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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250373, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339376

RESUMO

Abstract Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1μl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Resumo O mel é uma matriz adequada para a avaliação de contaminantes ambientais, incluindo inseticidas organoclorados. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar resíduos de 15 inseticidas organoclorados em amostras de mel de origem unifloral e multifloral de Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de mel (5 g cada) foram extraídas com solventes orgânicos de grau GC e, em seguida, submetidas ao evaporador rotativo até a secura. Os extratos foram então misturados com n-hexano (5 ml) e purificados por cromatografia em coluna. Os extratos purificados (1μl cada) foram processados através de cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de captura de elétrons (GC-ECD) para identificação e quantificação dos inseticidas. Dos 15 inseticidas testados, 46,7% foram detectados enquanto 53,3% não foram detectados nas amostras de mel. O heptacloro foi o inseticida mais prevalente com um nível médio de 0,0018 mg / kg detectado em 80% das amostras, seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,0016 mg / kg detectado em 71,4% das amostras de mel. Amostras de mel da parede de Acacia modesta foram 100% positivos para heptacloro com um nível médio de 0,0048 mg / kg seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,003 mg / kg e frequência de 83,3%. Níveis mínimos dos inseticidas testados foram detectados no mel unifloral de Ziziphus jujuba da usina. Metoxicloro, Endosulfan, Endrin e metabólitos do DDT não foram detectados nas amostras de mel estudadas. Alguns dos inseticidas testados são proibidos no Paquistão, mas ainda são detectados em amostras de mel, indicando seu uso na área de estudo. Os níveis detectados de todos os inseticidas estavam abaixo dos Níveis Máximos de Resíduos (MRLs) e seguros para os consumidores. No entanto, os níveis detectados podem causar mortalidade na fauna de insetos. O uso de inseticidas proibidos é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo declínio das populações de importantes insetos polinizadores, incluindo as abelhas.

2.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 265: 120356, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536896

RESUMO

A selective and sensitive detection of L-cysteine (Cys) is an important tool for various biological studies. Here, Au nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by chemical reduction technique. The probe was developed to detect and quantify Cys in the presence of Cr3+ ions which acts as a cross linker. The citrate capped Au NPs probe was analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry, TEM, EDAX, FTIR, DLS, XPS and zetasize. The zeta potential and effective size of Au NPs were -41.22 mV and 12 nm, respectively. The Cys interaction with Au NPs showed drastic colour variation from red to purple and colourless with rapid response time of 1 min. The limit of detection (LOD) of Au NPs probe was as low as 0.012 nM. The TEM image of Au NPs after Cys interaction verified the aggregation that resulted in colour change. The XPS core level scans of Au 4f showed 0.3 eV red shift when Cyswas interacted. The Au NPs sensor is highly selective for Cys with excellent reproducibility. Acidic pH slightly favored Cys detection. Further, the probe was applied to estimate Cys quantity from milk, urine, blood and environmental augmented samples in the presence of other amino acids . The study suggests that the proposed Au NPs could detect Cys with high accuracy from various biological samples.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Colorimetria , Cisteína , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
3.
Meta Gene ; 31: 100989, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729360

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory viral infection. Dysregulated immune response is an important feature of disease, and cytokines are among the most important mediators of dysregulated immunity. Interleukin-37 (IL-37) is one such cytokine and studies have indicated its role in pathogenesis of COVID-19. However, IL37 gene polymorphisms have not been identified in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, this case-control study (100 patients and 100 controls) was performed to understand the role six single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL37 gene (SNPs: rs3811042, rs3811043, rs2466449, rs3811045, rs3811046 and rs3811047) in susceptibility to COVID-19 among cases with severe disease. These polymorphisms were identified by Sanger DNA sequencing. Results revealed that TG genotype of rs3811046 showed a significantly increased frequency in patients compared to controls (61.0 vs. 38.0%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.45-4.50; probability [p] = 0.002; corrected p [pc] = 0.01). GA genotype of rs3811047 also showed an increased frequency in patients but the pc-value was not significant (39.0 vs. 24.0%; OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.10-3.71; p = 0.033; pc = 0.165). Haplotype analysis revealed a significantly increased frequency of the haplotype G-C-A-T-T-A (in the order: rs3811042, rs3811043, rs2466449, rs3811045, rs3811046 and rs3811047) in COVID-19 patients compared to controls (0.055 vs. 0.006; OR = 10.23; 95% CI = 1.53-68.14; p = 0.003; pc = 0.03). In conclusion, the study indicated that two variants of IL37 gene (rs3811046 and rs3811047) may be associated with susceptibility to COVID-19 among Iraqi population.

