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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248420, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339367

RESUMO

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Resumo Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339410

RESUMO

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688885

RESUMO

The present study investigates the effects of Supplementary diet Hygrophila auriculata on the growth, survival, biochemical and haematological parameters of Cirrhinus mrigala. The seaweed was administered to the fish possessing an initial average weight of 14.063 ± 1.828 g. Fish were fed with supplementary diet H. auriculata exhibited significant difference (P < 0.05) in the growth performance, haematological indices such as RBC count, haematocrit volume, haemoglobin, WBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC concentration in contrast to the control after a period of 8 weeks. Also, there were significant differences in biochemical parameters (P < 0.05), between the fish supplemented with dietary H. auriculata extract and the control group. These findings suggest that the administration of H. auriculata extract has a positive effect on the immunological indices and the immune system activity in Mrigal fish.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245261, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249221

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.


Resumo O presente estudo foi planejado para determinar variações nos parâmetros externos e internos de qualidade dos ovos de diferentes espécies de aves, incluindo avestruz Struthio camelus, patos Anas platyrhynchos, frango Gallus gallus, perus Meleagris gallopavo e francolin cinza Francolinus pondicerinus. Todas as aves foram mantidas em condições de criação semelhantes. Um total de 150 ovos foi coletado para cada espécie para registrar as características externas desses ovos. Variações estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05) foram registradas no peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo e largura do ovo entre os ovos de avestruz, patos, galinha, peru e codorna. Significativamente (p < 0,05) maior peso do ovo, comprimento e largura do ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto o mesmo foi menor para ovos de francolina cinza. Da mesma forma, significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores valores de índice de forma e volume de ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto os menores valores de índice de forma foram registrados para ovos de peru e o volume de ovo foi menor para francolina cinza. Significativamente, maiores (p < 0,05) valores de densidade de ovos foram observados para ovos de codorna e os mesmos foram menores para ovos de avestruz. Variações não significativas nos valores de densidade de ovos foram observadas entre os ovos de pato, frango, peru e francolina cinza. Concluiu-se que as correlações positivas entre as características internas e externas de qualidade do ovo indicaram que as características podem ser melhoradas por meio da seleção.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245124, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278473

RESUMO

Abstract The present study reports on seasonal and spatial variations in diversity, distribution and abundance of dinoflegellates and indicates the presence of HAB species in Pakistan waters. A total of 179 taxa, recorded in this study from offshore and near-shore waters, belong to 41 genera in 26 families and 10 orders. The high species count (149 species) was recorded from Manora Island offshore station (MI-1) and 105 spp, 109 spp and 115 spp were encountered from the Mubarak village offshore station (MV-1), Manora near shore station (MI-2) and Mubarak Village near-shore station (MV-2) respectively. Tripos furca was the dominant and frequently occurring species (> 1 x103 to > 25 x103 cells L-1 from coastal and >1x 105 cells L-l from near-shore stations) in addition to less abundant Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium sp., Alexandrium minutum, and Prorocentrum micans (>103 to 25x 103cells/L). Another 44 species occurred in relatively low numbers (<103 cell L-l). Seventy species were found throughout the study period at all four stations. High number of species in three genera (Tripos (38), Protoperidinium (34) and Prorocentrum (20) was recorded. Potently toxic (16 genera 43 species) and HAB related (19 genera and 30 species) dinoflagellate taxa were also recorded. The percent contribution of dinoflagellates in total phytoplankton population generally remained below 20% except for a few instances. Manora Island stations had comparatively higher Shannon index and equitability and slightly lower dominance index. The PCA plot showed strong positive correlation among chlorophyll-a concentration, dissolved oxygen, total number of phytoplankton and dinoflagellates.


