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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285623

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247102, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278491

RESUMO

Abstract The current investigation was carried out to estimate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Cheatomorpha gracilis (AEC) against High fat Diet (HFD) induced liver damage in mice. The results of the in vitro study showed that AEC have higher antioxidant capacities in the DPPH and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. Indeed, many phenolic compounds (gallic acid, quercetin, naringenin, apigenin, kaempferol and rutin) were identified in the AEC. In the animal studies, during 6 weeks, HFD promoted oxidative stress with a rise level of malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCOs) levels and a significant decrease of the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Interestingly, the treatment with AEC (250 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced the effects of HFD disorders on some plasmatic liver biomarkers (AST, ALT and ALP) in addition to, plasmatic proteins inflammatory biomarkers (α2 and β1 decreases / β2 and γ globulins increases). It can be suggest that supplementation of MECG displays high potential to quench free radicals and attenuates high fat diet promoted liver oxidative stress and related disturbances.


Resumo A presente investigação foi realizada para estimar o efeito protetor do extrato aquoso de Cheatomorpha gracilis (AEC) contra o dano hepático induzido por dieta rica em gordura (HFD) em camundongos. Os resultados do estudo in vitro mostraram que os AEC têm maiores capacidades antioxidantes nos ensaios DPPH e de eliminação de radicais hidroxila. De fato, muitos compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, quercetina, naringenina, apigenina, kaempferol e rutina) foram identificados no AEC. Nos estudos em animais, durante 6 semanas, HFD promoveu estresse oxidativo com aumento do nível de malonaldeído (MDA), níveis de proteína carbonil (PCOs) e diminuição significativa das atividades de enzimas antioxidantes como superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase. Curiosamente, o tratamento com AEC (250 mg / kg de peso corporal) reduziu significativamente os efeitos dos distúrbios de HFD em alguns biomarcadores hepáticos plasmáticos (AST, ALT e ALP), além de biomarcadores inflamatórios de proteínas plasmáticas (reduções α2 e β1 / β2 e γ aumenta as globulinas). Pode-se sugerir que a suplementação de MECG apresenta alto potencial para extinguir os radicais livres e atenua o estresse oxidativo do fígado promovido pela dieta rica em gordura e distúrbios relacionados.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762569

RESUMO

Abstract In Northern Tunisia, seasonal streams, called wadi, are characterized by extreme hydrological and thermal conditions. These freshwater systems have very particular features as a result of their strong irregularity of flow due to limited precipitation runoff regime, leading to strong seasonal hydrologic fluctuations. The current study focused on the spatio-temporal distribution of chironomids in 28 sampling sites spread across the Northern Tunisia. By emplying PERMANOVA, the results indicated a significant spatio-temporal variation along various environmental gradients. The main abiotic factors responsible for noted differences in the spatial distribution of chironomids in wadi were the conductivity and temperature, closely followed by altitude, pH, salinity, talweg slope and dissolved oxygen, identified as such by employing distance-based linear models procedure. The Distance-based redundancy analysis ordination showed two main groups: the first clustered the Bizerte sites, which were characterized by high water conductivity, sodium concentration and salinity. The second main group comprised sites from the Tell zone and was characterized by low temperatures, neutral pH, low conductivity and nutrients content. The subfamily TANYPODIINAE (e.g., Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus (Meigen, 1804) and Macropelopia sp.) was the dominant group at Tell zone, whereas species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) and Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) were found only in Tell Wadis. In contrast, chironomid species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804) were specific for Tell Mountain. Cap Bon wadis region was dominated by genus Cladotanytarsus sp. The results of this survey liked the taxonomic composition of chironomid assemblages to the variation of hydromorphological and physic-chemical gradients across the northern Tunisia wadis.


