Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 48
Filtrar
1.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 40(11): 1955-1961, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977768

RESUMO

Tacrolimus (TAC) is the drug of choice in immunosuppressive therapy for organ transplantation; however, adverse effects are still a major concern. The current study aims to decipher the short-term exposure of TAC on rat hepatocytes in relation to activation of hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway. Time dependent study was conducted using primary rat hepatocytes treated with TAC (36 µM) for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Western blot analysis was performed using cell lysate in order to analyze the regulation of HH pathway proteins including HHIP, SMO, PTCH, IHH, SHH, and GLI transcription factors. The study revealed change in protein expression of HH signaling molecules with activation of HH pathway, due to downregulation of HHIP, and enrichment of HH ligands with activation of SMO and GLI transcription factors. It is therefore, concluded that short term TAC exposure leads to upregulation of HH pathway in liver, which may initially act to repair the liver damage but can worsen the condition in case of prolonged immunosuppressive therapy. This insight could lead to understand association of off target effects of immunosuppressive drugs and occurrence of other liver diseases in transplant patients when it comes to long term immunosuppressive therapy. These findings also illuminate a novel direction that use of HH inhibitor might provide a therapeutic strategy for immune suppression related liver disorders.

2.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2021: 6613786, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679236

RESUMO

Tacrolimus (TAC) is an immunosuppressive drug, optimally used for liver, kidney, and heart transplant to avoid immune rejection. In retrospect, a multitude of studies have reported effects of TAC, such as nephrotoxicity, diabetes, and other complications. However, limited information is available regarding short-term exposure of TAC on the liver. Therefore, the present study was designed to unravel the effects of short-term exposure of TAC on a rat model. The animal model was established by TAC administration for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h time points. Liver histopathological changes were observed with PAS-D, reticulin stain, and immunostaining of PCNA and CK-7 coupled with glycogen quantification in a liver homogenate. TUNEL assay was performed to evaluate the DNA damage in the liver. Concentration of GSH and activities of SOD and CAT in the serum were measured to assess the antioxidant status, whereas liver tissue MDA level was measured as a biomarker of oxidative stress. Hepatic gene expression analysis of IL-10, IL-13, SOCS-2, and SOCS-3 was performed by RT-PCR. Results revealed marked changes in liver architecture of all TAC-treated groups, as evidenced by sinusoid dilation, hepatocyte derangement, glycogen deposition, and collapsed reticulin fibers. Significant increase in PCNA and CK-7 immunostaining along with the presence of TUNEL-positive cells was revealed in treatment groups as compared to the control group. Serum antioxidant enzyme status was markedly decreased, whereas the liver MDA level was increased in TAC treatment groups indicating oxidative stress induction. The gene expression profile of cytokines was significantly upregulated in treatment groups highlighting an inflammatory response. In conclusion, results of the current study propose that even a short-term TAC exposure can induce change in antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation. Therefore, these factors should be considered to avoid and minimize immunosuppression-related issues in a prolonged course of treatment.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Tacrolimo/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa/sangue , Imuno-Histoquímica , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 40(3): 538-549, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645299

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), an imperative environmental contaminant used in polycarbonate plastics. Due to limited information concerning the effect of BPA on lungs, this study design to assess whether BPA cause alterations in histopathology and trace metal content in lungs of rats. They were divided into five groups with five rats per group. Group I was named as control group. Group L6 and L12 were received BPA (10 mg/kg body weight/day) for 6 weeks and 12 weeks respectively. Group H6 and L12 were given BPA (25 mg/kg body weight/day) for 6 weeks and 12 weeks respectively. Considerable alteration in Cu, Zn and Fe was detected in experimental groups. BPA also caused significant increase in the expression of tumor necrosis factor α that mediate the pulmonary inflammatory response. Comparative study of resolved proteins i.e. 72 KDa (matrix metalloproteinase 2 fragment) and 109 KDa (nucleolin) on SDS-PAGE showed their altered expression in experimental groups. Histopathology of experimental groups revealed altered architecture of lungs. Special staining of BPA treated groups showed significant number of mast cells in alveoli and bronchioles. Prolonged administration of BPA causes deleterious aggravating lung damage even at extremely low dose, so the use of BPA should be prohibited in plastic synthesizing industries.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 607-614, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132400

