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1.
Microsc Res Tech ; 87(5): 1009-1019, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38192121

RESUMO

The structure of photoreceptors (PR) and the arrangement of neurons in the retina of red-tail shark were investigated using light and electron microscopy. The PR showed a mosaic arrangement and included double cones, single cones (SC), and single rods. Most cones occur as SC. The ratio between the number of cones and rods was 3:1.39 (±0.29). The rods were tall that reached the pigmented epithelium. The outer plexiform layer (OPL) showed a complex synaptic connection between the horizontal and photoreceptor terminals that were surrounded by Müller cell processes. Electron microscopy showed that the OPL possessed both cone pedicles and rod spherules. Each rod spherule consisted of a single synaptic ribbon within the invaginating terminal endings of the horizontal cell (hc) processes. In contrast, the cone pedicles possessed many synaptic ribbons within their junctional complexes. The inner nuclear layer consisted of bipolar, amacrine, Müller cells, and hc. Müller cells possessed intermediate filaments and cell processes that can reach the outer limiting membrane and form connections with each other by desmosomes. The ganglion cells were large multipolar cells with a spherical nucleus and Nissl' bodies in their cytoplasm. The presence of different types of cones arranged in a mosaic pattern in the retina of this species favors the spatial resolution of visual objects. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: This is the first study demonstrating the structure and arrangement of retinal neurons of red-tail shark using light and electron microscopy. The current study showed the presence of different types of cones arranged in a mosaic pattern that may favor the spatial resolution of visual objects in this species. The bipolar, amacrine, Müller, and horizontal cells could be demonstrated.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Perciformes , Animais , Retina/ultraestrutura , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/ultraestrutura , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/ultraestrutura , Sinapses/ultraestrutura
2.
Toxics ; 11(9)2023 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37755742

RESUMO

The introduction of pollutants, such as thiacloprid and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), into the waters of urbanized coastal and estuarine areas through fossil fuel spills, domestic and industrial waste discharges, atmospheric inputs, and continental runoff poses a major threat to the fauna and flora of the aquatic environment and can have a significant impact on the internal defense system of invertebrates such as mussels. Using monoclonal and polyclonal anti-Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and anti-inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) antibodies for the first time, this work aims to examine hemocytes in the mantle and gills of M. galloprovincialis as biomarkers of thiacloprid and B[a]P pollution and analyze their potential synergistic effect. To pursue this objective, samples were exposed to the pollutants, both individually and simultaneously. Subsequently, oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated by enzymatic analysis, while tissue changes and the number of hemocytes in the different contaminated groups were assessed via histomorphological and immunohistochemical analyses. Our findings revealed that in comparison to a single exposure, the two pollutants together significantly elevated oxidative stress. Moreover, our data may potentially enhance knowledge on how TLR2 and iNOS work as part of the internal defense system of bivalves. This would help in creating new technologies and strategies, such as biosensors, that are more suitable for managing water pollution, and garnering new details on the condition of the marine ecosystem.

3.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 137: 108791, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37146849

RESUMO

The internal defense system of mollusks represents an efficient protection against pathogens and parasites, involving several biological immune processes, such as phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity, and antigenic recognition of self/non-self. Mollusks possess professional, migratory, and circulating cells that play a key role in the defense of the organism, the hemocytes. Several studies have been performed on hemocytes from different mollusks, but, to date, these cells are still scarcely explored. Different hemocyte populations have been found, according to the presence or absence of granules, size, and the species of mollusks studied. Our study aims to deepen the knowledge of the hemocytes of the gastropod Aplysia depilans using morphological techniques and light and confocal microscopy, testing Toll-like receptor 2, inducible nitric oxide synthetase, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 7 subunit. Our results show two hemocyte populations distinguishable by size, and presence/absence of granules in the cytoplasm, strongly positive for the antibodies tested, suggesting for the first time the presence of these receptors on the surface of sea hare hemocytes by immunohistochemistry. These data help in the understanding of the immune system of this gastropod, providing additional data for comprehending the evolution of the defense response in metazoan phylogenesis.