Resumo No norte da Tunísia, riachos sazonais chamados wadi são caracterizados por condições hidrológicas e térmicas extremas. Esses sistemas de água doce têm características muito particulares como resultado de sua forte irregularidade de fluxo devido ao regime de escoamento de precipitação limitado, levando a fortes flutuações hidrológicas sazonais. O estudo atual enfocou a distribuição espaço-temporal dos quironomídeos em 28 locais de amostragem espalhados pelo norte da Tunísia. Ao aplicar PERMANOVA, os resultados indicaram uma variação espaço-temporal significativa ao longo de vários gradientes ambientais. Os principais fatores abióticos responsáveis pelas diferenças observadas na distribuição espacial dos quironomídeos no wadi foram a condutividade e a temperatura, seguidos de perto por altitude, pH, salinidade, declive do talvegue e oxigênio dissolvido, identificados como tais empregando o procedimento de modelos lineares baseados na distância. A ordenação da análise de redundância baseada em distância mostrou dois grupos principais: o primeiro agrupou os sítios Bizerte, que foram caracterizados por alta condutividade da água, concentração de sódio e salinidade. O segundo grupo principal compreendia locais da zona de Tell e era caracterizado por baixas temperaturas, pH neutro, baixa condutividade e conteúdo de nutrientes. A subfamília Tanypodiinae (por exemplo, Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus [Meigen, 1804] e Macropelopia sp.) era o grupo dominante na zona de Tell, enquanto espécies como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) e Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) foram encontradas apenas em Tell Wadis. Em contraste, espécies de quironomídeos, como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804), eram específicas para Tell Mountain. A região de Cap Bon wadis foi dominada pelo gênero Cladotanytarsus sp. Os resultados desta pesquisa gostaram da composição taxonômica das assembleias de quironomídeos com a variação dos gradientes hidromorfológicos e físico-químicos nos wadis do norte da Tunísia.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762568

RESUMO

Abstract The cockle Cerastoderma edule was exposed to four concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 70 g L-1) of carbamazepine (CBZ). This anticonvulsant was found to alter the mussel behavior of by reducing its clearance rate (CR). Analysis of CBZ accumulation in tissues of C. edule was carried out using HPLC-UV after 48 or 96 hours of exposure. In addition, an overproduction of H2O2 by the bivalves was detected following exposure to CBZ but nitrite levels remained unchanged. Moreover, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities showed a significant increase in relation to their contact with CBZ. The activity of the biotransformation enzyme gluthatione-S-transferase did not change during exposure. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicating cellular damage, increased when bivalves were exposed to 20 and 70 g l-1 of carbamazepine for 96 h CBZ. The results also indicate that acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) was inhibited in all CBZ concentrations during the 48 h exposure period. However, during the 96 h exposure period, AChE was only inhibited at the highest concentration. Further studies are needed now for more exploration of the toxicity of CBZ since it could be bioaccumulable throughout the food web and may affect non-target organisms.


Resumo O berbigão Cerastoderma edule foi exposto a quatro concentrações (5, 10, 20 e 70 g L-1) de carbamazepina (CBZ). Este anticonvulsivante alterou o comportamento do mexilhão, reduzindo sua taxa de depuração (CR). A análise do acúmulo de CBZ nos tecidos de C. edule foi realizada por HPLC-UV após 48 ou 96 horas de exposição. Além disso, uma superprodução de H2O2 pelos bivalves foi detectada após a exposição à CBZ, mas os níveis de nitrito permaneceram inalterados. Além disso, as atividades de superóxido dismutase e catalase apresentaram aumento significativo em relação ao contato com CBZ. A atividade da enzima de biotransformação glutationa-S-transferase não se alterou durante a exposição. Os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA), indicando dano celular, aumentaram quando os bivalves foram expostos a 20 e 70 g l-1 de carbamazepina por 96 h CBZ. Os resultados também indicam que a atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) foi inibida em todas as concentrações de CBZ durante o período de exposição de 48 horas. No entanto, durante o período de exposição de 96 horas, a AChE foi inibida apenas na concentração mais alta. Mais estudos são necessários agora para uma maior exploração da toxicidade da CBZ, uma vez que pode ser bioacumulável em toda a cadeia alimentar e pode afetar organismos não alvo.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762567

RESUMO

Abstract The main objective of the current study was to assess the impact of the water taken from the Tunisian Refining Industries Company on meiobenthic nematodes, before and after a series of treatments in decantation basins followed by its discharge in Bizerte bay, Tunisia. The comparison of environmental parameters of the two types of water was clearly indicative of an improvement in the quality of treated waters after a significant reduction in their loads in hydrocarbons. Overall, the water retained a good quality after being treated by Tunisian Refining Industries Company before discharge in the sea. At the end of the experiment, differential responses were observed according to the richness of sediment in organic matter and hydrocarbons. Thus, it was apparent that the nematode assemblage exposed to the treated waters was closer to controls and associated to higher values of abundance, than that under untreated ones. It was also assumed that the species Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 and Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 are sensitive bioindicators of bad environmental statues and of hydrocarbon presence in the environment. On the other hand, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 would rather be classified as a positive bioindicative species of this type of pollutants.