Resumo O presente estudo relata variações sazonais e espaciais na diversidade, na distribuição e na abundância de dinoflegelados e indica a presença de espécies de HAB nas águas do Paquistão. Um total de 179 táxons, registrados nesse estudo de águas offshore e próximas à costa, pertence a 41 gêneros em 26 famílias e 10 ordens. A alta contagem de espécies (149 espécies) foi registrada na estação offshore da Ilha de Manora (MI-1) e 105 spp., 109 spp. e 115 spp. foram encontrados na estação offshore da vila de Mubarak (MV-1), Manora perto da estação costeira (MI- 2) e estação próxima à costa da Vila de Mubarak (MV-2), respectivamente. Tripos furca foi a espécie dominante e de ocorrência frequente (> 1 x103 a > 25 x103 células L-1 da costa e > 1x 105 células Ll de estações próximas à costa), além de Alexandrium catenella menos abundante, Alexandrium sp., Alexandrium minutum e Prorocentrum micans (> 103 a 25x 103 células/L). Outras 44 espécies ocorreram em números relativamente baixos (< 103 células L-1). Setenta espécies foram encontradas durante o período de estudo em todas as quatro estações. Foi registrado um alto número de espécies em três gêneros (Tripos (38), Protoperidinium (34) e Prorocentrum (20). Potencialmente tóxicos (16 gêneros e 43 espécies) e HAB relacionados (19 gêneros e 30 espécies), táxons de dinoflagelados também foram registrados. A contribuição percentual de dinoflagelados na população fitoplanctônica total geralmente permaneceu abaixo de 20%, exceto em alguns casos. As estações da Ilha de Manora tinham índice de Shannon comparativamente mais alto e equitabilidade e índice de dominância ligeiramente mais baixos. O gráfico de PCA mostrou forte correlação positiva entre concentração de clorofila-a e oxigênio dissolvido, número total de fitoplânctons e dinoflagelados.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240199, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278495

RESUMO

Abstract One of the most important traits that plant breeders aim to improve is grain yield which is a highly quantitative trait controlled by various agro-morphological traits. Twelve morphological traits such as Germination Percentage, Days to Spike Emergence, Plant Height, Spike Length, Awn Length, Tillers/Plant, Leaf Angle, Seeds/Spike, Plant Thickness, 1000-Grain Weight, Harvest Index and Days to Maturity have been considered as independent factors. Correlation, regression, and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to identify the different durum wheat traits, which significantly contribute to the yield. The necessary assumptions required for applying regression modeling have been tested and all the assumptions are satisfied by the observed data. The outliers are detected in the observations of fixed traits and Grain Yield. Some observations are detected as outliers but the outlying observations did not show any influence on the regression fit. For selecting a parsimonious regression model for durum wheat, best subset regression, and stepwise regression techniques have been applied. The best subset regression analysis revealed that Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike have a marked increasing effect whereas Plant thickness has a negative effect on durum wheat yield. While stepwise regression analysis identified that the traits, Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike significantly contribute to increasing the durum wheat yield. The simple correlation coefficient specified the significant positive correlation of Grain Yield with Germination Percentage, Number of Tillers/Plant, Seeds/Spike, and Harvest Index. These results of correlation analysis directed the importance of morphological characters and their significant positive impact on Grain Yield. The results of PCA showed that most variation (70%) among data set can be explained by the first five components. It also identified that Seeds/Spike; 1000-Grain Weight and Harvest Index have a higher influence in contributing to the durum wheat yield. Based on the results it is recommended that these important parameters might be considered and focused in future durum wheat breeding programs to develop high yield varieties.