Assuntos
Aplysia , Gastrópodes , Animais , Hemócitos , Moluscos , Fagocitose
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8665, 2023 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37248336

RESUMO

The pseudobranch is a gill-like structure that exhibits great variations in structure and function among fish species, and therefore, it has remained a topic of investigation for a long time. This study was conducted on adult Molly fish (Poecilia sphenops) to investigate the potential functions of their pseudobranch using histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The pseudobranch of Molly fish was of embedded type. It comprised many rows of parallel lamellae that were fused completely throughout their length by a thin connective tissue. These lamellae consisted of a central blood capillary, surrounded by large secretory pseudobranch cells (PSCs). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of PSCs for CD3, CD45, iNOS-2, and NF-κB, confirming their role in immunity. Furthermore, T-lymphocytes-positive CD3, leucocytes-positive CD45, and dendritic cells-positive CD-8 and macrophage- positive APG-5 could be distinguished. Moreover, myogenin and TGF-ß-positive PSCs were identified, in addition to nests of stem cells- positive SOX-9 were detected. Melanocytes, telocytes, and GFAP-positive astrocytes were also demonstrated. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the PSCs were covered by microridges, which may increase the surface area for ionic exchange. In conclusion, pseudobranch is a highly specialized structure that may be involved in immune response, ion transport, acid-base balance, as well as cell proliferation and regeneration.


Assuntos
Poecilia , Animais , Brânquias/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Regeneração
5.
Acta Histochem ; 125(3): 152031, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37075648

RESUMO

The integument acts as a barrier to protect the body from harmful pathogenic infectious agents, parasites, UV rays, trauma, and germs. The integument of invertebrates and vertebrates are structurally different: while invertebrates usually have a simple monolayer epidermis frequently covered by mucus, cuticles, or mineralized structures, vertebrates possess a multilayered epidermis with several specialized cells. This study aims to describe by morphological, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses, the morpho-structural adaptations throughout evolution of the integument of gastropod Aplysia depilans (Gmelin, 1791), ascidian Styela plicata (Lesuer, 1823), myxine hagfish Eptatretus cirrhatus (Forster, 1801) and teleost Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch, 1794) for the first time, with special reference to sensory epidermal cells. Different types of cells could be identified that varied according to the species; including mucous cells, serous glandular cells, clavate cells, club cells, thread cells, and support cells. In all integuments of the specimens analyzed, sensory solitary cells were identified in the epidermis, immunoreactive to serotonin and calbindin. Our study provided an essential comparison of integuments, adding new information about sensory epidermal cells phylogenetic conservation and on the structural changes that invertebrates and vertebrates have undergone during evolution.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Pele , Animais , Filogenia , Epiderme , Vertebrados
6.
Acta Histochem ; 125(3): 152028, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37075649

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential for identifying and detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) produced by a variety of pathogens, including viruses and bacteria. Since TLR2 is the only TLR capable of creating functional heterodimers with more than two other TLR types, it is very important for vertebrate immunity. TLR2 not only broadens the variety of PAMPs that it can recognize but has also the potential to diversify the subsequent signaling cascades. TLR2 is ubiquitous, which is consistent with the wide variety of tasks and functions it serves. Immune cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells have all been found to express TLR2. This review aims to gather currently available information about the preservation of this intriguing immunological molecule in the phylum of vertebrates.