Resumo O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o impacto da água retirada da Tunisian Refining Industries Company sobre os nematoides meiobentônicos, antes e depois de uma série de tratamentos em bacias de decantação seguidos de seu descarte na baía de Bizerte, Tunísia. A comparação dos parâmetros ambientais dos dois tipos de água foi claramente indicativa de uma melhoria na qualidade das águas tratadas após uma redução significativa das suas cargas em hidrocarbonetos. No geral, a água reteve uma boa qualidade após ser tratada pela Tunisian Refining Industries Company antes da descarga no mar. Ao final do experimento, foram observadas respostas diferenciais de acordo com a riqueza de sedimentos em matéria orgânica e hidrocarbonetos. Assim, ficou claro que a assembleia de nematoides exposta às águas tratadas estava mais próxima dos controles e associada a maiores valores de abundância do que nas não tratadas. Também foi assumido que as espécies Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 e Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 são bioindicadores sensíveis de más estátuas ambientais e da presença de hidrocarbonetos no meio ambiente. Por outro lado, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 preferiria ser classificado como uma espécie bioindicativa positiva deste tipo de poluentes.

6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114588, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480997

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Liver disease is a major cause of illness and death worldwide which accounts for approximately 2 million deaths per year worldwide, 1 million due to complications of cirrhosis and 1 million due to viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. That's why it is seeking the researchers' attention to find out the effective treatment strategies. Phytochemicals from natural resources are the main leads for the development of noble hepatoprotective drugs. The majority of the natural sources whose active compounds are currently employed actually have an ethnomedical use. Ethnopharmacological research is essential for the development of these bioactive compounds. These studies not only provide scientific evidence on medicinal plants utilized for particular therapeutic purposes, but they also ensure cultural heritage preservation. Plenty of experimental studies have been well-documented that the ethnomedicinal plants are of therapeutics' interest for the advanced pharmacological intervention in terms of hepatic disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study summarizes the processes of hepatotoxicity induced by various toxins and explores identified hepatoprotective plants and their phytoconstituents, which can guide the extraction of novel phytochemical constituents from plants to treat liver injury. This review aimed to summarize the hepatoprotective activity of Bangladeshi medicinal plants where the bioactive compounds may be leads for the drug discovery in future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature searches in electronic databases, such as Web of Science, Science Direct, SpringerLink, PubMed, Google Scholar, Semantic Scholar, Scopus, BanglaJOL, and so on, were performed using the keywords 'Bangladesh', 'ethnomedicinal plants', 'Hepatoprotective agents' as for primary searches, and secondary search terms were used as follows, either alone or in combination: traditional medicine, medicinal plants, folk medicine, liver, hepatitis, therapeutic uses, and anti-inflammatory. Besides, several books, including the book entitled "Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses" authored by Abdul Ghani, were carefully considered, which contained pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of many medicinal plants growing and traditionally available in Bangladesh. Among them, the most promising plant species with their latest therapeutic effects against hepatic disorders were deeply considered in this review. RESULTS: The results of this study revealed that in most cases, therapy using plant extracts stabilized altered hepatic biochemical markers induced by hepatotoxins. Initially, we investigated 32 plant species for hepatoprotective activity, however after extensive literature searching; we observed that 20 plants offer good pharmacological evidence of hepatoprotective function. Consequently, most bioactive compounds derived from the herbs including berberine, thymoquinone, andrographolide, ursolic acid, luteolin, naringenin, genistein, quercetin, troxerutin, morin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, chlorogenic acid, emodin, curcumin, resveratrol, capsaicin, ellagic acid, etc. are appeared to be effective against hepatic disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoids, phenolic acids, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, chromenes, capsaicinoids, curcuminoids, and anthraquinones are among the phytoconstituents were appraised to have hepatoprotective activities. All the actions displayed by these ethnomedicinal plants could make them serve as leads in the formulation of drugs with higher efficacy to treat hepatic disorders.