Resumo Uma das características mais importantes que os produtores de plantas visam melhorar é o rendimento de grãos, que é uma particularidade altamente quantitativa e controlada por várias características agromorfológicas. Foram considerados 12 traços morfológicos como fatores independentes, como Porcentagem de Germinação, Dias para Emergência da Espiga, Altura da Planta, Comprimento da Espiga, Comprimento da Aresta, Perfilhos /Planta, Ângulo da Folha, Sementes /Espiga, Espessura da Planta, Peso de 1000 Grãos, Índice de Colheita e Dias até a Maturidade,. A correlação, regressão e análise de componentes principais (em inglês Principal Component Analysis (PCA)) são usadas para identificar as diferentes características do trigo duro, que contribuem significativamente para o rendimento. As suposições necessárias exigidas para a aplicação da modelagem de regressão foram testadas e todas as suposições são adequadas de acordo com os dados observados. Os outliers são detectados nas observações de características fixas e rendimento de grãos. Algumas observações são detectadas como outliers, mas as observações outliers não mostraram qualquer influência no ajuste da regressão. Para selecionar um modelo de regressão parcimonioso para o trigo duro, foram aplicadas tanto a melhor regressão de subconjunto quanto as técnicas de regressão stepwise. A melhor análise de regressão de subconjunto revelou que a porcentagem de germinação, perfilhos /planta e sementes /espiga tem um efeito de aumento acentuado, enquanto a espessura da planta tem um efeito negativo sobre o rendimento do trigo duro. Enquanto a análise de regressão passo a passo identificou que as características, porcentagem de germinação, perfilhos/planta e sementes /espiga contribuem significativamente para aumentar a produtividade do trigo duro. O coeficiente de correlação simples especificou a correlação positiva significativa do rendimento de grãos com a porcentagem de germinação, número de perfilhos/planta, sementes / espiga e índice de colheita. Esses resultados da análise de correlação direcionaram a importância dos caracteres morfológicos e seu impacto positivo e significativo no rendimento de grãos. Os resultados da PCA mostraram que a maior parte da variação (70%) entre o conjunto de dados pôde ser explicada pelos cinco primeiros componentes. Também identificou que Sementes / Espiga, Peso de 1000 Grãos e Índice de Colheita têm uma maior influência na contribuição para o rendimento do trigo duro. Com base nos resultados, recomenda-se que esses importantes parâmetros possam ser considerados e focados em futuros programas de melhoramento de trigo duro para desenvolver variedades de alto rendimento.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241110, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278500

RESUMO

Abstract Plasmodium vivax is the most common human malaria parasite in Asian countries including Pakistan. Present study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax genotypes based on Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3βgenes using allelic specific nested PCR and RFLP assays markers from field isolates in district Mardan, Pakistan. Blood samples of 200 P. vivax malarial patients were collected after taking their written informed consent. Genetic diversity in nested PCR products was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) utilizing Alu1 and PstI restriction enzymes for alpha and beta gene products digestion, respectively. For analysis the genetic diversity of the sub allelic variants of Pvmsp3α and Pvmsp3β genes, Chi-Square test was performed by utilizing Minitab programming software 18. The P value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. For Pvmsp-3α genes after gel electrophoresis of digested products, four distinct genotypes were obtained from total of 50 samples; type A: 35 (70%) (1.5-2.0 kb), 12 of type B (24%) (1.5-1.7 kb), 2 of type C (4%) (0.5-1.5) and one for type D (2%) (0.5-0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 9 allelic pattern (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), in which A3 remained the most predominant. For Pvmsp-3βgenes, three distinct genotypes were obtained from 50 samples; 40(80%) of type A (1.5-2.5 kb), 9 (18%) of type B (1.0-1.5kb) and 1(2%) of type C (0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 6 allelic patterns (A1-A3, B1-B2, and C1). Most dominant one in Type A was A1 alleles which were noted (46%), while in Type B, the most dominant were B1 (10%).This study is the first ever report of molecular epidemiology and genetic variation in Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β genes of P. vivax isolates by using PCR/RFLP from District Mardan and showed a remarkable level of genetic diversity in the studied genes of circulating parasites in the study area. The results of this study will contribute in future studies about the genetic structure of parasite and vaccine development against the malaria.