RESUMO

Abstract Fish is the most indispensable source of proteins for individuals and have high nutritional value. On the other hand, the fish culturing raised issues of fish health due to close contact between the aquatic environment and the fish pathogens. So, the aim of the current study was to identify the bacterial pathogens and screen the injured Rainbow trout rearing in different trout hatcheries run under fisheries department of the government of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Seven bacterial pathogens such as Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter amnigenus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Serratia odorifera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus cereus were isolated and identified. Results revealed that the injury of fish specimens was due to overcrowding. Instead of rainbow coloration, specimens have darker black in color. The water of ponds was not clean and clear and such conditions was because of the greater quantity of feed thrown in the water. It was concluded that poor hygienic water condition and overloading allowed the opportunistic bacterial contaminations to succeed which cause a serious threat to hatcheries.


Resumo O peixe é a fonte mais indispensável de proteínas para os indivíduos e tem alto valor nutricional. Por outro lado, a cultura dos peixes levantou questões sobre a saúde dos peixes devido ao próximo contato entre o ambiente aquático e os agentes patogênicos desses peixes. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar os patógenos bacterianos e rastrear a criação da truta arco-íris que apresentou lesões em diferentes incubadoras de trutas, com supervisão do departamento de pesca do governo de Azad Jammu e Caxemira, Paquistão. Sete patógenos bacterianos foram isolados e identificados, tais como: Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter amnigenus, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia odorifera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes e Bacillus cereus. Os resultados revelaram que a lesão de espécimes de peixes foi devido à superlotação. Em vez da coloração do arco-íris, os espécimes tiveram uma coloração preta mais escura. A água das lagoas não era limpa e nem clara, e tais condições ocorreram devido a maior quantidade de alimento lançada na água. Concluiu-se que a precária condição higiênica da água e também a sobrecarga permitiram que as contaminações bacterianas oportunistas fossem bem-sucedidas, causando séria ameaça às incubadoras.

7.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 39(10): 1355-1363, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394729

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the widely used chemical as a plasticizer and regarded as endocrine disruptor because of its ability to derail body metabolic functions and adverse effect on the vital organs. The present work outlined the subchronic effect of low-dose BPA (10 mg/kg) on histology of spleen, level of hepatic trace metals, and hepatic protein profile of Wistar rats. To conduct the research work, animals were grouped into two categories (n = 5). Group 1 was labelled as the control group and group 2 was taken as an experimental group. Experimental group was exposed to low-dose BPA for 12 weeks. Histopathology of spleen highlighted dilation in splenic sinuses, follicle activation, followed by depopulation in the area of white pulp and red pulp in the experimental group. Iron staining revealed significant hemosiderosis in the experimental group when compared with the control group. Statistically significant decrease was noted in zinc and copper concentrations, while nonsignificant change was observed for magnesium concentration through atomic absorption spectroscopy. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was run for hepatic protein profiling, and as compared to control, elevated levels of different proteins were observed in the experimental group. It can be concluded from the above results that even low dose of BPA causes changes in the major organs of the body. Hence, it is suggested that BPA alternative should be used, so that public health status can be secured.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia
8.
Braz J Biol ; 80(3): 607-614, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644654

RESUMO

Fish is the most indispensable source of proteins for individuals and have high nutritional value. On the other hand, the fish culturing raised issues of fish health due to close contact between the aquatic environment and the fish pathogens. So, the aim of the current study was to identify the bacterial pathogens and screen the injured Rainbow trout rearing in different trout hatcheries run under fisheries department of the government of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Seven bacterial pathogens such as Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter amnigenus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Serratia odorifera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus cereus were isolated and identified. Results revealed that the injury of fish specimens was due to overcrowding. Instead of rainbow coloration, specimens have darker black in color. The water of ponds was not clean and clear and such conditions was because of the greater quantity of feed thrown in the water. It was concluded that poor hygienic water condition and overloading allowed the opportunistic bacterial contaminations to succeed which cause a serious threat to hatcheries.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Pesqueiros , Incidência , Paquistão , Serratia
9.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 80(3): 607-614, 2020. mapas, ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-28742

