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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285623

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251958, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339380

RESUMO

Abstract Odonates are important biological control agents for the control of insect pests and insect disease vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan from March to October 2019. A total of 200 specimens of odonates were collected from diverse habitats. The collected specimens of the order Odonata belonged to 5 families, three families of suborder Anisoptera namely Libellulidae, Gomphidae and Aeshnidae while two families of suborder Zygoptera (Chlorocyphidae and Coenagrionidae). The specimens were categorized into 12 genera and 22 species. Libellulidae was the dominant family (n = 138) accounting for 69% of the odonate fauna. Orthetrum was the dominant genus (n = 73) of suborder Anisoptera accounting for 36.5% of the odonate fauna. The least dominant genera were Anax, Paragomphus and Rhyothemis (n = 5 each) accounting each for 2.5% of the odonate fauna. In Zygoptera, the dominant genus was Ceriagrion (12.5%) and the least dominant genus was Ischnura (6%). Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) was the most abundant odonate species in the study area recorded from all surveyed habitats. Shannon Diversity Index (H) was 2.988 and Simpson Diversity Index (D) was 0.95 for the collected odonate fauna. The highest abundance of Odonata was recorded in August, September and May while no odonate species were recorded in January, February, November and December. Lotic water bodies were the most suitable habitats with abundant odonate fauna. Anax immaculifrons (Rambur, 1842) was the largest sized odonate species having a wingspan of 53.2±1.63 mm and body length of 56.3 ± 0.4 mm. The present study shows the status of odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan in diverse habitats and seasonsonal variation throughout the year. Further work is recommended to bridge the gaps in the existing literature.


Resumo Odonatos são importantes agentes de controle biológico para o controle de insetos-praga e vetores de doenças de insetos de importância médica e veterinária. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a fauna de odonatos de Swat, Paquistão, de março a outubro de 2019. Um total de 200 espécimes de odonatos foi coletado em diversos habitats. Os espécimes coletados da ordem Odonata pertenciam a cinco famílias, três famílias da subordem Anisoptera, a saber, Libellulidae, Gomphidae e Aeshnidae, enquanto duas famílias eram da subordem Zygoptera (Chlorocyphidae e Coenagrionidae). Os espécimes foram classificados em 12 gêneros e 22 espécies. Libellulidae foi a família dominante (n = 138), respondendo por 69% da fauna de odonatos. Orthetrum foi o gênero dominante (n = 73) da subordem Anisoptera, responsável por 36,5% da fauna de odonatos. Os gêneros menos dominantes foram Anax, Paragomphus e Rhyothemis (n = 5 cada), representando cada um 2,5% da fauna de odonatos. Em Zygoptera, o gênero dominante foi Ceriagrion (12,5%), e o gênero menos dominante foi Ischnura (6%). Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) foi a espécie de odonato mais abundante na área de estudo, registrada em todos os habitats pesquisados. O Índice de Diversidade de Shannon (H) foi de 2,988, e o Índice de Diversidade de Simpson (D) foi de 0,95 para a fauna de odonatos coletados. A maior abundância de Odonata foi registrada em agosto, setembro e maio, enquanto nenhuma espécie de Odonata foi registrada em janeiro, fevereiro, novembro e dezembro. Corpos d'água lóticos foram os habitats mais adequados, com abundante fauna de odonatos. Anax imaculifrons (Rambur, 1842) foi a espécie de odonato de maior tamanho, com envergadura de 53,2 ± 1,63 mm e comprimento do corpo de 56,3 ± 0,4 mm. O presente estudo mostrou o status da fauna de odonatos de Swat, Paquistão, em diversos habitats e variação sazonal ao longo do ano. Recomenda-se trabalho adicional para preencher as lacunas na literatura existente.

3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2257: 211-233, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432281

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are important regulators in many eukaryotic lineages. Typical miRNAs have a length of about 22nt and are processed from precursors that form a characteristic hairpin structure. Once they appear in a genome, miRNAs are among the best-conserved elements in both animal and plant genomes. Functionally, they play an important role in particular in development. In contrast to protein-coding genes, miRNAs frequently emerge de novo. The genomes of animals and plants harbor hundreds of mutually unrelated families of homologous miRNAs that tend to be persistent throughout evolution. The evolution of their genomic miRNA complement closely correlates with important morphological innovation. In addition, miRNAs have been used as valuable characters in phylogenetic studies. An accurate and comprehensive annotation of miRNAs is required as a basis to understand their impact on phenotypic evolution. Since experimental data on miRNA expression are limited to relatively few species and are subject to unavoidable ascertainment biases, it is inevitable to complement miRNA sequencing by homology based annotation methods. This chapter reviews the state of the art workflows for homology based miRNA annotation, with an emphasis on their limitations and open problems.