7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2257: 211-233, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432281

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are important regulators in many eukaryotic lineages. Typical miRNAs have a length of about 22nt and are processed from precursors that form a characteristic hairpin structure. Once they appear in a genome, miRNAs are among the best-conserved elements in both animal and plant genomes. Functionally, they play an important role in particular in development. In contrast to protein-coding genes, miRNAs frequently emerge de novo. The genomes of animals and plants harbor hundreds of mutually unrelated families of homologous miRNAs that tend to be persistent throughout evolution. The evolution of their genomic miRNA complement closely correlates with important morphological innovation. In addition, miRNAs have been used as valuable characters in phylogenetic studies. An accurate and comprehensive annotation of miRNAs is required as a basis to understand their impact on phenotypic evolution. Since experimental data on miRNA expression are limited to relatively few species and are subject to unavoidable ascertainment biases, it is inevitable to complement miRNA sequencing by homology based annotation methods. This chapter reviews the state of the art workflows for homology based miRNA annotation, with an emphasis on their limitations and open problems.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246116, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249222

RESUMO

Abstract The main objective of the current study was to assess the impact of the water taken from the 'Tunisian Refining Industries Company' on meiobenthic nematodes, before and after a series of treatments in decantation basins followed by its discharge in Bizerte bay, Tunisia. The comparison of environmental parameters of the two types of water was clearly indicative of an improvement in the quality of treated waters after a significant reduction in their loads in hydrocarbons. Overall, the water retained a good quality after being treated by 'Tunisian Refining Industries Company' before discharge in the sea. At the end of the experiment, differential responses were observed according to the richness of sediment in organic matter and hydrocarbons. Thus, it was apparent that the nematode assemblage exposed to the treated waters was closer to controls and associated to higher values of abundance, than that under untreated ones. It was also assumed that the species Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 and Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 are sensitive bioindicators of bad environmental statues and of hydrocarbon presence in the environment. On the other hand, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 would rather be classified as a positive bioindicative species of this type of pollutants.


Resumo O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o impacto da água retirada da "Tunisian Refining Industries Company" sobre os nematoides meiobentônicos, antes e depois de uma série de tratamentos em bacias de decantação seguidos de seu descarte na baía de Bizerte, Tunísia. A comparação dos parâmetros ambientais dos dois tipos de água foi claramente indicativa de uma melhoria na qualidade das águas tratadas após uma redução significativa das suas cargas em hidrocarbonetos. No geral, a água reteve uma boa qualidade após ser tratada pela "Tunisian Refining Industries Company" antes da descarga no mar. Ao final do experimento, foram observadas respostas diferenciais de acordo com a riqueza de sedimentos em matéria orgânica e hidrocarbonetos. Assim, ficou claro que a assembleia de nematoides exposta às águas tratadas estava mais próxima dos controles e associada a maiores valores de abundância do que nas não tratadas. Também foi assumido que as espécies Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 e Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 são bioindicadores sensíveis de más estátuas ambientais e da presença de hidrocarbonetos no meio ambiente. Por outro lado, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 preferiria ser classificado como uma espécie bioindicativa positiva deste tipo de poluentes.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247073, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249224

RESUMO

Abstract In Northern Tunisia, seasonal streams, called wadi, are characterized by extreme hydrological and thermal conditions. These freshwater systems have very particular features as a result of their strong irregularity of flow due to limited precipitation runoff regime, leading to strong seasonal hydrologic fluctuations. The current study focused on the spatio-temporal distribution of chironomids in 28 sampling sites spread across the Northern Tunisia. By emplying PERMANOVA, the results indicated a significant spatio-temporal variation along various environmental gradients. The main abiotic factors responsible for noted differences in the spatial distribution of chironomids in wadi were the conductivity and temperature, closely followed by altitude, pH, salinity, talweg slope and dissolved oxygen, identified as such by employing distance-based linear models' procedure. The Distance-based redundancy analysis ordination showed two main groups: the first clustered the Bizerte sites, which were characterized by high water conductivity, sodium concentration and salinity. The second main group comprised sites from the Tell zone and was characterized by low temperatures, neutral pH, low conductivity and nutrients content. The subfamily TANYPODIINAE (e.g., Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus (Meigen, 1804) and Macropelopia sp.) was the dominant group at Tell zone, whereas species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) and Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) were found only in Tell Wadis. In contrast, chironomid species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804) were specific for Tell Mountain. Cap Bon wadis region was dominated by genus Cladotanytarsus sp. The results of this survey liked the taxonomic composition of chironomid assemblages to the variation of hydromorphological and physic-chemical gradients across the northern Tunisia wadis.