RESUMO

Fish is the most indispensable source of proteins for individuals and have high nutritional value. On the other hand, the fish culturing raised issues of fish health due to close contact between the aquatic environment and the fish pathogens. So, the aim of the current study was to identify the bacterial pathogens and screen the injured Rainbow trout rearing in different trout hatcheries run under fisheries department of the government of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Seven bacterial pathogens such as Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter amnigenus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Serratia odorifera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus cereus were isolated and identified. Results revealed that the injury of fish specimens was due to overcrowding. Instead of rainbow coloration, specimens have darker black in color. The water of ponds was not clean and clear and such conditions was because of the greater quantity of feed thrown in the water. It was concluded that poor hygienic water condition and overloading allowed the opportunistic bacterial contaminations to succeed which cause a serious threat to hatcheries.(AU)


O peixe é a fonte mais indispensável de proteínas para os indivíduos e tem alto valor nutricional. Por outro lado, a cultura dos peixes levantou questões sobre a saúde dos peixes devido ao próximo contato entre o ambiente aquático e os agentes patogênicos desses peixes. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar os patógenos bacterianos e rastrear a criação da truta arco-íris que apresentou lesões em diferentes incubadoras de trutas, com supervisão do departamento de pesca do governo de Azad Jammu e Caxemira, Paquistão. Sete patógenos bacterianos foram isolados e identificados, tais como: Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter amnigenus, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia odorifera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes e Bacillus cereus. Os resultados revelaram que a lesão de espécimes de peixes foi devido à superlotação. Em vez da coloração do arco-íris, os espécimes tiveram uma coloração preta mais escura. A água das lagoas não era limpa e nem clara, e tais condições ocorreram devido a maior quantidade de alimento lançada na água. Concluiu-se que a precária condição higiênica da água e também a sobrecarga permitiram que as contaminações bacterianas oportunistas fossem bem-sucedidas, causando séria ameaça às incubadoras.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes/microbiologia , Incubadoras , Shigella flexneri/patogenicidade , Enterobacter/patogenicidade , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Serratia/patogenicidade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Noxas/análise
11.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-743339

RESUMO

Abstract Fish is the most indispensable source of proteins for individuals and have high nutritional value. On the other hand, the fish culturing raised issues of fish health due to close contact between the aquatic environment and the fish pathogens. So, the aim of the current study was to identify the bacterial pathogens and screen the injured Rainbow trout rearing in different trout hatcheries run under fisheries department of the government of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Seven bacterial pathogens such as Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter amnigenus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Serratia odorifera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus cereus were isolated and identified. Results revealed that the injury of fish specimens was due to overcrowding. Instead of rainbow coloration, specimens have darker black in color. The water of ponds was not clean and clear and such conditions was because of the greater quantity of feed thrown in the water. It was concluded that poor hygienic water condition and overloading allowed the opportunistic bacterial contaminations to succeed which cause a serious threat to hatcheries.


Resumo O peixe é a fonte mais indispensável de proteínas para os indivíduos e tem alto valor nutricional. Por outro lado, a cultura dos peixes levantou questões sobre a saúde dos peixes devido ao próximo contato entre o ambiente aquático e os agentes patogênicos desses peixes. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar os patógenos bacterianos e rastrear a criação da truta arco-íris que apresentou lesões em diferentes incubadoras de trutas, com supervisão do departamento de pesca do governo de Azad Jammu e Caxemira, Paquistão. Sete patógenos bacterianos foram isolados e identificados, tais como: Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter amnigenus, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia odorifera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes e Bacillus cereus. Os resultados revelaram que a lesão de espécimes de peixes foi devido à superlotação. Em vez da coloração do arco-íris, os espécimes tiveram uma coloração preta mais escura. A água das lagoas não era limpa e nem clara, e tais condições ocorreram devido a maior quantidade de alimento lançada na água. Concluiu-se que a precária condição higiênica da água e também a sobrecarga permitiram que as contaminações bacterianas oportunistas fossem bem-sucedidas, causando séria ameaça às incubadoras.