Resumo O Plasmodium vivax é o parasita da malária humana mais comum nos países asiáticos, incluindo o Paquistão. O presente estudo foi desenhado para explorar a diversidade genética de genótipos de Plasmodium vivax baseados nos genes Pvmsp-3α e Pvmsp-3β, usando marcadores de ensaios alélicos nested PCR e RFLP de isolados de campo no distrito de Mardan, Paquistão. Amostras de sangue de 200 pacientes com malária por P. vivax foram coletadas após assinatura do termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido. A diversidade genética em produtos de PCR nested foi determinada por polimorfismo de fragmento de restrição (RFLP) utilizando as enzimas de restrição Alu1 e PstI para a digestão dos produtos dos genes alfa e beta, respectivamente. Para análise da diversidade genética das variantes subalélicas dos genes Pvmsp3α e Pvmsp3β, o teste Qui-quadrado foi realizado utilizando o software de programação Minitab 18. O valor P = 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Para os genes Pvmsp-3α, após eletroforese em gel de produtos digeridos, quatro genótipos distintos foram obtidos de um total de 50 amostras; tipo A: 35 (70%) (1,5-2,0 kb), 12 do tipo B (24%) (1,5-1,7 kb), 2 do tipo C (4%) (0,5-1,5) e um para o tipo D (2%) (0,5-0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em nove padrões alélicos (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), em que A3 permaneceu como o mais predominante. Para Pvmsp-3βgenes, três genótipos distintos foram obtidos a partir de 50 amostras; 40 (80%) do tipo A (1,5-2,5 kb), 9 (18%) do tipo B (1,0-1,5 kb) e 1 (2%) do tipo C (0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em seis padrões alélicos (A1-A3, B1-B2 e C1). Os mais dominantes no tipo A foram o alelo A1, observados em 46%, enquanto, no tipo B, os mais dominantes foram B1 (10%). Este estudo é o primeiro relato de epidemiologia molecular e variação genética em Pvmsp-3α. Os genes Pvmsp-3β de isolados de P. vivax utilizando PCR/RFLP do Distrito Mardan mostraram um nível notável de diversidade genética nos genes estudados de parasitas circulantes na área de estudo. Os resultados desse estudo contribuirão em estudos futuros sobre a estrutura genética do parasita e o desenvolvimento de vacinas contra a malária.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243283, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278505

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Infectious agents cause serious diseases in humans worldwide and are responsible for the high rate of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of infectious disease (HCV) in the hospital visited patients referred by the physicians through the initial findings and their associated risk factors were studied in Swat. The data of 174 infected patients were collected during the period of 2015 to 2017 from two clinical laboratories of Tehsil Matta Swat. Inform consent form was taken before blood collection. After taking informed consent blood samples were collected and ICT test was performed and then ICT positive cases were conform through PCR. A total of 174 ICT positive samples [106 male and 68 females] were included in this study. Age was considered from 10 to 72 years. Of the 174 ICT strip positive, 99 [63 males, 36 females] were confirmed through PCR. The prevalence rate was recorded 56.89%. I.V/I.M injection was recorded in 100% of the individuals. Visits to the barber shop was reported in (58%) of the individuals, married individuals were (81.0), surgical operation was reported in (44.8%), sharing toothbrush was observed in (29.9%), piercing was reported in (39.7%), family history was reported in (26.4%), dental treatment was observed in (21.8%), jaundice were (13.2%) and tattooing was (1.7%). Blood transfusion, surgical operations, Jaundice, family history and dental treatment were found significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection. It was concluded that proper implementation of precautionary measures should be needed to control the spread of HCV in far near future.


RESUMO Agentes infecciosos causam doenças graves em humanos em todo o mundo, e são responsáveis pelo alto índice de morbimortalidade. A prevalência e a epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas no hospital que atendeu pacientes encaminhados pelos médicos por meio dos achados iniciais e seus fatores de risco associados foram estudadas em Peshawar. Os dados de 174 pacientes infectados foram coletados durante o período de 2015 a 2017 oriundos de dois laboratórios clínicos de Tehsil Matta Swat. O formulário de consentimento informado foi obtido antes da coleta de sangue. Após a obtenção do consentimento informado, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e foi realizado o teste ICT e, em seguida, os casos ICT positivos foram confirmados por PCR. Um total de 174 amostras ICT positivas [106 homens e 68 mulheres] foi incluído neste estudo. A idade considerada foi de 10 a 72 anos. Das 174 tiras de ICT positivas, 99 casos [63 homens, 36 mulheres] foram confirmados por PCR. A taxa de prevalência foi de 56,89%. A injeção IV / IM foi registrada em 100% dos indivíduos. A visita à barbearia foi relatada em (58%) dos indivíduos, os números de casados foram (81,0%), e a operação cirúrgica foi relatada em (44,8%), o compartilhamento de escova de dente foi observado em (29,9%), o piercing foi relatado em (39,7%), antecedentes familiares foram relatados em (26,4%), tratamento odontológico em (21,8%), icterícia (13,2%) e tatuagem em (1,7%). Transfusão de sangue, operações cirúrgicas, icterícia, histórico familiar e tratamento odontológico foram fatores de risco significativos para adquirir infecção por Vírus da Hepatite C (VHC). Concluiu-se que a implementação adequada de medidas de precaução deve ser necessária para controlar a propagação do VHC em um futuro próximo.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242089, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285597