Resumo No norte da Tunísia, riachos sazonais chamados wadi são caracterizados por condições hidrológicas e térmicas extremas. Esses sistemas de água doce têm características muito particulares como resultado de sua forte irregularidade de fluxo devido ao regime de escoamento de precipitação limitado, levando a fortes flutuações hidrológicas sazonais. O estudo atual enfocou a distribuição espaço-temporal dos quironomídeos em 28 locais de amostragem espalhados pelo norte da Tunísia. Ao aplicar PERMANOVA, os resultados indicaram uma variação espaço-temporal significativa ao longo de vários gradientes ambientais. Os principais fatores abióticos responsáveis ​​pelas diferenças observadas na distribuição espacial dos quironomídeos no wadi foram a condutividade e a temperatura, seguidos de perto por altitude, pH, salinidade, declive do talvegue e oxigênio dissolvido, identificados como tais empregando o procedimento de modelos lineares baseados na distância. A ordenação da análise de redundância baseada em distância mostrou dois grupos principais: o primeiro agrupou os sítios Bizerte, que foram caracterizados por alta condutividade da água, concentração de sódio e salinidade. O segundo grupo principal compreendia locais da zona de Tell e era caracterizado por baixas temperaturas, pH neutro, baixa condutividade e conteúdo de nutrientes. A subfamília Tanypodiinae (por exemplo, Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus [Meigen, 1804] e Macropelopia sp.) era o grupo dominante na zona de Tell, enquanto espécies como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) e Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) foram encontradas apenas em Tell Wadis. Em contraste, espécies de quironomídeos, como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804), eram específicas para Tell Mountain. A região de Cap Bon wadis foi dominada pelo gênero Cladotanytarsus sp. Os resultados desta pesquisa gostaram da composição taxonômica das assembleias de quironomídeos com a variação dos gradientes hidromorfológicos e físico-químicos nos wadis do norte da Tunísia.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246316, 2022. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249248

RESUMO

Abstract Several endemic species of Blaps occur in Tunisia, and the species Blaps nefrauensis nefrauensis has been reported in Moulares (urban zone in west-central Tunisia), where it lives and reproduces in home gardens and old buildings. The aim of this work is to study the life cycle of the darkling beetle, considering both field and laboratory rearing conditions. As a result, the beetle species has different developmental stages (egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, and adult) that last about 15 months. Each year during the same period, adults emerge (early summer) and expire (late autumn), larvae hatch (late summer) and pupate (early summer). There is only one generation per year. Females began laying eggs in late July. The eggs were ovoid, white, and about 2.7 mm in length and 1.5 mm in width. Embryogenesis took an average of nine days. The first instar larvae were at initially only 4.5 mm long and ivory white in color. A brief description of the newly egg hatched larva was provided; thus, the nerve fibers innervating the apical setae in the antennae and ligula were detected. Further light microscopic examination of the embryo before hatching from the egg pointed out that the antennal sensilla are protected during the embryogenesis stage.


Resumo Várias espécies endêmicas de Blaps ocorrem na Tunísia, e a espécie Blaps nefrauensis nefrauensis foi relatada em Moulares (zona urbana no centro-oeste da Tunísia), onde vive e se reproduz em jardins domésticos e prédios antigos. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar o ciclo de vida do besouro escuro, considerando as condições de criação em campo e em laboratório. Como resultado, a espécie de besouro tem diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (ovo, larva, prepupa, pupa e adulto) que duram cerca de 15 meses. Todos os anos, durante o mesmo período, os adultos emergem (início do verão) e expiram (final do outono), as larvas eclodem (final do verão) e se tornam pupas (início do verão). Existe apenas uma geração por ano. As fêmeas começaram a botar ovos no final de julho. Os ovos eram ovóides, brancos, com cerca de 2,7 mm de comprimento e 1,5 mm de largura. A embriogênese demorou em média nove dias. As larvas de primeiro instar tinham inicialmente apenas 4,5 mm de comprimento e uma cor branca marfim. Foi fornecida uma breve descrição da larva recém-eclodida; assim, as fibras nervosas que inervam as cerdas apicais nas antenas e ligulas foram detectadas. Um exame microscópico de luz posterior do embrião antes da eclosão do ovo mostrou que as sensilas antenais são protegidas durante o estágio de embriogênese.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247035, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249265