12.
J Hosp Infect ; 99(2): 185-187, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309814

RESUMO

Seven years' data were reviewed to examine stool-testing for rotavirus in patents treated in a regional paediatric oncology unit before and after the introduction of UK-wide rotavirus immunization in July 2013. The prevalence of rotavirus positivity has diminished since the introduction of rotavirus immunization, with 21 of 416 positive samples between 2010 and 2012, but only one positive test out of 122 samples in 2015 and 2016. Based on these results, there seems to be little use for routine rotavirus-testing in children and young people with cancer presenting with diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 31(4): 985-989, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254303

RESUMO

Many studies have been carried out in order to determine the toxicity of medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to compare and analyze the hepatic response against two doses of Nerium oleander, (N. oleander) “kaner” leaf decoction. Aqueous leaf decoction was injected intramuscularly into both hind limbs of male rats (200∓10g), assigned into three categories (n=4): control group with no treatment; group I, injected with 5 ml/ kg; and group II injected with 10 ml/ kg of leaf decoction, respectively. Animals were sacrificed 6 h after administration and hepato-histological changes were then observed. The decoction induced an acute phase reaction reflected by a more significant recruitment of inflammatory cells in group II than in group I and controls, as observed by histological studies. These results indicated that both doses can induce an acute-phase condition. Hence, traditional practice of medicinal plants without preliminary dose assessment must not be administered.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nerium/química , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Folhas de Planta/química , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Reação de Fase Aguda/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Ectodisplasinas/imunologia , Ectodisplasinas/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Injeções Intramusculares , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 31(4): 1061-1066, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254315

RESUMO

Transplantation has evolved into an accepted treatment for end-stage organ failure. The major limitation for solid organ transplantation is organ rejection, which is an adaptive immune response caused by the activation of T-cells. Immunosuppressant drugs are used to overcome this problem. Tacrolimus is a powerful immunosuppressive drug which is used to minimize the risk of organ rejection. The present study was designed to find the toxic effects of tacrolimus on lungs and kidneys. Wistar rats were divided into 4 experimental groups and one control group (n=9). Each rat of the experimental group was orally given the aqueous suspension of tacrolimus powder (3mg/ml) and dissected after 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours of tacrolimus suspension dose. Lungs and kidneys were excised and processed for histopathological and histochemical alterations. Kidney tissues presented signs of toxic potential on tissue architecture such as increased interstitial spaces, necrosis, especially acute tubular necrosis, glomerular shrinkage, dilated blood vessels and enlargement of Bowman’s capsule. Lung sections also confirmed the toxic potential, characterized by bronchiolar wall thickening, alveolar cells necrosis, collapsing of alveolar spaces and interstitial round cell infiltrate. Results of Prussian blue iron staining showed no iron deposition in kidney architecture while in lung sections, iron accumulation was evident. Taken together from these observations we can conclude that tacrolimus may induce toxicity to a certain extent with structural distortion of the kidneys and lungs.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tacrolimo/toxicidade , Animais , Ferrocianetos , Histocitoquímica , Rim/patologia , Rim/ultraestrutura , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/ultraestrutura , Microtomia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Inclusão do Tecido
15.
Iran J Vet Res ; 17(4): 268-272, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28224012

RESUMO

Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease causing significant economic losses worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) on tracheal and cloacal virus shedding in AI challenged broilers and contamination of environment with H9N2. A total of 300 1-day-old-broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) and supplemented 0.2, 0.5 and 0.0% MOS, respectively in NRC recommended diet for 36 days. On day 21 the groups were further split into two sub groups A+ve, A-ve, B+ve, B-ve, C+ve and C-ve with 5 replicates each. The positive groups were shifted to remote sheds and were challenged intranasally with 0.1 ml of reference virus (AIV; Pk-UDL/01/08 H9N2) with EID50 = 10-6.66. Treatment reduces (P<0.05) cloacal virus shedding from day 24 to 26 and 28 to 32. Tracheal virus shedding was lower (P<0.05) on days 25-26 and 28-30 in treatment groups. Day 27 showed highest (P>0.05) virus shedding in all groups. However the reduction of viral shedding is faster in treatment groups and showed no virus shedding on day 32. Maternal antibody titer against AI showed a declining pattern but MOS influenced (P<0.05) the titer in treated groups. Hence the use of MOS may constitute a novel and effective plausible alternative that reduces the spread of disease by decreasing virus shedding and contamination of environment from AIV (H9N2) infection in poultry.