RESUMO

Abstract The study reveals the prevalence of a potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminth species, Hymenolepis diminuta in commensal rodents caught from irrigated and rain-fed areas of Swat, Pakistan. Three hundred and fifty rodents (269 rats and 81 mice) trapped during vegetative, flowering/fruiting and mature/harvesting stages of crops were studied from 2011-2013. Hymenolepisdiminuta eggs were identified on the basis of their shape, size, colour and markings on the surface of the egg shell and three pairs of embryonic hook-lets. Overall prevalence of H. diminuta was 3.14% (n=11/350). The highest prevalence 3.49% (n=5/143) of H. diminuta was noted at harvesting stages of the crops whereas the lowest 2.59% (n=2/77) during vegetative stage. Infection was higher in males 3.25% (n=7/215) than females 2.96% (n=4/135). Adult rodents were highly infected while no sub-adult was found infected. Infection was higher in mice 3.70% (3/81) than rats 2.69% (8/269) while no significance (p=1.0000:0.1250 to 32.00 CI). Rats and mice appears to show the most suitable reservoirs by hosting H. diminuta a zoonotic helminth. The presence of these rodents in all possible habitats can act as a main channel of transferring parasites through various habitats and can pose a hazard to humans in the area.


Resumo O estudo revela a prevalência de uma espécie potencial de helmintos zoonóticos transmitidos por roedores, Hymenolepis diminuta, em roedores comensais capturados em áreas irrigadas e alimentadas pela chuva de Swat, Paquistão. Trezentos e cinquenta roedores (269 ratos e 81 camundongos) presos durante os estágios vegetativo, floração/frutificação e maturidade/colheita das safras foram estudados de 2011-2013. Ovos de Hymenolepisdiminuta foram identificados com base em sua forma, tamanho, cor e marcações na superfície da casca do ovo e três pares de anzóis embrionários. A prevalência geral de H. diminuta foi de 3,14% (n = 11/350). A maior prevalência 3,49% (n = 5/143) de H. diminuta foi observada na fase de colheita das lavouras, enquanto a menor 2,59% (n = 2/77) durante a fase vegetativa. A infecção foi maior nos homens 3,25% (n = 7/215) do que nas mulheres 2,96% (n = 4/135). Roedores adultos foram altamente infectados, enquanto nenhum subadulto foi encontrado infectado. A infecção foi maior em camundongos 3,70% (3/81) do que em ratos 2,69% (8/269), embora sem significância (p = 1,0000: 0,1250 a 32,00 CI). Ratos e camundongos parecem mostrar os reservatórios mais adequados hospedando H. diminuta um helmintos zoonótico. A presença desses roedores em todos os habitats possíveis pode atuar como um canal principal de transferência de parasitas através de vários habitats e pode representar um perigo para os humanos na área.