4.
J Mol Graph Model ; 110: 108062, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775218

RESUMO

Based on the linear combination of atomic orbital-molecular orbital by the natural bond orbitals (NBO) theory, the attractive donor-acceptor superposition interaction between filled (Lewis-type) and vacant (non-Lewis-type) orbitals provide a general mechanism for quantal energy lowering. This interaction has a direct impact on the quantity of the second-order stabilization energy. Therefore, the valence non-Lewis density (VNLD) index, the electron density of unoccupied valence nonbonding and antibonding orbitals, is introduced as an approach to describe and measure aromaticity. This index is based on the frontier orbital concept. To investigate the validity of the proposed aromaticity index, we selected several test sets of organic and inorganic molecules such as different ring sizes in cyclic and heterocyclic hydrocarbons, and all-metal and semimetal clusters, and compared our findings with previous aromaticity analysis. According to the results, VNLD values are well correlated and anticipated the order of aromaticity with the formerly introduced criteria. Furthermore, VNLD reveals that the rings with π-sextet electrons localized in a ring are more aromatic than the other rings, thus, it is in line with Clar's rule. Our proposed aromaticity index has advantages such as, easy to obtain from NBO analysis, and does not require reference molecules which made it more applicable for realizing the aromaticity order in many organic and inorganic compounds.

5.
Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am ; 30(1): 199-213, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802579

RESUMO

Soft tissue vascular anomalies show a wide heterogeneity of clinical manifestations and imaging features. MR imaging has an important role in the diagnosis and management of vascular lesions of the head and neck. MR angiography is mandatory in cases of arteriovenous and combined malformations to assess the high-flow nature/component of the lesions and plan therapy. Infantile hemangiomas can be differentiated from congenital hemangiomas by clinical course. Reactive vascular tumors have nonspecific features similar to infantile hemangiomas. Locally malignant and malignant vascular tumors have irregular borders, infiltration of different tissue planes, and lower apparent diffusion coefficient values than benign vascular tumors.


Assuntos
Hemangioma , Malformações Vasculares , Cabeça , Hemangioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pescoço , Malformações Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 264: 120253, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391992

RESUMO

Globally, the environmental pollution is one of the major issues causing toxicity towards human and aquatic life. We have developed a facile and innovative sensing approach for detection of sulphide ions (S2-) present in the aqueous media using Ag0 decorated Cr2S3 NPs embedded on PVP matrix (Ag/Cr2S3-PVP). Based on the SPR phenomena, the detection of S2- ions was established. The nanohybrid was characterized using various techniques such as UV-vis spectrophotometer, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction analysis(XRD), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The yellowish colour of Ag/Cr2S3-PVP nanohybrid turned to brown colour in presence of S2- ions. The selectivity and sensitivity of the prepared probe was studied against the other interfering metal ions. In addition, the effect of different concentration of S2- ions in the nanohybrid solution was investigated and the Limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 6.6 nM. The good linearity was found over the range of 10 nM to 100 µM with R2 value of 0.981. The paper strip based probe was developed for rapid onsite monitoring of S2- ions. The proposed method is found to be cost-effective, rapid, and simple. We have validated the practical applicability of the prepared probe for determining the concentration of S2- ions in real water samples.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Sulfetos , Água
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 7711-7726, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848956