4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114588, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480997

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Liver disease is a major cause of illness and death worldwide which accounts for approximately 2 million deaths per year worldwide, 1 million due to complications of cirrhosis and 1 million due to viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. That's why it is seeking the researchers' attention to find out the effective treatment strategies. Phytochemicals from natural resources are the main leads for the development of noble hepatoprotective drugs. The majority of the natural sources whose active compounds are currently employed actually have an ethnomedical use. Ethnopharmacological research is essential for the development of these bioactive compounds. These studies not only provide scientific evidence on medicinal plants utilized for particular therapeutic purposes, but they also ensure cultural heritage preservation. Plenty of experimental studies have been well-documented that the ethnomedicinal plants are of therapeutics' interest for the advanced pharmacological intervention in terms of hepatic disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study summarizes the processes of hepatotoxicity induced by various toxins and explores identified hepatoprotective plants and their phytoconstituents, which can guide the extraction of novel phytochemical constituents from plants to treat liver injury. This review aimed to summarize the hepatoprotective activity of Bangladeshi medicinal plants where the bioactive compounds may be leads for the drug discovery in future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature searches in electronic databases, such as Web of Science, Science Direct, SpringerLink, PubMed, Google Scholar, Semantic Scholar, Scopus, BanglaJOL, and so on, were performed using the keywords 'Bangladesh', 'ethnomedicinal plants', 'Hepatoprotective agents' as for primary searches, and secondary search terms were used as follows, either alone or in combination: traditional medicine, medicinal plants, folk medicine, liver, hepatitis, therapeutic uses, and anti-inflammatory. Besides, several books, including the book entitled "Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses" authored by Abdul Ghani, were carefully considered, which contained pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of many medicinal plants growing and traditionally available in Bangladesh. Among them, the most promising plant species with their latest therapeutic effects against hepatic disorders were deeply considered in this review. RESULTS: The results of this study revealed that in most cases, therapy using plant extracts stabilized altered hepatic biochemical markers induced by hepatotoxins. Initially, we investigated 32 plant species for hepatoprotective activity, however after extensive literature searching; we observed that 20 plants offer good pharmacological evidence of hepatoprotective function. Consequently, most bioactive compounds derived from the herbs including berberine, thymoquinone, andrographolide, ursolic acid, luteolin, naringenin, genistein, quercetin, troxerutin, morin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, chlorogenic acid, emodin, curcumin, resveratrol, capsaicin, ellagic acid, etc. are appeared to be effective against hepatic disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoids, phenolic acids, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, chromenes, capsaicinoids, curcuminoids, and anthraquinones are among the phytoconstituents were appraised to have hepatoprotective activities. All the actions displayed by these ethnomedicinal plants could make them serve as leads in the formulation of drugs with higher efficacy to treat hepatic disorders.

5.
Environ Res ; 203: 111842, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363804

RESUMO

Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite films were prepared using a solution casting technique. The physicochemical characteristics of PVA/NiO/GQDs (PNG) nanocomposite films were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The obtained PNG nanocomposite films showed good mechanical flexibility and improved tensile strength. The influence of nanofiller concentrations on PNG nanocomposite film. The obtained results demonstrate an increase in the activation energy (Ea) up to PNG3 upon increasing the GQDs concentration and thereafter, its decreases. The fundamental interactions of the constituents of PNG nanocomposite film were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). This study on electronic structure reveals that the PVA model indirectly interacts with GQDs through the NiO model. This configuration is favoured in terms of interaction energy (-78 kJ/mol) compared to the one in which PVA interacts directly with the GQDs model.

6.
Environ Res ; 203: 111841, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380049

RESUMO

TiO2, ZnO, and SnO2 metal oxides were synthesized by the sol-gel method and heterojunctions were fabricated by combining TiO2 with either ZnO or SnO2 in a 1:1 ratio using mechanochemical ball milling process. The ball milling process promotes phase transition of TiO2 from anatase to rutile and yields ternary heterojunction of the type TiO2(A)/TiO2(R)/ZnO and TiO2(A)/TiO2(R)/SnO2 (A-anatase and R-rutile). These ternary heterojunctions were characterized by various analytical techniques and its photocatalytic efficiency is evaluated using 4-Chloro Phenol as a model compound under UV and solar light. The enhanced catalytic activity of TiO2(A)/TiO2(R)/ZnO heterojunction is attributed to the formation of Ti3+-Vo defect states which leads to the efficient charge carrier separation. During the ball milling process severe crystal deformation takes place in TiO2 and ZnO lattices by creating crystal lattice distortion which leads to the formation of defects due to valency mismatch between Ti4+ and Zn2+. A mechanistic pathway is proposed for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the ternary heterojunctions.