11.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131945, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426272

RESUMO

Vermicomposting of food waste amended with biochar and cow dung was studied during a 90-day composting period. The improvement of the vermicomposting process by adding three mangrove fungal species as additional amendments were studied. The use of mangrove fungi Acrophialophora jodhpurensis as a bio-catalytic actor during vermicomposting proved to be beneficial in terms of final compost quality (available N, P and K) and the shortening of the composting period. All three fungal species, however, reached the neutral pH at the end of the composting period and appeared to be beneficial. Heavy metal (Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr) concentrations decreased throughout the composting process. Food waste can be treated using vermicomposting with biochar, cow dung and the mangrove fungi A. jodhpurensis. The final vermicomposting product is suitable for agricultural use.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Alimentos , Alimentos Orgânicos , Fungos , Sordariales
12.
Radiography (Lond) ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848136

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Selection of optimal image acquisition protocols in medical imaging remains a grey area, the superimposed use of the Likert scale in radiological image quality evaluations creates an additional challenge for the statistical analysis of image quality data. Using a simulation study, we have trialled a novel approach to analysing radiological image quality Likert scale data. METHODS: A simulation study was undertaken where simulated datasets were generated based on the distribution of Likert scale values according to varying image acquisition protocols from a real dataset. Simulated Likert scale values were pooled in four different ways; the mean, median, mode and the summation of patient Likert scale values of which the total was assigned a categorical Likert scale value. Estimates of bias, MAPE and RMSPE were then calculated for all four pooling approaches to determine which method most accurately represented an expert's opinion. RESULTS: When compared to an expert's opinion, the method of summation and categorisation of Likert scale values was most accurate 49 times out of the 114 (43.0%) tests. The mean 28 times out of 114 (24.6%), the median 23 times out of 114 (20.2%) and the mode 17 times out of 114 (14.9%). CONCLUSION: We conclude that our method of summation and categorisation of Likert scale values is most often the best representation of the simulated data compared to the expert's opinion. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: There is scope to reproduce this simulation study with multiple observers to reflect clinical reality more accurately with the dynamic nature of multiple observers. This also prompts future investigation into other anatomical areas, to see if the same methods produce similar results.

13.
Food Waterborne Parasitol ; 25: e00137, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849415

RESUMO

Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and Echinococcus multilocularis are responsible for serious health and economic implications for humans and animals. This study was designed to conduct a bibliometric analysis of global research on echinococcosis/hydatidosis included in the Web of Science Core Collection databases from 2000 to 2019. A total of 7066 relevant articles between 2000 and 2019 were identified. Most articles were published in 2015 (502 articles), 2017 (492 articles) and 2018 (493 articles), with the Veterinary Parasitology journal publishing the largest number of articles (237). Researchers from Xinjiang Medical University, China authored the most articles (388) in the field. Authors Craig, P.S. and Deplazes, P. were the most active in publishing143 and 126 hydatid cyst research papers, respectively. The most echinococcosis/hydatidosis publications originated from Turkey, China and Iran, with 1210, 708 and 531 articles, respectively. The highest levels of research collaboration were evident between China- England, China-France, England-France, China-Australia, and China-Japan. Also, the top researchers in this field had relatively extensive collaborations with each other. Our bibliometric analysis provides a picture of the scientific research into the echinococcosis/hydatidosis field. Further multi-national collaborative research efforts in this field should show promising progress in the future.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatophytes are group of fungi that cause superficial infections via enzymes that degrade keratin in human skin. Several factors, including climate, gender, age, lifestyle, human migration, cultural habits, and socioeconomic status influence the prevalence of dermatophyte infections. We analyzed the prevalence of dermatophyte isolates in a hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia from 2000 to 2019. METHODS: The data on fungal cultures were obtained from the Laboratory Information System of the Mycology Laboratories at Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, and were used for the analysis. Fungal isolates were examined microscopically for the presence of specialized hyphal structures and conidia. The Vitek® MS microbial identification system (biomerieux) was used if the culture type was not identified microscopically. RESULTS: Among the 10,021 samples analyzed, 3040 (30.33%) were positive for fungi and only 398 (3.97%) were dermatophytes. Microsporum species was the most common dermatophyte accounting for 50.5% (n = 201) followed by trichophyton with 36.9% (n = 147). The most common positive samples were scrapping (251, 63%) and hair (68, 17%). Culture positivity relative to the age groups revealed a cluster of positive dermatophyte species in children < 10 years of age with 215 (54%) of all cases and among 10-19 years of age with 60 (15) of the cases (p < 0.001). Microsporum species were the prevalent dermatophytes in patients < 10 years of age, while Epidermophyton species were the most frequent dermatophyte species in age groups 10-19, 20-29, and 30-39 years. However, Trichophyton species were the most frequent dermatophyte species in individuals 70-79 years. The percentage of Microsporum and Trichophyton species decreased significantly over time (p < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant seasonal variation in relation to Trichophyton species. A comparison between the most frequent species showed that there was no difference in relation to gender, but there was a difference in relation to the specimen type and age group. CONCLUSION: Dermatophytosis was common among children and adolescent with the most common samples were scrapping and hair. There was a significant reduction in Microsporum and Trichophyton species over time.