RESUMO

Introduction: Protein-derived biogenic syntheses of inorganic nanoparticles have gained immense attention because of their broad spectrum of applications. Proteins offer a reducing environment to enable the synthesis of nanoparticles and encapsulate synthesized nanoparticles and provide them temporal stability in addition to biocompatibility. Methods: In the present study, Benincasa hispida fruit proteins were used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 37 °C over five days of incubation. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, zeta potential, and DLS analyses. Further, these NPs depicted antibacterial and antibiofilm effects. Additionally, the anticancer activities of nanoparticles were also tested against the lung cancer cell line (A549) with respect to the normal cell line (NRK) using MTT assay. Further, the estimation of ROS generation through DCFH-DA staining along with a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential by Mito Tracker Red CMX staining was carried out. Moreover, nuclear degradation in the AgNPs treated cells was cross-checked by DAPI staining. Results: The average size of AgNPs was detected to be 27 ±1 nm by TEM analysis, whereas surface encapsulation by protein was determined by FTIR spectroscopy. These NPs were effective against bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteric, and Staphylococcus epidermis with MICs of 148.12 µg/mL, 165.63 µg/mL, 162.77 µg/mL, and 124.88 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, these nanoparticles inhibit the formation of biofilms of E. coli, S. aureus, S. enteric, and S. epidermis by 71.14%, 73.89%, 66.66%, and 64.81%, respectively. Similarly, these nanoparticles were also found to inhibit (IC50 = 57.11 µM) the lung cancer cell line (A549). At the same time, they were non-toxic against NRK cells up to a concentration of 200 µM. Discussion: We successfully synthesized potentially potent antibacterial, antibiofilm and anticancer biogenic AgNPs.

8.
Mol Pharmacol ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732528

RESUMO

The Evolving view of gut microbiota has shifted towards describing the colonic flora as a dynamic organ in continuous interaction with systemic physiological processes. Alterations of the normal gut bacterial profile, known as dysbiosis, has been linked to a wide array of pathologies. Of particular interest is the cardiovascular-metabolic disease continuum originating from positive energy intake and high fat diets. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for sex hormones in modulating the gut microbiome community. Such a role provides an additional layer of modulation of the early inflammatory changes culminating in negative metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes. In this review, we will shed the light on the role of sex hormones in cardiovascular dysfunction mediated by high fat diet-induced dysbiosis, together with the possible involvement of insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation. Insights into novel therapeutic interventions will be discussed as well. Significance Statement Increasing evidence implicates a role for dysbiosis in the cardiovascular complications of metabolic dysfunction. In this minireview, we summarize the available data on the sex-based differences in gut microbiota alterations associated with dietary patterns leading to metabolic impairment. We propose a role for a differential impact of adipose tissue inflammation across sexes in mediating the cardiovascular detrimental phenotype following diet-induced dysbiosis. Better understanding of this pathway will help introduce early approaches to mitigate cardiovascular deterioration in metabolic disease.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754086

RESUMO

Embryonic cells grow in environments that provide a plethora of physical cues, including mechanical forces that shape the development of the entire embryo. Despite their prevalence, the role of these forces in embryonic development and their integration with chemical signals have been mostly neglected, and scrutiny in modern molecular embryology tilted, instead, towards the dissection of molecular pathways involved in cell fate determination and patterning. It is now possible to investigate how mechanical signals induce downstream genetic regulatory networks to regulate key developmental processes in the embryo. Here, we review the insights into mechanical control of early vertebrate development, including the role of forces in tissue patterning and embryonic axis formation. We also highlight recent in vitro approaches using individual embryonic stem cells and self-organizing multicellular models of human embryos, which have been instrumental in expanding our understanding of how mechanics tune cell fate and cellular rearrangements during human embryonic development.