RESUMO

Abstract The cockle Cerastoderma edule was exposed to four concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 70 μg L-1) of carbamazepine (CBZ). This anticonvulsant was found to alter the mussel behavior of by reducing its clearance rate (CR). Analysis of CBZ accumulation in tissues of C. edule was carried out using HPLC-UV after 48 or 96 hours of exposure. In addition, an overproduction of H2O2 by the bivalves was detected following exposure to CBZ but nitrite levels remained unchanged. Moreover, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities showed a significant increase in relation to their contact with CBZ. The activity of the biotransformation enzyme gluthatione-S-transferase did not change during exposure. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicating cellular damage, increased when bivalves were exposed to 20 and 70 μg l-1 of carbamazepine for 96 h CBZ. The results also indicate that acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) was inhibited in all CBZ concentrations during the 48 h exposure period. However, during the 96 h exposure period, AChE was only inhibited at the highest concentration. Further studies are needed now for more exploration of the toxicity of CBZ since it could be bioaccumulable throughout the food web and may affect non-target organisms.


Resumo O berbigão Cerastoderma edule foi exposto a quatro concentrações (5, 10, 20 e 70 μg L-1) de carbamazepina (CBZ). Este anticonvulsivante alterou o comportamento do mexilhão, reduzindo sua taxa de depuração (CR). A análise do acúmulo de CBZ nos tecidos de C. edule foi realizada por HPLC-UV após 48 ou 96 horas de exposição. Além disso, uma superprodução de H2O2 pelos bivalves foi detectada após a exposição à CBZ, mas os níveis de nitrito permaneceram inalterados. Além disso, as atividades de superóxido dismutase e catalase apresentaram aumento significativo em relação ao contato com CBZ. A atividade da enzima de biotransformação glutationa-S-transferase não se alterou durante a exposição. Os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA), indicando dano celular, aumentaram quando os bivalves foram expostos a 20 e 70 μg l-1 de carbamazepina por 96 h CBZ. Os resultados também indicam que a atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) foi inibida em todas as concentrações de CBZ durante o período de exposição de 48 horas. No entanto, durante o período de exposição de 96 horas, a AChE foi inibida apenas na concentração mais alta. Mais estudos são necessários agora para uma maior exploração da toxicidade da CBZ, uma vez que pode ser bioacumulável em toda a cadeia alimentar e pode afetar organismos não alvo.

12.
J Biol Chem ; : 101221, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597667

RESUMO

Circulating levels of the adipocyte hormone adiponectin are typically reduced in obesity, and this deficiency has been linked to metabolic diseases. It is thus important to understand the mechanisms controlling adiponectin exocytosis. This understanding is hindered by the high complexity of both the available data and the underlying signaling network. To deal with this complexity, we have previously investigated how different intracellular concentrations of Ca2+, cAMP and ATP affect adiponectin exocytosis, using both patch-clamp recordings and systems biology mathematical modelling. Recent work has shown that adiponectin exocytosis is physiologically triggered via signaling pathways involving adrenergic ß3 receptors (ß3ARs). Therefore, we developed a mathematical model that also includes adiponectin exocytosis stimulated by extracellular epinephrine or the ß3AR agonist CL 316,243. Our new model is consistent with all previous patch-clamp data as well as new data (collected from stimulations with a combination of the intracellular mediators and extracellular adrenergic stimuli) and can predict independent validation data. We used this model to perform new in silico experiments where corresponding wet lab experiments would be difficult to perform. We simulated adiponectin exocytosis in single cells in response to the reduction of ß3ARs that is observed in adipocytes from animals with obesity-induced diabetes. Finally, we used our model to investigate intracellular dynamics and to predict both cAMP levels and adiponectin release by scaling the model from single-cell to a population of cells - predictions corroborated by experimental data. Our work brings us one step closer to understanding the intricate regulation of adiponectin exocytosis.

13.
Orthopedics ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618643

RESUMO

The etiology of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the proximal humerus can be classified as idiopathic or posttraumatic, the latter being mainly due to proximal humerus fractures. Evidence suggests that posttraumatic AVN may require surgical intervention more often than idiopathic AVN of the proximal humerus. This article provides a comprehensive review of the management of posttraumatic AVN of the proximal humerus. Early stage AVN (stages 1 to 3) is commonly treated with nonoperative intervention or core decompression of the humeral head, whereas later stage disease (stages 4 and 5) may require hemiarthroplasty or total shoulder arthroplasty to restore function. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(x):xx-xx.].