7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 266: 120449, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628363

RESUMO

The intensive use of antibiotics in livestock practice has a negative impact on human health and increases the antibiotic resistance. In this study feasible data interpretation algorithm along with efficient extraction protocol were combined for selective analysis of three antibiotics in milk samples. Trimethoprim, sulphamethoxazole and oxytetracycline are widely used antibiotics in veterinary pharmaceuticals. The studied antibiotics were efficiently extracted from milk samples with solidification of floating organic droplet in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. This extraction protocol was optimized not only to maximize extraction recoveries but also to approach the lower residue limits specified by European Union. Artificial neural networks succeeded in resolving spectral overlap between the studied drugs. The network architecture was optimized and validated for accurate and precise analysis. The proposed method outweighs the reported chromatographic methods for being simple and inexpensive and compared favorable to official methods.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Líquida , Drogas Veterinárias , Animais , Antibacterianos , Humanos , Leite
8.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762569

RESUMO

Abstract In Northern Tunisia, seasonal streams, called wadi, are characterized by extreme hydrological and thermal conditions. These freshwater systems have very particular features as a result of their strong irregularity of flow due to limited precipitation runoff regime, leading to strong seasonal hydrologic fluctuations. The current study focused on the spatio-temporal distribution of chironomids in 28 sampling sites spread across the Northern Tunisia. By emplying PERMANOVA, the results indicated a significant spatio-temporal variation along various environmental gradients. The main abiotic factors responsible for noted differences in the spatial distribution of chironomids in wadi were the conductivity and temperature, closely followed by altitude, pH, salinity, talweg slope and dissolved oxygen, identified as such by employing distance-based linear models procedure. The Distance-based redundancy analysis ordination showed two main groups: the first clustered the Bizerte sites, which were characterized by high water conductivity, sodium concentration and salinity. The second main group comprised sites from the Tell zone and was characterized by low temperatures, neutral pH, low conductivity and nutrients content. The subfamily TANYPODIINAE (e.g., Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus (Meigen, 1804) and Macropelopia sp.) was the dominant group at Tell zone, whereas species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) and Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) were found only in Tell Wadis. In contrast, chironomid species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804) were specific for Tell Mountain. Cap Bon wadis region was dominated by genus Cladotanytarsus sp. The results of this survey liked the taxonomic composition of chironomid assemblages to the variation of hydromorphological and physic-chemical gradients across the northern Tunisia wadis.


Resumo No norte da Tunísia, riachos sazonais chamados wadi são caracterizados por condições hidrológicas e térmicas extremas. Esses sistemas de água doce têm características muito particulares como resultado de sua forte irregularidade de fluxo devido ao regime de escoamento de precipitação limitado, levando a fortes flutuações hidrológicas sazonais. O estudo atual enfocou a distribuição espaço-temporal dos quironomídeos em 28 locais de amostragem espalhados pelo norte da Tunísia. Ao aplicar PERMANOVA, os resultados indicaram uma variação espaço-temporal significativa ao longo de vários gradientes ambientais. Os principais fatores abióticos responsáveis pelas diferenças observadas na distribuição espacial dos quironomídeos no wadi foram a condutividade e a temperatura, seguidos de perto por altitude, pH, salinidade, declive do talvegue e oxigênio dissolvido, identificados como tais empregando o procedimento de modelos lineares baseados na distância. A ordenação da análise de redundância baseada em distância mostrou dois grupos principais: o primeiro agrupou os sítios Bizerte, que foram caracterizados por alta condutividade da água, concentração de sódio e salinidade. O segundo grupo principal compreendia locais da zona de Tell e era caracterizado por baixas temperaturas, pH neutro, baixa condutividade e conteúdo de nutrientes. A subfamília Tanypodiinae (por exemplo, Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus [Meigen, 1804] e Macropelopia sp.) era o grupo dominante na zona de Tell, enquanto espécies como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) e Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) foram encontradas apenas em Tell Wadis. Em contraste, espécies de quironomídeos, como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804), eram específicas para Tell Mountain. A região de Cap Bon wadis foi dominada pelo gênero Cladotanytarsus sp. Os resultados desta pesquisa gostaram da composição taxonômica das assembleias de quironomídeos com a variação dos gradientes hidromorfológicos e físico-químicos nos wadis do norte da Tunísia.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762568

RESUMO

Abstract The cockle Cerastoderma edule was exposed to four concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 70 g L-1) of carbamazepine (CBZ). This anticonvulsant was found to alter the mussel behavior of by reducing its clearance rate (CR). Analysis of CBZ accumulation in tissues of C. edule was carried out using HPLC-UV after 48 or 96 hours of exposure. In addition, an overproduction of H2O2 by the bivalves was detected following exposure to CBZ but nitrite levels remained unchanged. Moreover, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities showed a significant increase in relation to their contact with CBZ. The activity of the biotransformation enzyme gluthatione-S-transferase did not change during exposure. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicating cellular damage, increased when bivalves were exposed to 20 and 70 g l-1 of carbamazepine for 96 h CBZ. The results also indicate that acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) was inhibited in all CBZ concentrations during the 48 h exposure period. However, during the 96 h exposure period, AChE was only inhibited at the highest concentration. Further studies are needed now for more exploration of the toxicity of CBZ since it could be bioaccumulable throughout the food web and may affect non-target organisms.