15.
Saudi Med J ; 42(11): 1186-1194, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the causes, modes, and timing of death in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: This is a retrospective data analysis of patients older than 48 hours and younger than 15 years who died in the PICU over a 5-year period from January 2012 until December 2016 at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: There were 101 deaths out of 2295 admissions, representing average crude mortality rate of 4.4%. Sepsis was the most common cause of death in 31 patients (30.7%), followed by lower respiratory tract infections in 19 (18.8%), and cardiac diseases in 12 (11.9%). Failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation was the most common mode of death in 51 patients (50.5%), followed by withholding life-sustaining treatment in 43 (42.6%), and brain death in 7 (6.9%). Although more deaths occurred during after hours (n=70; 69.3%), there was no significant correlation between mode of death and working hours vs. after hours (p>0.05). Among the cohort, 63 patients (62.4%) had an infection-attributed mortality, of which 43 (68.3%) were bacterial, 14 (22.2%) were viral, and 10 (15.9%) were fungal. CONCLUSION: Infections remain a significant cause of death in the PICU. Further improvement of prevention programs and early therapy of severe infections could lower pediatric mortality. This report highlights the need for enhancing palliative care programs. The low rate of brain death diagnoses warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Morte Encefálica , Criança , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Biomater Sci ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753159

RESUMO

We report on hybrid nanomicelle-polymer inserts for improved delivery of cyclosporine A (CyA) to the surface of the eye. Hybrid inserts containing a nanomicellar formulation were prepared by the solvent casting method; their characteristics, in vitro release of CyA, eye irritation potential, nanomicelle distribution inside the insert, and in vivo pharmacokinetics of the most promising solid formulation (F3) were investigated. Nanomicelles capable of accommodating a therapeutically relevant amount of CyA (57.22 ± 5.90-68.52 ± 1.4 µg) were incorporated into five different polymeric formulations (F1-F5). The developed inserts displayed promising characteristics (size, weight, surface pH, and contact angle) that fulfill ocular tolerability requirements. Considering the technological properties and CyA in vitro release, F3 and F5 were the most promising formulations. SEM analysis suggested the F3 formulation as the potential prototype for CyA ocular delivery. The F3 formulation (CyA: 60.08 ± 2.85 µg) did not induce conjunctival irritation when HET-CAM assay was performed and was hence considered suitable for further study in a rabbit eye. The AUC value for CyA loaded in the F3 insert was about 2-fold greater than that obtained with the Ikervis® used as a control formulation. F3 produced a significant reduction (of about 7-folds) in the rate of CyA elimination from the tear fluid relative to Ikervis® and about 4-fold greater reduction than Nano-CyA (p = 0.0187). The ability of F3 to delay the elimination of the drug from the precorneal area is particularly desirable when treating dry eye syndrome. Furthermore, F3 did not induce ocular discomfort, a typical characteristic of solid ocular inserts, including commercially available ones.

17.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751680

RESUMO

The journal retracts the article, Effects of a Single Dose of Ivermectin on Viral and Clinical Outcomes in Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infected Subjects: A Pilot Clinical Trial in Lebanon [...].