10.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751268

RESUMO

Germinal centres (GC) are lymphoid structures where vaccine-responding B cells acquire affinity-enhancing somatic hypermutations (SHM), with surviving clones differentiating into memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) 1-4 . Induction of the latter is a hallmark of durable immunity after vaccination 5 . SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination induces a robust GC response in humans 6-8 , but the maturation dynamics of GC B cells and propagation of their progeny throughout the B cell diaspora have not been elucidated. Here we show that anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S)-binding GC B cells were detectable in draining lymph nodes for at least six months in 10 out of 15 individuals who had received two doses of BNT162b2, a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Six months after vaccination, circulating S-binding MBCs were detected in all participants (n=42) and S-specific IgG-secreting BMPCs were detected in 9 out of 11 participants. Using a combined approach of single-cell RNA sequencing of responding blood and lymph node B cells from eight participants and expression of the corresponding monoclonal antibodies, we tracked the evolution of 1540 S-specific B cell clones. SHM accumulated along the B cell differentiation trajectory, with early blood plasmablasts showing the lowest frequencies, followed by MBCs and lymph node plasma cells whose SHM largely overlapped with GC B cells. By three months after vaccination, the frequency of SHM within GC B cells had doubled. Strikingly, S + BMPCs detected six months after vaccination accumulated the highest level of SHM, corresponding with significantly enhanced anti-S polyclonal antibody avidity in blood at that time point. This study documents the induction of affinity-matured BMPCs after two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in humans, providing a foundation for the sustained high efficacy observed with these vaccines.

11.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751680

RESUMO

The journal retracts the article, Effects of a Single Dose of Ivermectin on Viral and Clinical Outcomes in Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infected Subjects: A Pilot Clinical Trial in Lebanon [...].

12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742842

RESUMO

Phosphorylated chitosan (P-CS) was successfully synthesized using a facile experimental setup of hydrothermal method that was applied to the adsorption of anionic Acid Red 88 (AR88) from aqueous media. The adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic model. In contrast, the adsorption isotherm conformed to the Langmuir model, with the maximum adsorption capacity (qm = 230 mg g-1) at 303 K. Both external and intraparticle diffusion strongly influenced the rate of adsorption. The insights from this study reveal that P-CS could be easily prepared and regenerated for reusability applications. The adsorption mechanism and intermolecular interaction between P-CS and AR 88 were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and calculations via Density Functional Theory (DFT). The key modes of adsorption for the P-CS/AR 88 system are driven by electrostatic attractions, H-bonding, and n-π interactions. The findings herein reveal that P-CS is a promising adsorbent for the removal of anionic dyes such as AR88 or similar pollutants from water.

13.
Int Wound J ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761542

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify the epidemiology, aetiology as well as the knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to burn injuries in Palestine. A mixed-method approach was used. A survey was distributed to a total of 1500 households selected by randomised approach. The survey was standardised based on World Health Organisation's guidelines for conducting community surveys on injury. Additionally, there were 12 focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews to collect rich qualitative data. In the West Bank and Gaza, 1.5% of Palestinians had experienced serious burn injuries in the 12 months. The total sample of 1500 yields a margin of error (plus/minus) = 2.5% at a 95% level of confidence and a response distribution (P = 50%) with 3% non-response rate. Of the 1500 households approached, 184 reported a total of 196 burn injuries, with 87.2% occurring inside the home: 69.4% were females and 39.3% were children. The main source of reported cause of burn was heat and flame (36%), electric current (31.6%), hot liquid (28.6%), and chemicals (2.7%). The most common first aid for burns was pouring water (74.7%). People in rural, refugee, and Bedouin settings had the highest incidence of burns. This study provides the burn prevalence rate, explanatory factors that contribute to the frequency of burns in Palestine. Making burn prevention a higher priority within the national policy is crucial.