Resumo O berbigão Cerastoderma edule foi exposto a quatro concentrações (5, 10, 20 e 70 g L-1) de carbamazepina (CBZ). Este anticonvulsivante alterou o comportamento do mexilhão, reduzindo sua taxa de depuração (CR). A análise do acúmulo de CBZ nos tecidos de C. edule foi realizada por HPLC-UV após 48 ou 96 horas de exposição. Além disso, uma superprodução de H2O2 pelos bivalves foi detectada após a exposição à CBZ, mas os níveis de nitrito permaneceram inalterados. Além disso, as atividades de superóxido dismutase e catalase apresentaram aumento significativo em relação ao contato com CBZ. A atividade da enzima de biotransformação glutationa-S-transferase não se alterou durante a exposição. Os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA), indicando dano celular, aumentaram quando os bivalves foram expostos a 20 e 70 g l-1 de carbamazepina por 96 h CBZ. Os resultados também indicam que a atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) foi inibida em todas as concentrações de CBZ durante o período de exposição de 48 horas. No entanto, durante o período de exposição de 96 horas, a AChE foi inibida apenas na concentração mais alta. Mais estudos são necessários agora para uma maior exploração da toxicidade da CBZ, uma vez que pode ser bioacumulável em toda a cadeia alimentar e pode afetar organismos não alvo.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762567

RESUMO

Abstract The main objective of the current study was to assess the impact of the water taken from the Tunisian Refining Industries Company on meiobenthic nematodes, before and after a series of treatments in decantation basins followed by its discharge in Bizerte bay, Tunisia. The comparison of environmental parameters of the two types of water was clearly indicative of an improvement in the quality of treated waters after a significant reduction in their loads in hydrocarbons. Overall, the water retained a good quality after being treated by Tunisian Refining Industries Company before discharge in the sea. At the end of the experiment, differential responses were observed according to the richness of sediment in organic matter and hydrocarbons. Thus, it was apparent that the nematode assemblage exposed to the treated waters was closer to controls and associated to higher values of abundance, than that under untreated ones. It was also assumed that the species Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 and Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 are sensitive bioindicators of bad environmental statues and of hydrocarbon presence in the environment. On the other hand, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 would rather be classified as a positive bioindicative species of this type of pollutants.


Resumo O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o impacto da água retirada da Tunisian Refining Industries Company sobre os nematoides meiobentônicos, antes e depois de uma série de tratamentos em bacias de decantação seguidos de seu descarte na baía de Bizerte, Tunísia. A comparação dos parâmetros ambientais dos dois tipos de água foi claramente indicativa de uma melhoria na qualidade das águas tratadas após uma redução significativa das suas cargas em hidrocarbonetos. No geral, a água reteve uma boa qualidade após ser tratada pela Tunisian Refining Industries Company antes da descarga no mar. Ao final do experimento, foram observadas respostas diferenciais de acordo com a riqueza de sedimentos em matéria orgânica e hidrocarbonetos. Assim, ficou claro que a assembleia de nematoides exposta às águas tratadas estava mais próxima dos controles e associada a maiores valores de abundância do que nas não tratadas. Também foi assumido que as espécies Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 e Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 são bioindicadores sensíveis de más estátuas ambientais e da presença de hidrocarbonetos no meio ambiente. Por outro lado, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 preferiria ser classificado como uma espécie bioindicativa positiva deste tipo de poluentes.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247102, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278491

RESUMO

Abstract The current investigation was carried out to estimate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Cheatomorpha gracilis (AEC) against High fat Diet (HFD) induced liver damage in mice. The results of the in vitro study showed that AEC have higher antioxidant capacities in the DPPH and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. Indeed, many phenolic compounds (gallic acid, quercetin, naringenin, apigenin, kaempferol and rutin) were identified in the AEC. In the animal studies, during 6 weeks, HFD promoted oxidative stress with a rise level of malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCOs) levels and a significant decrease of the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Interestingly, the treatment with AEC (250 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced the effects of HFD disorders on some plasmatic liver biomarkers (AST, ALT and ALP) in addition to, plasmatic proteins inflammatory biomarkers (α2 and β1 decreases / β2 and γ globulins increases). It can be suggest that supplementation of MECG displays high potential to quench free radicals and attenuates high fat diet promoted liver oxidative stress and related disturbances.