14.
Trials ; 22(1): 695, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of screening for sepsis using an electronic sepsis alert vs. no alert in hospitalized ward patients on 90-day in-hospital mortality. METHODS: The SCREEN trial is designed as a stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial. Hospital wards (total of 45 wards, constituting clusters in this design) are randomized to have active alert vs. masked alert, 5 wards at a time, with each 5 wards constituting a sequence. The study consists of ten 2-month periods with a phased introduction of the intervention. In the first period, all wards have a masked alert for 2 months. Afterwards the intervention (alert system) is implemented in a new sequence every 2-month period until the intervention is implemented in all sequences. The intervention includes the implementation of an electronic alert system developed in the hospital electronic medical records based on the quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA). The alert system sends notifications of "possible sepsis alert" to the bedside nurse, charge nurse, and primary medical team and requires an acknowledgment in the health information system from the bedside nurse and physician. The calculated sample size is 65,250. The primary endpoint is in-hospital mortality by 90 days. DISCUSSION: The trial started on October 1, 2019, and is expected to complete patient follow-up by the end of October 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04078594 . Registered on September 6, 2019.

15.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 897-902, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605453

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus infection is an important cause of liver disease. Hepatitis B Virus may present with varying degree of severity. In older children, 5-10% cases leading to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This descriptive cross sectional study was done to assess the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus infection among hospitalized children with liver disease in pediatric department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh from December 2015 to October 2016. All the children of both sexes having age between six months to twelve years admitted in the pediatric ward with acute or chronic liver disease were included in this study by purposive sampling. A written consent was obtained from legal guardian of children before inclusion. Ethical clearance was obtained from competent authority. A detailed history was taken from parents in each case according to pre-designed questionnaire about demography of the patients and the risk factors of the liver disease. A thorough clinical examination and available relevant investigations like serological testing for HBV infection was done in all patients. We had figure out the seropositivity of HBV among patients having liver disease by doing HBsAg and Anti-HBc IgM. Progress of the patient was monitored by daily clinical examinations and by investigating HBsAg and Anti-HBc IgM. Finally data analysis was done by SPSS version 21.0. Among total 100 patients most (44%) patients were in 7-10 years old and most (62%) of the participants were male. Acute liver disease was 58% cases and chronic liver disease was 42% cases. HBsAg was positive in 1 case among acute liver disease and 5 cases among chronic cases. Total 6 (six) patients were found positive for HBsAg. Anti HBc IgM was positive in 4 patients among acute liver disease. Among these Anti HBc IgM positive (4) patients only one had both HBsAg and Anti HBc IgM positive. So, four patients were confirming suffered from acute viral hepatitis because they had anti HBc IgM positive. On the contrary 5 patients suffered from chronic hepatitis by hepatitis B because they were only HBsAg positive. So, in this study 9 patients (9%) were confirming suffered from HBV infection. Possible transmission factors of hepatitis B were history of (H/O) blood transfusion/trauma/parenteral injection, H/O umbilical sepsis, H/O maternal illness/infection during pregnancy. HBV still is a major cause of morbidity. All the children with liver disease should be routinely tested for HBV.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite B , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência
16.
Elife ; 102021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609283

RESUMO

Many diseases are linked to dysregulation of the striatum. Striatal function depends on neuronal compartmentation into striosomes and matrix. Striatal projection neurons are GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs), subtyped by selective expression of receptors, neuropeptides, and other gene families. Neurogenesis of the striosome and matrix occurs in separate waves, but the factors regulating compartmentation and neuronal differentiation are largely unidentified. We performed RNA- and ATAC-seq on sorted striosome and matrix cells at postnatal day 3, using the Nr4a1-EGFP striosome reporter mouse. Focusing on the striosome, we validated the localization and/or role of Irx1, Foxf2, Olig2, and Stat1/2 in the developing striosome and the in vivo enhancer function of a striosome-specific open chromatin region 4.4 Kb downstream of Olig2. These data provide novel tools to dissect and manipulate the networks regulating MSN compartmentation and differentiation, including in human iPSC-derived striatal neurons for disease modeling and drug discovery.