16.
East Mediterr Health J ; 20(1): 10-6, 2014 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24932928

RESUMO

This study looked at the comprehensiveness of the primary health care approach being applied in Pakistan's National Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) Programme launched in 2005. The methods included a review of the programme's guideline documents, in-depth interviews with managers/advisors and focus group discussions with community groups and service providers. The MNCH Programme is applying a selective primary care model. Programme advisors and managers were concerned about the quality of training, political interference and incomplete implementation. Service providers were not working together as envisioned. Community midwives complained about the community's perceptions of them. Community members were unaware of MNCH Programme implementation in their areas. Pakistan's primary health care programme needs to be reviewed and revised according current thinking on community participation and inter-sectoral collaboration to accelerate progress towards achievement of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Proteção da Criança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Bem-Estar Materno , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Organizacionais , Objetivos Organizacionais , Paquistão , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
17.
Vaccine ; 31(15): 1987-93, 2013 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23429005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence studies provide important data on performance of immunization programs, susceptible groups and populations at-risk of future outbreaks. Identifying risk factors that affect seroconversion of the oral polio vaccine (OPV) will enable the polio eradication initiatives to increase seroprevalence. This paper describes the first population-based seroprevalence survey in Pakistan. METHODS: This study evaluated the seroprevalence of poliovirus (PV) types 1, 2, and 3 antibodies to OPV in an illustrative sample of 554 subjects 6-11 months of age in three geographic locations of Pakistan (Lahore, Karachi, and Peshawar) representing a low socioeconomic at-risk populations. Antibody titers were measured and sero protection rates and geometric median titers were compared among different geographic regions and populations, as were demographics and OPV vaccination history collected by questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on subject characteristics to assess for potential risk factors for failure to sero-convert. RESULTS: The average seroprevalence of PV1, PV2, and PV3 was 96.0%, 87.9% and 86.7%, respectively. The lowest sero protection rate for all three serotypes was for Karachi with 90.2%, 73.8%, and 78.8% for PV1, PV2, and PV3, respectively. Significant regional variation in PV3 seroprevalence was found (range: 74.2-100%). In the univariate analysis, age, total and campaign OPV doses were associated with higher seroprevalence, whereas stunting, respondent education and diarrhea in the past six months were significant risk factors for failure to sero-convert. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate consistently high levels of antibody response to PV1 and more geographically varied response to PV2 and PV3. Additionally, important risk factors affecting seropositivity were identified.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Programas de Imunização , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/imunologia , Poliovirus/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/imunologia , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/virologia , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Vacina Antipólio Oral/imunologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Rom J Morphol Embryol ; 50(1): 111-4, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19221655

RESUMO

Radial nerve innervation to the brachialis muscle has been studied previously by different authors in Caucasian, Chinese, and Thai population. Present study was aimed to describe the radial nerve and musculocutaneous nerve contribution to the brachialis muscle and to elucidate racial differences between Indian and other populations. Hundred-forty superior extremities of 70 embalmed cadavers including 29 female and 41 male cadavers were dissected to study the innervation of brachialis muscle by musculocutaneous nerve and branch from the radial nerve. All the specimens were studied for site of penetration, level of distribution and nature of course and pathway of the branch of the radial nerve to the brachialis muscle. The musculocutaneous nerve innervated the brachialis muscle in 100% specimens, whereas the radial nerve in 72.14% specimens. The radial nerve branch to brachialis pierced the muscle in the lower one third of the humerus in 65.71% specimens; on the other hand in the middle one third in 34.29% specimens. The radial nerve branch to brachialis in 50.71% specimens had relatively straighter course before penetration into the muscle, whereas in 49.29% specimens the nerve had relatively curved course and pathway. Aforementioned results regarding brachialis innervation by radial nerve in Indian population is different from studies reported in other populations. These anatomical facts are important for humeral surgery including both the anterior and posterior approaches especially for orthopedic interventions on the Indian population.