Resumo A presente investigação foi realizada para estimar o efeito protetor do extrato aquoso de Cheatomorpha gracilis (AEC) contra o dano hepático induzido por dieta rica em gordura (HFD) em camundongos. Os resultados do estudo in vitro mostraram que os AEC têm maiores capacidades antioxidantes nos ensaios DPPH e de eliminação de radicais hidroxila. De fato, muitos compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, quercetina, naringenina, apigenina, kaempferol e rutina) foram identificados no AEC. Nos estudos em animais, durante 6 semanas, HFD promoveu estresse oxidativo com aumento do nível de malonaldeído (MDA), níveis de proteína carbonil (PCOs) e diminuição significativa das atividades de enzimas antioxidantes como superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase. Curiosamente, o tratamento com AEC (250 mg / kg de peso corporal) reduziu significativamente os efeitos dos distúrbios de HFD em alguns biomarcadores hepáticos plasmáticos (AST, ALT e ALP), além de biomarcadores inflamatórios de proteínas plasmáticas (reduções α2 e β1 / β2 e γ aumenta as globulinas). Pode-se sugerir que a suplementação de MECG apresenta alto potencial para extinguir os radicais livres e atenua o estresse oxidativo do fígado promovido pela dieta rica em gordura e distúrbios relacionados.

12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 275: 118682, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742412

RESUMO

Layer-by-layer three-dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds (3DENS) were produced using the electrospinning technique. Interest in using biopolymers and application of electrospinning fabrication techniques to construct nanofibers for biomedical application has led to the development of scaffolds composed of PVA, keratin, and chitosan. To date, PVA/keratin blended nanofibers and PVA/chitosan blended nanofibers have been fabricated and studied for biomedical applications. Electrospun scaffolds comprised of keratin and chitosan have not yet been reported in published literature, thus a novel nanofibrous PVA/keratin/chitosan scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning. The resulting 3DENS were characterized using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Physiochemical properties of the polymer solutions such as viscosity (rheology) and conductivity were also investigated. The 3DENS possess a relatively uniform fibrous structure, suitable porosity, swelling properties, and degradation which are affected by the mass ratio of keratin, and chitosan to PVA. These results demonstrate that PVA/keratin/chitosan 3DENS have the potential for biomedical applications.

13.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246116, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249222

RESUMO

Abstract The main objective of the current study was to assess the impact of the water taken from the 'Tunisian Refining Industries Company' on meiobenthic nematodes, before and after a series of treatments in decantation basins followed by its discharge in Bizerte bay, Tunisia. The comparison of environmental parameters of the two types of water was clearly indicative of an improvement in the quality of treated waters after a significant reduction in their loads in hydrocarbons. Overall, the water retained a good quality after being treated by 'Tunisian Refining Industries Company' before discharge in the sea. At the end of the experiment, differential responses were observed according to the richness of sediment in organic matter and hydrocarbons. Thus, it was apparent that the nematode assemblage exposed to the treated waters was closer to controls and associated to higher values of abundance, than that under untreated ones. It was also assumed that the species Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 and Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 are sensitive bioindicators of bad environmental statues and of hydrocarbon presence in the environment. On the other hand, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 would rather be classified as a positive bioindicative species of this type of pollutants.


Resumo O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o impacto da água retirada da "Tunisian Refining Industries Company" sobre os nematoides meiobentônicos, antes e depois de uma série de tratamentos em bacias de decantação seguidos de seu descarte na baía de Bizerte, Tunísia. A comparação dos parâmetros ambientais dos dois tipos de água foi claramente indicativa de uma melhoria na qualidade das águas tratadas após uma redução significativa das suas cargas em hidrocarbonetos. No geral, a água reteve uma boa qualidade após ser tratada pela "Tunisian Refining Industries Company" antes da descarga no mar. Ao final do experimento, foram observadas respostas diferenciais de acordo com a riqueza de sedimentos em matéria orgânica e hidrocarbonetos. Assim, ficou claro que a assembleia de nematoides exposta às águas tratadas estava mais próxima dos controles e associada a maiores valores de abundância do que nas não tratadas. Também foi assumido que as espécies Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 e Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 são bioindicadores sensíveis de más estátuas ambientais e da presença de hidrocarbonetos no meio ambiente. Por outro lado, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 preferiria ser classificado como uma espécie bioindicativa positiva deste tipo de poluentes.