14.
Atherosclerosis ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endothelial dysfunction is a precursor to atherosclerosis and is implicated in the coexistence between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined whether retinal microvascular dysfunction is present in subjects with renal impairment and predictive of long-term CKD progression in patients with CVD. METHODS: In a single centre prospective observational study, 253 subjects with coronary artery disease and CVD risk factors underwent dynamic retinal vessel analysis. Retinal microvascular dysfunction was quantified by measuring retinal arteriolar and venular dilatation in response to flicker light stimulation. Serial renal function assessment was performed over a median period of 9.3 years using estimated GFR (eGFR). RESULTS: Flicker light-induced retinal arteriolar dilatation (FI-RAD) was attenuated in patients with baseline eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2, compared to those with normal renal function (eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2) (1.0 [0.4-2.1]% vs. 2.0 [0.8-3.6]%; p < 0.01). In patients with normal renal function, subjects with the lowest FI-RAD responses exhibited the greatest annual decline in eGFR. In uni- and multivariable analysis, among subjects with normal renal function, a 1% decrease in FI-RAD was associated with an accelerated decline in eGFR of 0.10 (0.01, 0.15; p = 0.03) and 0.07 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year (0.00, 0.14; p = 0.06), respectively. FI-RAD was not predictive of CKD progression in subjects with baseline eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal arteriolar endothelial dysfunction is present in patients with CVD who have early-stage CKD, and serves as an indicator of long-term CKD progression in those with normal renal function.

15.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 589, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcome studies of nonsurgical root canal treatment (NSRCT) in permanent teeth of children are scarce. This study investigated survival and assessed the variables associated with failure of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) in 6- to 18-year-olds. METHODS: Records of subjects who received NSRCT at age 6-18 years at Boston University between 2007 and 2015 were assessed for the occurrence of untoward events. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to investigate the survival of ETT in the total sample. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. RESULTS: The analysis included 341 patients (424 ETT). Kaplan-Meier survival curves differed according to age at treatment (log-rank P = 0.026), with survival being the lowest among the youngest age group. The estimated 5-year survival probability was 80% for 15- to 18-year-olds, 64.8% for 12- to 14-year-olds and 46.4% for 6- to 11-year-olds. Compared to age at treatment of 15-18 years, age at treatment of 6-11 years (aHR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.02-4.67) and 12-14 years (aHR: 2.02, 95% CI 1.15-3.55) was associated with an increased risk of ETT failure. In the total study sample, the estimated cumulative survival probability was 93.3% at 12 months, 88.0% at 24 months, 76.2% at 36 months, 71.0% at 48 months, and 69.1% at 60 months. CONCLUSIONS: In children, ETT are more likely to survive when NSRCTs are performed at an older age.

16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6768, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799555

RESUMO

Organizing centers secrete morphogens that specify the emergence of germ layers and the establishment of the body's axes during embryogenesis. While traditional experimental embryology tools have been instrumental in dissecting the molecular aspects of organizers in model systems, they are impractical in human in-vitro model systems to dissect the relationships between signaling and fate along embryonic coordinates. To systematically study human embryonic organizer centers, we devised a collection of optogenetic ePiggyBac vectors to express a photoactivatable Cre-loxP recombinase, that allows the systematic induction of organizer structures by shining blue-light on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We used a light stimulus to geometrically confine SHH expression in neuralizing hESCs. This led to the self-organization of mediolateral neural patterns. scRNA-seq analysis established that these structures represent the dorsal-ventral forebrain, at the end of the first month of development. Here, we show that morphogen light-stimulation is a scalable tool that induces self-organizing centers.

17.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(2): 835-841, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795742

RESUMO

Objective: To provide a grading system that accurately reflects the grades of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) severity. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Assiut University Hospital. It included 500 women who answered the Arabic version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) after getting their consent. A gradient of FSD severity was created, classifying FSD into five grades: severe, moderate, mild to moderate, mild, and no FSD. Results: According to our grading system, FSD was detected in 339 women (67.8 %); Mild FSD in 20.4%, mild to moderate in 41.6%, moderate in 15.3%, and severe in 22.7%. Mean scores of desire show a linear trend of reduction from 3.8 in mild to 3.36 in mild to moderate to 2.25 in moderate and markedly reduced to 2.1 in severe grade. This difference was highly statistically significant (p= 0.002). The same was reported in arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains, while in lubrication and pain domains, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: In this study, our grading system was complementary to the FSFI. Moreover, it seems to be more practical and useful in grading the severity of FSD.

