDF network. Different non-solvents were considered and the results were compared with those of the dry support. When applied for the separation of n-butanol/water mixtures by pervaporation (PV), the developed membranes exhibited very high permeate fluxes, in the range of 16.1-35.4 kg m-2 h-1, with an acceptable n-butanol/water separation factor of about 8. The PV separation index (PSI) of the prepared membranes is around 115, which is among the highest PSI values that have been reported so far. Hybrid PV-distillation systems have been designed and modeled in Aspen HYSYS using Aspen Custom Modeler for setting up the PIM-1 TFC and commercial PDMS membranes as a benchmark. The butanol recovery cost for the hybrid systems is compared with a conventional stand-alone distillation process used for n-butanol/water separation, and a 10% reduction in recovery cost was obtained.

15.
Blood Press Monit ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) function by conventional two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE) to detect subclinical LV systolic dysfunction in patients with dipper and nondipper hypertension. METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients with hypertension were included in our study. Clinical evaluation, baseline laboratory investigations, 24 ambulatory blood pressure monitoring 2D echocardiographic examination and 2D STE were performed for all patients. Patients were classified as dippers and nondippers according to their nighttime MAP (mean arterial blood pressure) reduction rate of ≥10 or <10%, respectively. RESULTS: Of 100 patients, 71% were nondippers while 29% were dippers. Nondippers had a significantly lower global longitudinal strain (LS) value (-22.45 ± 3.26 vs. -18.2 ± 3.3, P < 0.001), global circumferential strain (CS) value (-24.23 ± 3.56 vs. -19.16 ± 8.25, P < 0.001) and global radial strain (RS) value (35.04 ± 11.16 vs. 29.58 ± 8.44, P = 0.009). It was found that nondipper status was associated with worsening of LS by 2.737, (P = 0.001), CS by 3.446, (P = 0.002), RS by -3.256, (P = 0.158) and DM also was found associated with worsening of LS by 1.849, (P = 0.062), CS by 3.284 (P = 0.018), RS by -2.499 (P = 0.381). CONCLUSION: The nondipping hypertension pattern is associated with subclinical LV systolic dysfunction as shown by the impaired global myocardial strain in all three directions.

16.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431905

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico
17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(5): 051802, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397238

RESUMO

A search for charged leptons with large impact parameters using 139 fb^{-1} of sqrt[s]=13 TeV pp collision data from the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented, addressing a long-standing gap in coverage of possible new physics signatures. Results are consistent with the background prediction. This search provides unique sensitivity to long-lived scalar supersymmetric lepton partners (sleptons). For lifetimes of 0.1 ns, selectron, smuon, and stau masses up to 720, 680, and 340 GeV, respectively, are excluded at 95% confidence level, drastically improving on the previous best limits from LEP.

18.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 262: 120116, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217146

RESUMO

Acetylsalicylic acid and omeprazole were recently formulated by the new FDA-approved drug Yosprala ® Tablets. This novel combination was prescribed to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction in patients who were at risk for developing peptic ulcer while taking acetylsalicylic acid. In the current work, two different high precision sensitive fluorescence spectroscopic methods were developed for quantitative analysis of the above drugs in pharmaceutical dosage form and spiked human plasma. Acetylsalicylic acid was quantitatively analyzed due to its unique native fluorescence nature. The fluorescence emission of acetylsalicylic acid was quantitatively determined at 404 nm after excitation at 296 nm without any interference from omeprazole. Omeprazole, which has a free terminal secondary amino group, reacted with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1, 3-diazole (NBD-Cl) by a nucleophilic substitution mechanism to form a highly fluorescent dark yellow fluorophore. Omeprazole was quantitatively analyzed by measuring the emission fluorescence intensity of the dark yellow fluorophore at 535 nm after excitation at 465 nm. Various parameters affecting the described methods were carefully checked and optimized. The calibration curves were found to be linear over the concentration range of 50-1600 ng/ml for acetylsalicylic and 30-2000 ng/ml for omeprazole. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of the two drugs in the pharmaceutical dosage form Yosprala ® and in spiked human plasma.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Omeprazol , Calibragem , Humanos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Comprimidos
19.
Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am ; 29(3): 451-463, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243929

RESUMO

Here we review artificial intelligence (AI) models which aim to assess various aspects of chronic liver disease. Despite the clinical importance of hepatocellular carcinoma in the setting of chronic liver disease, we focus this review on AI models which are not lesion-specific and instead review models developed for liver parenchyma segmentation, evaluation of portal circulation, assessment of hepatic fibrosis, and identification of hepatic steatosis. Optimization of these models offers the opportunity to potentially reduce the need for invasive procedures such as catheterization to measure hepatic venous pressure gradient or biopsy to assess fibrosis and steatosis. We compare the performance of these AI models amongst themselves as well as to radiomics approaches and alternate modality assessments. We conclude that these models show promising performance and merit larger-scale evaluation. We review artificial intelligence models that aim to assess various aspects of chronic liver disease aside from hepatocellular carcinoma. We focus this review on models for liver parenchyma segmentation, evaluation of portal circulation, assessment of hepatic fibrosis, and identification of hepatic steatosis. We conclude that these models show promising performance and merit a larger scale evaluation.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Hepatopatias , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
20.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 46(10): 4853-4863, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085089

RESUMO

GOAL: To evaluate the ability of radiomic feature extraction and a machine learning algorithm to differentiate between benign and malignant indeterminate adrenal lesions on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) studies. BACKGROUND: Adrenal "incidentalomas" are adrenal lesions that are accidentally discovered during workup not related to the adrenal glands; they have an incidence as high as 5%. Small adrenal incidentalomas (< 4 cm) with high attenuation values on pre-contrast CT(> 10 HU) need further evaluation to calculate the absolute percentage of washout (APW). If the APW is < 60%, these lesions are considered non-adenomas and commonly classified as indeterminate adrenal lesions. Further workup for indeterminate lesions includes more complicated and expensive radiological studies or invasive procedures like biopsy or surgical resection. METHODS: We searched our institutional database for indeterminate adrenal lesions with the following characteristics: < 4 cm, pre-attenuation value > 10 HU, and APW < 60%. Exclusion criteria included pheochromocytoma and no histopathological examination. CT images were converted to Nifti format, and adrenal tumors were segmented using Amira software. Radiomic features from the adrenal mask were extracted using PyRadiomics software after removing redundant features (highly pairwise correlated features and low-variance features) using recursive feature extraction to select the final discriminative set of features. Lastly, the final features were used to build a binary classification model using a random forest algorithm, which was validated and tested using leave-one-out cross-validation, confusion matrix, and receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: We found 40 indeterminate adrenal lesions (21 benign and 19 malignant). Feature extraction resulted in 3947 features, which reduced down to 62 features after removing redundancies. Recursive feature elimination resulted in the following top 4 discriminative features: gray-level size zone matrix-derived size zone non-uniformity from pre-contrast and delayed phases, gray-level dependency matrix-derived large dependence high gray-level emphasis from venous-phase, and gray-level co-occurrence matrix-derived cluster shade from delayed-phase. A binary classification model with leave-one-out cross-validation showed AUC = 0.85, sensitivity = 84.2%, and specificity = 71.4%. CONCLUSION: Machine learning and radiomic features extraction can differentiate between benign and malignant indeterminate adrenal tumors and can be used to direct further workup with high sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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