14.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247073, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249224

RESUMO

Abstract In Northern Tunisia, seasonal streams, called wadi, are characterized by extreme hydrological and thermal conditions. These freshwater systems have very particular features as a result of their strong irregularity of flow due to limited precipitation runoff regime, leading to strong seasonal hydrologic fluctuations. The current study focused on the spatio-temporal distribution of chironomids in 28 sampling sites spread across the Northern Tunisia. By emplying PERMANOVA, the results indicated a significant spatio-temporal variation along various environmental gradients. The main abiotic factors responsible for noted differences in the spatial distribution of chironomids in wadi were the conductivity and temperature, closely followed by altitude, pH, salinity, talweg slope and dissolved oxygen, identified as such by employing distance-based linear models' procedure. The Distance-based redundancy analysis ordination showed two main groups: the first clustered the Bizerte sites, which were characterized by high water conductivity, sodium concentration and salinity. The second main group comprised sites from the Tell zone and was characterized by low temperatures, neutral pH, low conductivity and nutrients content. The subfamily TANYPODIINAE (e.g., Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus (Meigen, 1804) and Macropelopia sp.) was the dominant group at Tell zone, whereas species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) and Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) were found only in Tell Wadis. In contrast, chironomid species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804) were specific for Tell Mountain. Cap Bon wadis region was dominated by genus Cladotanytarsus sp. The results of this survey liked the taxonomic composition of chironomid assemblages to the variation of hydromorphological and physic-chemical gradients across the northern Tunisia wadis.


Resumo No norte da Tunísia, riachos sazonais chamados wadi são caracterizados por condições hidrológicas e térmicas extremas. Esses sistemas de água doce têm características muito particulares como resultado de sua forte irregularidade de fluxo devido ao regime de escoamento de precipitação limitado, levando a fortes flutuações hidrológicas sazonais. O estudo atual enfocou a distribuição espaço-temporal dos quironomídeos em 28 locais de amostragem espalhados pelo norte da Tunísia. Ao aplicar PERMANOVA, os resultados indicaram uma variação espaço-temporal significativa ao longo de vários gradientes ambientais. Os principais fatores abióticos responsáveis ​​pelas diferenças observadas na distribuição espacial dos quironomídeos no wadi foram a condutividade e a temperatura, seguidos de perto por altitude, pH, salinidade, declive do talvegue e oxigênio dissolvido, identificados como tais empregando o procedimento de modelos lineares baseados na distância. A ordenação da análise de redundância baseada em distância mostrou dois grupos principais: o primeiro agrupou os sítios Bizerte, que foram caracterizados por alta condutividade da água, concentração de sódio e salinidade. O segundo grupo principal compreendia locais da zona de Tell e era caracterizado por baixas temperaturas, pH neutro, baixa condutividade e conteúdo de nutrientes. A subfamília Tanypodiinae (por exemplo, Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus [Meigen, 1804] e Macropelopia sp.) era o grupo dominante na zona de Tell, enquanto espécies como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) e Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) foram encontradas apenas em Tell Wadis. Em contraste, espécies de quironomídeos, como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804), eram específicas para Tell Mountain. A região de Cap Bon wadis foi dominada pelo gênero Cladotanytarsus sp. Os resultados desta pesquisa gostaram da composição taxonômica das assembleias de quironomídeos com a variação dos gradientes hidromorfológicos e físico-químicos nos wadis do norte da Tunísia.

15.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246316, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249248

RESUMO

Abstract Several endemic species of Blaps occur in Tunisia, and the species Blaps nefrauensis nefrauensis has been reported in Moulares (urban zone in west-central Tunisia), where it lives and reproduces in home gardens and old buildings. The aim of this work is to study the life cycle of the darkling beetle, considering both field and laboratory rearing conditions. As a result, the beetle species has different developmental stages (egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, and adult) that last about 15 months. Each year during the same period, adults emerge (early summer) and expire (late autumn), larvae hatch (late summer) and pupate (early summer). There is only one generation per year. Females began laying eggs in late July. The eggs were ovoid, white, and about 2.7 mm in length and 1.5 mm in width. Embryogenesis took an average of nine days. The first instar larvae were at initially only 4.5 mm long and ivory white in color. A brief description of the newly egg hatched larva was provided; thus, the nerve fibers innervating the apical setae in the antennae and ligula were detected. Further light microscopic examination of the embryo before hatching from the egg pointed out that the antennal sensilla are protected during the embryogenesis stage.


Resumo Várias espécies endêmicas de Blaps ocorrem na Tunísia, e a espécie Blaps nefrauensis nefrauensis foi relatada em Moulares (zona urbana no centro-oeste da Tunísia), onde vive e se reproduz em jardins domésticos e prédios antigos. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar o ciclo de vida do besouro escuro, considerando as condições de criação em campo e em laboratório. Como resultado, a espécie de besouro tem diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (ovo, larva, prepupa, pupa e adulto) que duram cerca de 15 meses. Todos os anos, durante o mesmo período, os adultos emergem (início do verão) e expiram (final do outono), as larvas eclodem (final do verão) e se tornam pupas (início do verão). Existe apenas uma geração por ano. As fêmeas começaram a botar ovos no final de julho. Os ovos eram ovóides, brancos, com cerca de 2,7 mm de comprimento e 1,5 mm de largura. A embriogênese demorou em média nove dias. As larvas de primeiro instar tinham inicialmente apenas 4,5 mm de comprimento e uma cor branca marfim. Foi fornecida uma breve descrição da larva recém-eclodida; assim, as fibras nervosas que inervam as cerdas apicais nas antenas e ligulas foram detectadas. Um exame microscópico de luz posterior do embrião antes da eclosão do ovo mostrou que as sensilas antenais são protegidas durante o estágio de embriogênese.