Assuntos
Moléculas com Motivos Associados a Patógenos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like , Animais , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Vertebrados/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata
7.
J Morphol ; 284(5): e21584, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36976835

RESUMO

This work reports on the structural characteristics of the respiratory gas bladder of the osteoglossiform fish Heterotis niloticus. The bladder-vertebrae relationships are also analyzed. A slit-shaped orifice in the mediodorsal pharyngeal wall is surrounded by a muscle sphincter and serves as a glottis-like opening to the gas bladder. The dorsolateral internal surface of the gas bladder is lined by a parenchyma of highly vascularized trabeculae and septa displaying an alveolar-like structure. The trabeculae contain, in addition to vessels, numerous eosinophils probably involved in immune responses. The air spaces are endowed with a thin exchange barrier indicating a good potential for respiratory gas exchange. The ventral wall of the gas bladder is a well-vascularized membrane that exhibits an exchange barrier in the luminal face and an inner structure dominated by the presence of a layer of richly innervated smooth muscle. This is suggestive of an autonomous adjustability of the gas bladder ventral wall. The trunk vertebrae show large transverse processes (parapophyses) and numerous surface openings that lead into intravertebral spaces that become invaded by the bladder parenchyma. Curiously, the caudal vertebrae show a regular teleost morphology with neural and hemal arches, but have similar surface openings and intravertebral pneumatic spaces. The African Arowana hence rivals the freshwater butterfly fish Pantodon in its exceptional role of displaying postcranial skeletal pneumaticity outside of Archosauria. The possible significance of these findings is discussed.


Assuntos
Coluna Vertebral , Bexiga Urinária , Animais , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Osso Esponjoso , Faringe
8.
Zoological Lett ; 9(1): 5, 2023 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36871038

RESUMO

Metazoans have several mechanisms of internal defense for their survival. The internal defense system evolved alongside the organisms. Annelidae have circulating coelomocytes that perform functions comparable to the phagocytic immune cells of vertebrates. Several studies have shown that these cells are involved in phagocytosis, opsonization, and pathogen recognition processes. Like vertebrate macrophages, these circulating cells that permeate organs from the coelomic cavity capture or encapsulate pathogens, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore, they produce a range of bioactive proteins involved in immune response and perform detoxification functions through their lysosomal system. Coelomocytes can also participate in lithic reactions against target cells and the release of antimicrobial peptides. Our study immunohistochemically identify coelomocytes of Lumbricus terrestris scattered in the epidermal and the connective layer below, both in the longitudinal and in the smooth muscle layer, immunoreactive for TLR2, CD14 and α-Tubulin for the first time. TLR2 and CD14 are not fully colocalized with each other, suggesting that these coelomocytes may belong to two distinct families. The expression of these immune molecules on Annelidae coelomocytes confirms their crucial role in the internal defense system of these Oligochaeta protostomes, suggesting a phylogenetic conservation of these receptors. These data could provide further insights into the understanding of the internal defense system of the Annelida and of the complex mechanisms of the immune system in vertebrates.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36768639

RESUMO

Heterotis niloticus is a basal teleost, belonging to the Osteoglossidae family, which is widespread in many parts of Africa. The digestive tract of H. niloticus presents similar characteristics to those of higher vertebrates, exhibiting a gizzard-like stomach and lymphoid aggregates in the intestinal lamina propria. The adaptive immune system of teleost fish is linked with each of their mucosal body surfaces. In fish, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is generally a diffuse immune system that represents an important line of defense against those pathogens inhabiting the external environment that can enter through food. The GALT comprises intraepithelial lymphocytes, which reside in the epithelial layer, and lamina propria leukocytes, which consist of lymphocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, and dendritic-like cells. This study aims to characterize, for the first time, the leukocytes present in the GALT of H. niloticus, by confocal immuno- fluorescence techniques, using specific antibodies: toll-like receptor 2, major histocompatibility complex class II, S100 protein, serotonin, CD4, langerin, and inducible nitric oxide synthetase. Our results show massive aggregates of immune cells in the thickness of the submucosa, arranged in circumscribed oval-shaped structures that are morphologically similar to the isolated lymphoid follicles present in birds and mammals, thus expanding our knowledge about the intestinal immunity shown by this fish.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal , Intestinos , Animais , Imuno-Histoquímica , Peixes , Tecido Linfoide , Mamíferos
10.
Nat Prod Res ; 37(5): 743-749, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707902