18.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(9): 3185-3191, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760728

RESUMO

Background: This study was aiming to assess factors influencing the contribution of primary healthcare physicians concerning prevention of type 2 diabetes in the Jazan region, south of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess physicians' knowledge about evidence-based guidelines concerning diabetes prevention, their attitude towards lifestyle interventions and their practice concerning screening and provision of lifestyle interventions in their clinics. Interviews were conducted to complete a semi-structured questionnaire. Data analysis involved reviewing open-ended responses of physicians followed by quantitative analysis to assess level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice adherence. Results: A total of 234 physicians from 127 primary healthcare centres (PHCs) in the region were recruited. Knowledge of evidence-based clinical indicators for the prevention of diabetes was limited (mean level of knowledge 3.14/8 [SD: 1.2)]. Recruited physicians did have a positive overall attitude to the influence of lifestyle/behavioural therapy on the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The physicians narrated a variety of factors that might influence the effectiveness of this approach, which were related to the community, the patients and the physicians themselves. Only the association between gender of physicians and their levels of knowledge was statistically significant where odds of greater knowledge were higher among female physicians in comparison to males (odds ratio : 1.8, P value = 0.025). Conclusion: Most of the physicians in our sample were misinformed about the components of lifestyle/behavioural interventions for diabetes prevention, which mandates designing and implementing lifestyle medicine programmes for the PHC physicians in Jazan region.

19.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 4469-4475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754253

RESUMO

Background: Data on the role of aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (AHP) systems in the control of the COVID-19 pandemic are still emerging. This study provides evidence of the environmental shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the hospital environment, and the efficacy of AHP to eliminate it. Methods: A total of 324 environmental sites (224 surfaces and 100 air samples) belonging to 54 patient rooms were contextually collected and tested for genes of SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR assays and Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2. Results: The SARS-CoV-2 viral genome was detected in seven sites (2.5%) of three patients' rooms, including six highly touched surfaces and one air sample. Viral shedding was directly related to the distance from the patient, with 1, 1.9, and 3.5% of samples testing positive at 3, 2, and 1 meter, respectively (P-value=0.02). None of the sites showed the viral genome following application of 6% AHP. Of note, the viral genome was detected at 2 meters of a mildly symptomatic case on a face mask in the absence of aerosol generating procedures. Conclusion: Our data support the possible role of the hospital environment as a source of infection, and the efficacy of AHP to eliminate the virus. Further studies are needed to address the viability of the pathogen in these nosocomial sites and the cost-effectiveness of routine hospital disinfection procedures using AHP for SARS-CoV-2.

20.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18544, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754689

RESUMO

Background Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a vascular emergency with a quite low incidence, but it is associated with disproportionately more severe morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the current trend in the treatment of AMI and to see if endovascular intervention is an effective treatment modality in the selected group of patients. Methods A retrospective review of patients admitted with AMI between 2007 and 2018 was performed. Outcome measures were length of stay (LOS) at hospital and intensive care unit (ICU), and post-treatment mortality. Results A total of 98 patients with AMI were admitted during the study period. Patients undergoing endovascular treatment compared with surgery were younger (62.9 ± 13.7 years vs. 69.5 ± 12.8 years; p = 0.01). Shorter LOS in hospital and ICU was observed for those treated with endovascular approach (6.8 ± 3.4 and 3.25 ± 0.5 days) compared to the surgical group (25 ± 8.6 and 12.8 ± 26.8 days; p < 0.001). Out of 39 patients requiring ICU admission, 48.7% were surgically treated and 10.2% underwent endovascular intervention (p < 0.001). Mortality associated with surgery was 30.6% compared to only 6.6% with endovascular intervention (p < 0.001). Between 2007 and 2012, only one patient underwent endovascular intervention and 20 underwent surgery compared to 14 patients treated with endovascular approach and 16 with surgery between 2013 and 2018. Conclusion In this non-randomized, retrospective case series, patients with endovascular treatment fared clinically better and the intervention was found to be safe and feasible in the selected group of patients. We suggest a preference for this modality where possible. At our hospital, a trend favoring this approach is apparent during the last six years.

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