16.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247035, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249265

RESUMO

Abstract The cockle Cerastoderma edule was exposed to four concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 70 μg L-1) of carbamazepine (CBZ). This anticonvulsant was found to alter the mussel behavior of by reducing its clearance rate (CR). Analysis of CBZ accumulation in tissues of C. edule was carried out using HPLC-UV after 48 or 96 hours of exposure. In addition, an overproduction of H2O2 by the bivalves was detected following exposure to CBZ but nitrite levels remained unchanged. Moreover, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities showed a significant increase in relation to their contact with CBZ. The activity of the biotransformation enzyme gluthatione-S-transferase did not change during exposure. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicating cellular damage, increased when bivalves were exposed to 20 and 70 μg l-1 of carbamazepine for 96 h CBZ. The results also indicate that acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) was inhibited in all CBZ concentrations during the 48 h exposure period. However, during the 96 h exposure period, AChE was only inhibited at the highest concentration. Further studies are needed now for more exploration of the toxicity of CBZ since it could be bioaccumulable throughout the food web and may affect non-target organisms.


Resumo O berbigão Cerastoderma edule foi exposto a quatro concentrações (5, 10, 20 e 70 μg L-1) de carbamazepina (CBZ). Este anticonvulsivante alterou o comportamento do mexilhão, reduzindo sua taxa de depuração (CR). A análise do acúmulo de CBZ nos tecidos de C. edule foi realizada por HPLC-UV após 48 ou 96 horas de exposição. Além disso, uma superprodução de H2O2 pelos bivalves foi detectada após a exposição à CBZ, mas os níveis de nitrito permaneceram inalterados. Além disso, as atividades de superóxido dismutase e catalase apresentaram aumento significativo em relação ao contato com CBZ. A atividade da enzima de biotransformação glutationa-S-transferase não se alterou durante a exposição. Os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA), indicando dano celular, aumentaram quando os bivalves foram expostos a 20 e 70 μg l-1 de carbamazepina por 96 h CBZ. Os resultados também indicam que a atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) foi inibida em todas as concentrações de CBZ durante o período de exposição de 48 horas. No entanto, durante o período de exposição de 96 horas, a AChE foi inibida apenas na concentração mais alta. Mais estudos são necessários agora para uma maior exploração da toxicidade da CBZ, uma vez que pode ser bioacumulável em toda a cadeia alimentar e pode afetar organismos não alvo.

17.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18791, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804657

RESUMO

Background Diabetic foot care is vital as it is preventable complication but dangerous even a small trauma can end with serious consequences. Diabetes may cause nerve damage that affects feet sensation. Diabetes may also reduce blood flow to the feet, making it harder to heal an injury or resist infection. Because of these problems, patients may lose notice of early foot abnormalities. Diabetic patients' awareness regarding how to care for their feet plays a significant role in preventing these complications. Methods A correlation cross-sectional study was conducted targeting all diabetic patients aging 20 years or more. Online questionnaire was used for data collection. Questionnaire was uploaded online using social media platforms by the researchers and their relatives and friends. The questionnaire included patient personal data, patients' knowledge regarding diabetic foot, attitude and practice regarding the risk of diabetic foot among diabetic patients. Results A total of 1,000 diabetic patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria completed the study questionnaire. Exact of 77.5% of the patients know that Diabetics can get gangrene in the foot, 74.9% know diabetics can develop ulcers in the foot, 66.7% reported that Diabetes can reduce blood flow to the feet of diabetic patients, 66.6% agreed that diabetic patients can suffer from a lack of sensation in the feet. Exact of 84.5% of the study participants agreed that Diabetics should check for any wounds on their feet daily, 78.7% agreed that Diabetics should visit a doctor when there is any infection or wound in the feet, 76.6% think that diabetic patients should wear specialized shoes to avoid diabetic foot according to the doctor's instructions. A total of 822 (82.2%) of the study patients wash their feet daily, and 295 (29.5%) usually wear cotton socks regularly and 39.6% sometimes wear the stock. Only 192 (19.2%) regularly walk barefoot and 41.7% sometimes do. Conclusion In conclusion, the current study results showed that nearly two out of each three diabetic patients were knowledgeable for diabetic foot and its care. High knowledge was associated with young age, high education and having family member with diabetes mellitus (DM). Also, patients had a good attitude towards diabetic foot care and the effect of diabetes on foot health with to some level accepted practice except for some issues.