18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 824, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792658

RESUMO

Globally, the production of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) increased due to its wide applications including cosmetics, paints etc., and gets accumulated in the environment during their production, use or end-of-life. The toxic effects of the NPs vary with the presence of various surface modification agents. In the current report, toxic effect of bare and capped ZnO NPs with polymeric surface modifying agent including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is studied against adult as well as embryonic zebra fish. The surface capped NPs showed great variation in toxicity levels. It was observed that ZnO-PVA showed highly reduced toxic effects relative to ZnO-PEG and ZnO-PVP. Further, various environmental agents including humic acid can also have an impact on NPs toxicity. ZnO particles showed increased toxic effect in humic acid presence. The uptake of ZnO particles by D. rerio was high in the order of PVP-, PEG- and PVA- followed by bare-ZnO. The current investigation found that ZnO NPs dissolution and uptake are the major factors which cause the toxicity against adult as well as embryonic zebra fishes respectively.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Álcool de Polivinil/toxicidade , Povidona/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
19.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 5(1): 119, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) is a commonly used region-specific patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) that quantify upper extremity function (activity limitation) and symptoms. Current evidence suggests that measurement properties of the adapted versions of the DASH are not sufficiently examined. The Arabic DASH has evidence supporting its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness. On the other hand, the validity of the assumed unidimensionality of the Arabic DASH has not been examined previously. The aim of this study was to examine the structural validity of the Arabic DASH in patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders using Rasch measurement model. METHODS: Patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders were recruited and were asked to complete the Arabic DASH at their initial visit to physical therapy departments. The overall fit of the Arabic DASH to the requirement of the Rasch measurement model was examined using chi-square statistics for item-trait interaction, mean item and person fit residuals. The fit of individual items, thresholds ordering, local dependency, differential item functioning (DIF), and unidimensionality using the t-test approach were also examined. RESULTS: The Arabic DASH did not fit the Rasch measurement model initially (χ2 = 179.04, p < 0.001) with major breach of local item independence and a pattern of high residual correlations among the activity-related items and among the impairment-related items. Combining items into activity-limitation and impairment testlets accommodated the local dependency and led to satisfactory fit of the Arabic DASH to the requirement of the Rasch measurement model (χ2 = 3.99, p = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Rasch measurement model supports the structural validity of the Arabic DASH as a unidimensional measure after the accommodation of local dependency.

20.
Med (N Y) ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812429

RESUMO

Background: Although vaccines effectively prevent COVID-19 in healthy individuals, they appear less immunogenic in individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) or receiving chronic immunosuppression therapy. Methods: Here, we assessed a cohort of 77 CID patients treated as monotherapy with chronic immunosuppressive drugs for antibody responses in serum against historical and variant SARS-CoV-2 viruses after immunization with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Findings: Longitudinal analysis showed the greatest reductions in neutralizing antibodies and Fc effector functions capacity in individuals treated with TNF-α inhibitors (TNFi), and this pattern appeared worse against B.1.617.2 Delta virus. Within five months of vaccination, serum neutralizing titers of all TNFi-treated patients tested fell below the presumed threshold correlate for antibody-mediated protection. However, TNFi-treated patients receiving a third mRNA vaccine dose boosted their serum neutralizing antibody titers by more than 16-fold. Conclusions: Thus, vaccine boosting or administration of long-acting prophylaxis (e.g., monoclonal antibodies) likely will be required to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in this susceptible population. Funding: This study was supported by grants and contracts from NIH (R01 AI157155, R01AI151178, HHSN75N93019C00074, NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Response (CEIRR) contracts HHSN272201400008C and 75N93021C00014, and the Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Centers (CIVIC) contract 75N93019C00051).

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