RESUMO

The immune system of teleosts offers many ideas to deepen the immune mechanisms and cells in general. The use of zebrafish as an experimental model is increased in recent years, thanks to its genetic and anatomical characteristics. It is known that several natural compounds exert an action on the immune system, boosting it. Spirulina, a non-toxic blue-green alga, has been declared a superfood for its peculiar biological activities. In this study, we test the immunostimulant effect of spirulina on zebrafish liver macrophages by immunohistochemical analysis using optical and confocal microscopy. Our results have shown an increase in the number of macrophages after feeding with spirulina, furthermore, this natural 'superfood' can induce macrophages aggregation. These data not only provide information on the possible effect of this alga as a complementary feed on the immune cells of teleost, but also improve the knowledge of the immune mechanisms of vertebrates.


Assuntos
Spirulina , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Spirulina/química , Fígado , Macrófagos
11.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421366

RESUMO

The immune system of a fish has cellular and molecular defense mechanisms that are substantially retained throughout the evolution of vertebrates. The innate immune system provides biological processes, such as phagocytosis and mechanical barriers, to implement an efficient defensive response after exposure to chemical or biological contaminants, pollutants, and contact with parasites, germs, and pathogens. Club cells (CCs) are widespread in the skin of Ostariophysi. After a predator attack or exposure to toxins and parasites, these cells can produce alarming substances. Given their effectiveness against viruses, parasites, and common skin lesions, recent studies have suggested that CCs are a component of the immune system. This study aims to immunohistochemically characterize the CCs for the first time in the skin of zebrafish, using mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38, Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, Piscidin1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) peptides involved in the function of all types of vertebrate immune cells. According to our analysis, the intermediate layer of the epidermis exhibited rounded, oval, and elongated CCs, with central acidophilic cytoplasm and a spherical basophilic nucleus, that are positive to the antibodies tested. Our results may confirm that CCs could be involved in the immune function, increasing our knowledge of the immune system of teleosts.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430187

RESUMO

The amphibious teleost Giant mudskipper (Periophthalmodon schlosseri, Pallas 1770) inhabit muddy plains and Asian mangrove forests. It spends more than 90% of its life outside of the water, using its skin, gills, and buccal-pharyngeal cavity mucosa to breathe in oxygen from the surrounding air. All vertebrates have been found to have mast cells (MCs), which are part of the innate immune system. These cells are mostly found in the mucous membranes of the organs that come in contact with the outside environment. According to their morphology, MCs have distinctive cytoplasmic granules that are released during the degranulation process. Additionally, these cells have antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that fight a variety of infections. Piscidins, hepcidins, defensins, cathelicidins, and histonic peptides are examples of fish AMPs. Confocal microscopy was used in this study to assess Piscidin1 expression in Giant Mudskipper branchial MCs. Our results demonstrated the presence of MCs in the gills is highly positive for Piscidin1. Additionally, colocalized MCs labeled with TLR2/5-HT and Piscidin1/5-HT supported our data. The expression of Piscidin1 in giant mudskipper MCs highlights the involvement of this peptide in the orchestration of teleost immunity, advancing the knowledge of the defense system of this fish.


Assuntos
Brânquias , Perciformes , Animais , Brânquias/metabolismo , Mastócitos , Serotonina/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo
13.
Acta Histochem ; 124(7): 151954, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174310

RESUMO

We have conducted a morphological and immunohistochemical study of the gills of juvenile specimens of the obligate air-breathing fish Heterotis niloticus. The study has been performed under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The gills showed a reduced respiratory surface area by development of an interlamellar cellular mass (ILCM). The ILCM persisted without changes under both normoxia and hypoxia. Neuroepithelial cells (NECs), the major oxygen and hypoxia sensing cell type, were located in the distal end of the gill filaments and along the ILCM edges. These cells expressed 5HT, the neuronal isoform of the nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Furthermore, NECs appeared associated with nitrergic nerve fibres. The O2 levels did not modify the location, number or the immunohistochemical characteristics of NECs. Pavement cells covering the ILCM were also positive to nNOS and VAChT. The mechanisms of O2 sensing in the gills of Heterotis appears to involve several cell populations, the release of multiple neurotransmitters and a diversity of excitatory, inhibitory and modulatory mechanisms.