18.
Telemed J E Health ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724833

RESUMO

Background: Telemedicine usage in orthopedic surgery has seen a dramatic increase as a result of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to examine patient perceptions with telemedicine at a large orthopedic practice. Materials and Methods: An anonymous online survey was distributed to all patients who received a telemedicine health visit at our institution for musculoskeletal complaints from March 17 to June 1, 2020. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale (strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, and strongly agree, 1-5) and analyzed by average score and percent reaching top box. Results: A majority of patients (76.5%) were satisfied with their visit, and only 19.2% did not want telemedicine as a future option. Patients who presented for follow-up visits (4.11 vs. 3.94, p = 0.0053; 48% vs. 41%, p = 0.02) and utilized video (4.21 vs. 3.88, p < 0.001; 51% vs. 39%, p < 0.001) were more satisfied. Average satisfaction between older (>65 years) and younger patients was similar (4.06 vs. 4.06, p = 0.97), however, younger patients were more likely to reach top box (42% vs. 51%, p < 0.001). Confidence that the physician came to the correct diagnosis (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and receiving the same information and care as an in-office visit (r = 0.60, p < 0.001) demonstrated the strongest correlation with satisfaction and desire for future telemedicine visits, respectively. Interestingly, 31.1% of patients would have sought treatment elsewhere had telemedicine not been an option. Conclusions: Overall, satisfaction rates are high for orthopedic patients undergoing telemedicine visits. Patients are more confident in telemedicine when presenting for a follow-up visit and with the use of video.

19.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770756

RESUMO

Parmotremaperlatum is traditionally used in different areas of Pakistan to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory, and vascular diseases. This study evaluates the underlying mechanisms for traditional uses of P. perlatum in diarrhea, asthma, and hypertension. In vitro pharmacological studies were conducted using isolated jejunum, trachea, and aortic preparations, while the cytotoxic study was conducted in mice. Crude extract of P. perlatum(Pp.Cr), comprising appreciable quantities of alkaloids and flavonoids, relaxed spontaneously contracting jejunum preparation, K+ (80 mM)-induced, and carbachol (1 µM)-induced jejunum contractions in a concentration-dependent manner similar to dicyclomine and dantrolene. Pp.Cr showed a rightward parallel shift of concentration-response curves (CRCs) of Cch after a non-parallel shift similarto dicyclomine and shifted CRCs of Ca+2 to rightward much likeverapamil and dantrolene, demonstrating the coexistence of antimuscarinic and Ca+2 antagonistic mechanism. Furthermore, Pp.Cr, dicyclomine, and dantrolene relaxed K+ (80 mM)-induced and Cch (1 µM)-induced tracheal contractions and shifted rightward CRCs of Cch similar to dicyclomine, signifying the dual blockade. Additionally, Pp.Cr also relaxed the K+ (80 mM)-induced and phenylephrine (1 µM)-induced aortic contraction, similarly to verapamil and dantrolene, suggesting Ca+2 channel antagonism. Here, we explored for the first time thespasmolytic and bronchodilator effects of Pp.Crand whether they maybe due to the dual blockade of Ca+2 channels and muscarinic receptors, while the vasodilator effect might be owing to Ca+2 antagonism. Our results provide the pharmacological evidence that P. perlatum could be a new potential therapeutic option to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory, and vascular diseases. Hence, there is a need for further research to explore bioactive constituent of P. perlatum as well as further investigation by suitable experimental models are required to further confirm the importance and usefulness of P. perlatum in diarrhea, asthma, and hypertension treatment.

20.
Transpl Int ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738249

RESUMO

Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting CD52, increasingly used as induction therapy after transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes of alemtuzumab induction therapy followed by a low-dose maintenance immunosuppression in a large single-center cohort of lung transplant recipients. All patients, who received alemtuzumab induction followed by a low-dose maintenance immunosuppression were included in the analysis. Short- and long-term outcomes were analyzed. 721 lung transplant recipients, transplanted between January 2008 and June 2019, were included in this retrospective study. Freedom from higher-grade ACR at 1, 5, and 10 years was 98%, 96%, and 96%, respectively. Thirty-nine patients (5%) developed clinical AMR. Twenty-one percent of patients developed high-grade CKD. A total of 1488 infections were recorded. Sixteen percent were diagnosed within the first 3 months. Sixty-two patients (9%) developed a malignancy during follow-up. Freedom from CLAD at 1, 5, and 10 years was 94%, 72%, and 53%, respectively. Overall survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years were 85%, 71%, and 61%, respectively. Alemtuzumab induction combined with a low-dose tacrolimus protocol is safe and associated with low rates of acute and chronic rejection, as well as an excellent long-term survival.

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