17.
Saudi Med J ; 42(10): 1057-1064, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610998

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the usefulness of sonographically measured anogenital distance (AGD) in predicting fetal gender in Saudi fetuses during the first trimester and to provide normal reference centiles for AGD. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between November 2020 and May 2021. The ultrasound scans of 313 singleton pregnancies between 11-13 plus 6 gestational weeks and their gender-at-birth were collected. Anogenital distance was measured from the inferior base of the genital tubercle to the rump. Binominal logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) evaluated the predictive performance of AGD for determining fetal gender. RESULTS: There was a significant difference of approximately 15% in mean AGD between female (5.92 mm [95% CI= 6.70, 6.14]) and male (6.80 mm [95% CI= 6.61,7.00]) fetuses (p<0.001). Anogenital distance significantly correlated with gestational age (r=0.573, p<0.001) and crown-rump length (r=0.562, p<0.001). The logistic regression determined AGD as a significant predictor of fetal gender (p<0.001). However, ROC analysis showed that overall accuracies were low at 68% (p=0.001) for 11 weeks, 70% (p<0.001) for 12 weeks, and 64% (p=0.017), and for 13 weeks. The average AGD of our Saudi cohort was longer than what the literature reported from other populations. CONCLUSION: The first-trimester ultrasound evaluation of AGD was feasible and reliable. It showed a difference between the genders but did not yield high predictive accuracy. Future research should consider racial factors when evaluating AGD.


Assuntos
Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e251958, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614127

RESUMO

Odonates are important biological control agents for the control of insect pests and insect disease vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan from March to October 2019. A total of 200 specimens of odonates were collected from diverse habitats. The collected specimens of the order Odonata belonged to 5 families, three families of suborder Anisoptera namely Libellulidae, Gomphidae and Aeshnidae while two families of suborder Zygoptera (Chlorocyphidae and Coenagrionidae). The specimens were categorized into 12 genera and 22 species. Libellulidae was the dominant family (n = 138) accounting for 69% of the odonate fauna. Orthetrum was the dominant genus (n = 73) of suborder Anisoptera accounting for 36.5% of the odonate fauna. The least dominant genera were Anax, Paragomphus and Rhyothemis (n = 5 each) accounting each for 2.5% of the odonate fauna. In Zygoptera, the dominant genus was Ceriagrion (12.5%) and the least dominant genus was Ischnura (6%). Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) was the most abundant odonate species in the study area recorded from all surveyed habitats. Shannon Diversity Index (H) was 2.988 and Simpson Diversity Index (D) was 0.95 for the collected odonate fauna. The highest abundance of Odonata was recorded in August, September and May while no odonate species were recorded in January, February, November and December. Lotic water bodies were the most suitable habitats with abundant odonate fauna. Anax immaculifrons (Rambur, 1842) was the largest sized odonate species having a wingspan of 53.2±1.63 mm and body length of 56.3 ± 0.4 mm. The present study shows the status of odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan in diverse habitats and seasonsonal variation throughout the year. Further work is recommended to bridge the gaps in the existing literature.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Paquistão
19.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1567-1570, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627054

RESUMO

The emerging of the COVID-19 pandemic is currently challenging for the public health system globally. Beyond SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity, co-infections with recycling respiratory pathogens, whether bacterial, viral, or fungal, might increase disease symptoms, morbidity, and mortality. In this study, we reported two COVID-19 cases in the early phase of the virus spread in Saudi Arabia with underdiagnosed respiratory viruses' co-infections, influenza B and Parainfluenza-2, detected retrospectively. Fortunately, both patients recovered and were discharged home. Underestimation of co-infection among COVID19 patients might lead to hospital stay prolongation and increases morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is crucial to consider and screen for co-infecting pathogens among COVID-19 patients and those with risk factors.

20.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 266: 120449, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628363

RESUMO

The intensive use of antibiotics in livestock practice has a negative impact on human health and increases the antibiotic resistance. In this study feasible data interpretation algorithm along with efficient extraction protocol were combined for selective analysis of three antibiotics in milk samples. Trimethoprim, sulphamethoxazole and oxytetracycline are widely used antibiotics in veterinary pharmaceuticals. The studied antibiotics were efficiently extracted from milk samples with solidification of floating organic droplet in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. This extraction protocol was optimized not only to maximize extraction recoveries but also to approach the lower residue limits specified by European Union. Artificial neural networks succeeded in resolving spectral overlap between the studied drugs. The network architecture was optimized and validated for accurate and precise analysis. The proposed method outweighs the reported chromatographic methods for being simple and inexpensive and compared favorable to official methods.

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