Assuntos
Peixes , Brânquias , Animais , Biomarcadores , Peixes/metabolismo , Brânquias/fisiologia , Hipóxia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Acetilcolina
14.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(7)2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101424

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that regulate the beginning of adaptive immune responses. The mechanisms of tolerance to antigens moving through the digestive tract are known to be regulated by intestinal DCs. Agnatha and Gnathostoma are descendants of a common ancestor. The Ostracoderms gave rise to Cyclostomes, whereas the Placoderms gave rise to Chondrichthyes. Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii are two evolutionary lines of bony fishes. Brachiopterygii and Neopterygii descend from the Actinopterygii. From Neopterygii, Holostei and Teleostei evolved. Using immunohistochemistry with TLR-2, Langerin/CD207, and MHC II, this study aimed to characterize intestinal DCs, from myxines to teleosts. The findings reveal that DCs are positive for the antibodies tested, highlighting the presence of DCs and DC-like cells phylogenetically from myxines, for the first time, to teleosts. These findings may aid in improving the level of knowledge about the immune system's evolution and these sentinel cells, which are crucial to the body's defense.

15.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(9)2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138844

RESUMO

The fish intestine operates as a complicated interface between the organism and the environment, providing biological and mechanical protections as a result of a viscous layer of mucus released by goblet cells, which serves as a barrier against bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, and contributes to the functions of the immune system. Therefore, goblet cells have a role in preserving the health of the body by secreting mucus and acting as sentinels. The ancient jawless fish broadgilled hagfish (Eptatretus cirrhatus, Forster, 1801) has a very basic digestive system because it lacks a stomach. By examining the presence, localization, and co-localization of 5-HT, TLR2, iNOS, and Piscidin1, this study intends to provide insight into the potential immune system contributions arranged by the gut goblet cells of broadgilled hagfish. Our results characterize intestinal goblet cells of broadgilled hagfish, for the first time, with the former antibodies, suggesting the hypothesis of conservation of the roles played by these cells also in primitive vertebrates. Moreover, this study deepens the knowledge about the still little-known immune system of hagfish.

16.
Hum Immunol ; 83(11): 755-767, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963787

RESUMO

In December 2019, a new single-stranded RNA coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, appeared in China and quickly spread around the world leading to a pandemic. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 generates symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to severe, occasionally requiring hospitalization in intensive care units, and, in more severe cases, leading to death. Scientists and researchers around the world have made a real race against time to develop various vaccines to slow down and stop the spread of the virus. In addition to conventional viral vector vaccines, new generation mRNA vaccines, BNT152b2 (Comirnaty) and mRNA-1273 (Spikevax), have been developed respectively by Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna. These vaccines act on immune cells to induce an immune response with the production of specific antibodies against Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, and to stimulate the differentiation of T and B memory cells. The objective of this review is to provide a detailed picture of the validity of these new vaccines and the safety of vaccination. Not only was the immunogenic effect of mRNA vaccines evaluated, but also the psychosocial impact they had on the population. The data collected show that this type of vaccine can also be an excellent candidate for future treatment and eradication of possible new pathologies with viral and non-viral etiology.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacinação , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Vacinação/psicologia
17.
Nutrients ; 14(12)2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35745263

RESUMO

The immune system is highly dynamic and susceptible to many alterations throughout pregnancy. Since December 2019, a pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has swept the globe. To contain the spread of COVID-19, immediate measures such as quarantine and isolation were implemented. These containment measures have contributed to exacerbate situations of anxiety and stress, especially in pregnant women, who are already particularly anxious about their condition. Alterations in the psychological state of pregnant women are related to alterations in the immune system, which is more vulnerable under stress. COVID-19 could therefore find fertile soil in these individuals and risk more severe forms. Normally a controlled dietary regimen is followed during pregnancy, but the use of particular vitamins and micronutrients can help counteract depressive-anxiety states and stress, can improve the immune system, and provide an additional weapon in the defense against COVID-19 to bring the pregnancy to fruition. This review aims to gather data on the impact of COVID-19 on the immune system and psychological condition of pregnant women and to assess whether some micronutrients can improve their psychophysical symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Micronutrientes , Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
Toxics ; 10(5)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622632

RESUMO

Industrialization has resulted in a massive increase in garbage output, which is frequently discharged or stored in waterways like rivers and seas. Due to their toxicity, durability, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification, heavy metals (such as mercury, cadmium, and lead) have been identified as strong biological poisons. Their presence in the aquatic environment has the potential to affect water quality parameters and aquatic life in general. Teleosts' histopathology provides a sensitive indicator of pollutant-induced stress, because their organs have a central role in the transformation of different active chemical compounds in the aquatic environment. In particular, the gills, kidneys, and liver are placed at the center of toxicological studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the morphological changes caused by heavy metals in the kidney and gills of Boops boops, with a focus on melanomacrophages centers (MMCs) and rodlet cells (RCs) as environmental biomarkers, using histological and histochemical stainings (hematoxylin/eosin, Van Gieson trichrome, Periodic Acid Schiff reaction, and Alcian Blue/PAS 2.5), and immunoperoxidase methods. Our findings show an increase of MMCs and RCs linked to higher exposure to heavy metals, confirming the role of these aggregates and cells as reliable biomarkers of potential aquatic environmental changes reflected in fish fauna. The cytological study of RCs and MMCs could be important in gaining a better understanding of the complicated immune systems of teleosts.

19.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(7): 2651-2658, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394101

RESUMO

The endostyle is the first component of the ascidian digestive tract, it is shaped like a through and is located in the pharynx's ventral wall. This organ is divided longitudinally into nine zones that are parallel to each other. Each zone's cells are physically and functionally distinct. Support elements are found in zones 1, 3, and 5, while mucoproteins secreting elements related to the filtering function are found in zones 2, 4, and 6. Zones 7, 8, and 9, which are located in the lateral dorsal section of the endostyle, include cells with high iodine and peroxidase concentrations. Immunohistochemical technique using the following antibodies, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and lectin histochemistry (WGA-wheat-germagglutinin), were used in this investigation to define immune cells in the endostyle of Styela plicata (Lesueur, 1823). Our results demonstrate the presence of immune cells in the endostyle of S. plicata, highlighting that innate immune mechanisms are highly conserved in the phylogeny of the chordates. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Immune cells positive to TLR-2 and VIP in the endostyle of Styela plicata. Expression of WGA in several zones of endostyle. Use of comparative biology to improve the knowledge about immunology in ascidians.


Assuntos
Urocordados , Animais , Filogenia , Receptor 2 Toll-Like , Urocordados/metabolismo , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/metabolismo
20.
Biomedicines ; 10(4)2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35453516

RESUMO

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation considered to be a major entity of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), affecting different segments of the whole gastrointestinal tract. Peripheral serotonin (5-HT), a bioactive amine predominantly produced by gut enterochromaffin cells (ECs), is crucial in gastrointestinal functions, including motility, sensitivity, secretion, and the inflammatory response. These actions are mediated by a large family of serotonin receptors and specialized serotonin transporter (SERT) located on a variety of cell types in the gut. Several studies indicate that intestinal 5-HT signaling is altered in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Paraformaldehyde-fixed intestinal tissues, obtained from fifteen patients with Crohn's disease were analyzed by immunostaining for serotonin, Langerin/CD207, and alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA). As controls, unaffected (normal) intestinal specimens of seven individuals were investigated. This study aimed to show the expression of serotonin in dendritic cells (DCs) and myofibroblast which have been characterized with Langerin/CD207 and α-SMA, respectively; furthermore, for the first time, we have found the presence of serotonin in goblet cells. Our results show the correlation between different types of intestinal cells in the maintenance of the inflammatory state in CD linked to the recall of myofibroblasts.

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