Assuntos
Plexo Braquial/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Nervo Radial/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Embalsamamento , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Pele/inervação
19.
J Minim Access Surg ; 1(3): 121-8, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21188009

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Minimal access surgery (MAS) in children are common place and performed worldwide with gratifying results as the learning curve of the surgeon attains plateau. We share our experience of this technically evolving modality of surgery, performed at our setup over a period of 5 years. We also review and individually compare the data for commonly performed procedures with other available series. Author also briefly discuss potential advantages of MAS in certain debatable conditions performed quickly and with cosmesis as open procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 677 MAS in children aged between 7 days and 12 years. Five hundred and sixty-eight of these were Laparoscopic procedures and 109 were Video assisted thoracoscopic surgeries (VATS). In all laparoscopic procedures, the primary port placement was by the Hasson's open technique. We have used 5, 3 and 2 mm instruments. Our study include 259 inguinal hernia, 161 Appendectomies, 95 VATS for empyema, 51 orchiopexies, 49 diagnostic laparoscopy, 29 cholecystectomies, 22 adhesionlysis and other uncommonly performed procedures. RESULTS: The ultimate outcome of all the performed procedures showed gratifying trend, the data of which are discussed in detail in the article. CONCLUSION: As we gained experience the operating time showed a decreasing trend, the complication rates and conversion rate also reduced. The advantages we came across were better postoperative appearances, less pain and early return to unrestricted activities.

20.
Health Policy ; 69(1): 117-30, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15484612

RESUMO

An estimated 400,000 infant and 16,500 maternal deaths occur annually in Pakistan. These translate into an infant mortality rate and maternal mortality ratio that should be unacceptable to any state. Disease states including communicable diseases and reproductive health (RH) problems, which are largely preventable account for over 50% of the disease burden. The analysis of Pakistan's maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning (FP) policy covers the period 1990-2002, and focuses on macroeconomic influences, priority programs and gaps, adequacy of resources, equity and organizational aspects, and the process of policy formulation. The overall MCH/FP policy is well directed. MCH/FP has been a priority in all policies; resource allocation, although unacceptably low, has substantially increased during the last decade; and there is a progressive shift from MCH to the reproductive health (RH) agenda. Areas in need of improvement include greater use of evidence as a basis for policy; increased priority to nutrition programs, measures to reduce neonatal and perinatal mortality, provision of emergency obstetric care, availability of skilled birth attendants, and a clear policy on integrated management of childhood illnesses. Enhanced planning capacity, development of a balanced human resource, improved governance to reduce staff absenteeism and frequent transfers, and a greater role of the private sector in the provision of services are some organizational aspects that need the governments' consideration. There are several lessons to be learnt: (i) Ministries of Health need sustained stewardship and well-documented evidence to protect cuts in resource allocation; (ii) frequent policy announcement sends inappropriate signals to managers and weakens on-going implementation; (iii) MCH/FP policies unless informed by evidence and participation of interest groups are unlikely to address gaps in programs; (iv) distributional and equity objectives of MCH/FP be addressed while setting overall national goals; (v) institutional capacity is a vital ingredient in translating MCH/FP policies into effective services. The suggested strategic directions emphasize, among others, the need for a comprehensive MCH/FP framework; strengthened stewardship in ministry of health, cost-effective strategies to address the gaps identified and doubling of the public sector resource allocation to MCH/FP over the next 5 years. The ability to ensure delivery of quality health services remains the biggest challenge in the Pakistani health sector. Unless sound policies are backed by well-functioning programs they are likely to become a victim of poor implementation.


Assuntos
Política de Planejamento Familiar/tendências , Política de Saúde/tendências , Transição Epidemiológica , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Centros de Saúde Materno-Infantil/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Política de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Setor Privado , Setor Público , Alocação de Recursos , Justiça Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA