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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285606

RESUMO

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285628

RESUMO

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247016, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339416

RESUMO

Abstract Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


Resumo Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), uma minhoca nativa do Paquistão e sudeste da Ásia, tem ampla utilização em processos de vermicompostagem e biorremediação. Neste estudo, o fluido celômico de P. posthuma (PCF) e a pasta corporal (PBP) foram avaliados como agente antibacteriano contra cinco isolados clínicos Gram-positivos e quatro Gram-negativos resistentes à ampicilina (AMP). O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes doses (ou seja, 25-100 µg / ml) de PCF e PBP juntamente com AMP e azitromicina (AZM) (controles negativo e positivo, respectivamente) foi observado por meio de métodos de difusão em disco e microdiluição. Todos os nove isolados clínicos foram notados como resistentes a AMP e sensíveis a AZM. Os efeitos antibacterianos de PCF e PBP foram dependentes da dose e a zona de inibição (ZI) contra todos os isolados clínicos foi entre 23,4 ± 0,92 a 0 ± 00 mm. O perfil de sensibilidade do PCF e PBP contra isolados clínicos foi observado como 44,44% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Tanto o PCF quanto o PBP mostraram ação bacteriostática (BTS) contra S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Além disso, o potencial BTS cumulativo de PCF e PBP contra todos os isolados foi de 66,67% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Os MICs de PCF e PBP variaram de 50-200 µg / ml contra isolados selecionados. As curvas de crescimento bacteriano indicaram que o PCF e o PBP inibiram o crescimento de todos os isolados em suas concentrações específicas de MIC. No entanto, PBP tem melhor potencial antibacteriano em comparação com PCF contra isolados selecionados. Portanto, conclui-se que tanto o PCF quanto o PBP de P. posthuma possuem potencial antibacteriano e BTS contra isolados clínicos resistentes à ampicilina. Esse organismo pode ser considerado como uma segunda escolha de agentes antibacterianos e pode ainda ser utilizado nas indústrias farmacêuticas para a fabricação de novos medicamentos por meio da prospecção de agentes com potencial bioativo.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e228009, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249287

RESUMO

Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic pathogenic bacterium with the ability to develop a strong communication pathway by quorum sensing system and different virulent factors. Among the various important secretions of P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid is important biological detergent, believed to be involved in the development of the biofilm and intercellular communication. It readily dissolves the lung surfactants that are then easily catalyzed by the phospholipases and in this way is involved in the acute pulmonary infection. Objective research work was designed to investigate virulence and gene associated with virulence in P. aeruginosa responsible for pulmonary infections. Methods In current study polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the rhlR (rhamnolipid encoding) gene of isolated strains. A number of assays were performed that ensured its virulent behavior. Disc diffusion method was used to check its antibiotic resistance. Isolated strains were resistant to a number of antibiotics applied. Result It was found that males are more prone to respiratory infections as compared to females. Male members with age of 44-58 and 59-73 are at a higher risk, while females with age of 44-58 are also at a risk of pulmonary infections. Antibiotic resistance was observed by measuring zone of inhibition in strains GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCU-SG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 and GCU-SG-M6. GCU-SG-M2 was resistant to fluconazole (FLU), clarithromycin (CLR), cefixime (CFM) and Penicillin (P10). No zone of inhibition was observed. But it showed unusual diffused zone around the Ak and MEM antibiotic discs. rhl R gene and 16s rRNA gene were characterized and analyzed. Conclusion Findings from current study would help in raising awareness about antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa, and also the sequence of rhl R gene can be used as the diagnostic marker sequence to identify the virulent rhl R gene sequence from the samples when isolated from sputum of Pneumonia patients.


Resumo Antecedentes Pseudomonas aeruginosa é uma bactéria patogênica oportunista comum, com a capacidade de desenvolver uma forte via de comunicação pelo sistema de detecção de quorum e diferentes fatores virulentos. Entre as várias secreções importantes de P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid, há um importante detergente biológico, que se acredita estar envolvido no desenvolvimento do biofilme e na comunicação intercelular. Dissolve rapidamente os surfactantes pulmonares que são facilmente catalisados pelas fosfolipases e, dessa maneira, estão envolvidos na infecção pulmonar aguda. Objetivo O trabalho de pesquisa foi desenhado para investigar a virulência e o gene associado à virulência em P. aeruginosa responsável por infecções pulmonares. Métodos No presente estudo, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada para a detecção do gene rhlR (codificação ramnolipídeo) de cepas isoladas. Foram realizados vários ensaios que garantiram seu comportamento virulento. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para verificar sua resistência a antibióticos. As estirpes isoladas foram resistentes a vários antibióticos aplicados. Resultado Verificou-se que os homens são mais propensos a infecções respiratórias em comparação às mulheres. Membros do sexo masculino com idade entre 44 e 58 e 59 e 73 anos correm maior risco, enquanto mulheres com idade entre 44 e 58 anos também correm risco de infecções pulmonares. A resistência aos antibióticos foi observada medindo a zona de inibição nas cepas GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCU-SG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 e GCU-SG-M6. O GCU-SG-M2 foi resistente ao fluconazol (FLU), claritromicina (CLR), cefixima (CFM) e penicilina (P10). Nenhuma zona de inibição foi observada. Mas se notou uma zona difusa incomum ao redor dos discos antibióticos Ak e MEM. Os genes rhl R e 16s rRNA foram caracterizados e analisados. Conclusão As conclusões do presente estudo ajudariam a aumentar a conscientização sobre a resistência a antibióticos de P. aeruginosa e, também, a sequência do gene rhl R pode ser usada como sequência de diagnóstico para identificar a sequência virulenta do gene rhl R das amostras quando isoladas do escarro de pacientes com pneumonia.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250550, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730714

RESUMO

Vanillin is the major component which is responsible for flavor and aroma of vanilla extract and is produced by 3 ways: natural extraction from vanilla plant, chemical synthesis and from microbial transformation. Current research was aimed to study bacterial production of vanillin from native natural sources including sewage and soil from industrial areas. The main objective was vanillin bio-production by isolating bacteria from these native sources. Also to adapt methodologies to improve vanillin production by optimized fermentation media and growth conditions. 47 soil and 13 sewage samples were collected from different industrial regions of Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Kasur. 67.7% bacterial isolates produced vanillin and 32.3% were non-producers. From these 279 producers, 4 bacterial isolates selected as significant producers were; A3, A4, A7 and A10. These isolates were identified by ribotyping as A3 Pseudomonas fluorescence (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) and A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Vanillin producers were further tested for improved production of vanillin and were grown in different fermentation media under optimized growth conditions for enhanced production of vanillin. The fermentation media (FM) were; clove oil based, rice bran waste (residues oil) based, wheat bran based and modified isoeugenol based. In FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36, and FM37, the selected 4 bacterial strains produced significant amounts of vanillin. A10 B. subtilis produced maximum amount of vanillin. This strain produced 17.3 g/L vanillin in FM36. Cost of this fermentation medium 36 was 131.5 rupees/L. This fermentation medium was modified isoeugenol based medium with 1% of isoeugenol and 2.5 g/L soybean meal. ech gene was amplified in A3 P. fluorescence using ech specific primers. As vanillin use as flavor has increased tremendously, the bioproduction of vanillin must be focused.


Assuntos
Benzaldeídos , Aromatizantes , Alcaligenes faecalis/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Benzaldeídos/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Enterococcus faecium/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolismo
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247016, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495153

RESUMO

Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Staphylococcus aureus , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242818, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378656

RESUMO

The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bacteroides , Bacteroidetes , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose , Humanos , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Prevotella , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ruminococcus
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378658

RESUMO

In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Assuntos
Bacillus pumilus , Bacillus , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus pumilus/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Esgotos , Temperatura
9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e228009, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic pathogenic bacterium with the ability to develop a strong communication pathway by quorum sensing system and different virulent factors. Among the various important secretions of P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid is important biological detergent, believed to be involved in the development of the biofilm and intercellular communication. It readily dissolves the lung surfactants that are then easily catalyzed by the phospholipases and in this way is involved in the acute pulmonary infection. OBJECTIVE: research work was designed to investigate virulence and gene associated with virulence in P. aeruginosa responsible for pulmonary infections. METHODS: In current study polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the rhlR (rhamnolipid encoding) gene of isolated strains. A number of assays were performed that ensured its virulent behavior. Disc diffusion method was used to check its antibiotic resistance. Isolated strains were resistant to a number of antibiotics applied. RESULT: It was found that males are more prone to respiratory infections as compared to females. Male members with age of 44-58 and 59-73 are at a higher risk, while females with age of 44-58 are also at a risk of pulmonary infections. Antibiotic resistance was observed by measuring zone of inhibition in strains GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCU-SG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 and GCU-SG-M6. GCU-SG-M2 was resistant to fluconazole (FLU), clarithromycin (CLR), cefixime (CFM) and Penicillin (P10). No zone of inhibition was observed. But it showed unusual diffused zone around the Ak and MEM antibiotic discs. rhl R gene and 16s rRNA gene were characterized and analyzed. CONCLUSION: Findings from current study would help in raising awareness about antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa, and also the sequence of rhl R gene can be used as the diagnostic marker sequence to identify the virulent rhl R gene sequence from the samples when isolated from sputum of Pneumonia patients.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Feminino , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Glicolipídeos , Humanos , Masculino , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S
10.
East Mediterr Health J ; 21(10): 713-21, 2015 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26750161

RESUMO

This survey in primary health-care centres in north Jordan aimed to assess health-care providers' perceptions of their knowledge, skills and preparedness for disaster management. A multistage random sample was used to recruit nurses and physicians from 57 health centres. A total of 207 participants completed the Arabic version of the Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants perceived themselves as having moderate preparation for disaster management [mean score 74.9 (SD 21.6)], moderate knowledge [mean 49.9 (SD 12.3)] and moderate to weak skills in disaster management [mean 35.3 (SD 12.7)]. Significant differences were revealed in participants' perceptions of their disaster preparedness, knowledge and skills according to their sex, specialty and exposure to a real disaster situation. Further education and training courses are needed to enhance providers' preparedness for disaster management in Jordan.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
East Mediterr Health J ; 19(10): 854-60, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24313149

RESUMO

In Bahrain and other Gulf countries, road traffic accidents (RTA) are recognized as a growing public health problem. This study described the trend of fatalities from RTA in Bahrain among those aged < 25 years from 2003-2010. The proportional mortality ratios of RTA deaths (up to 30 days from the accident) among the young were compared with those of all ages. The average proportion of young males killed by RTA in Bahrain during the 8-year period was 82.7%, with 2006 marking the lowest proportion among Bahraini nationals (72.2%) and the total population (79.2%). RTA fatalities constituted 51.3% among the Bahrainis, 20.2% of non-Bahrainis and 39.0% of all fatalities in both sexes combined. The young in Bahrain were 3.5 times more likely to die from RTA than the general population. This paper calls on policy-makers to consolidate efforts to control this public health problem.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Barein/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pathol Res Pract ; 197(8): 531-6, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11518045

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the S-phase fraction (SPF) of tumors in breast cancer patients in Pakistan. Its association with the traditional morphological prognostic markers, i.e., axillary lymph node metastasis, tumor size and grade, was also studied. Flow cytometry was used to estimate SPF on breast cancer tissues from 166 patients reported at the Aga Khan University Hospital between the years 1997 and 2000. Univariate analysis was done to find any association between SPF and the aforesaid variables. For the ease of analysis, the cases were subdivided into two categories depending on the SPF value, i.e., <10% (low-risk group) and > or = 10% (high-risk group). The mean and median SPF values were 21.45% and 20.035%, respectively, with a range of 3.26% to 54.30%. Twenty-six (15.66%) of the cases had SPF <10%, 57 (34.34%) had SPF from 10%-20%, and 83 (50%) had SPF >20%. A significant correlation between SPF and nodal metastasis was observed (p = 0.0111), but not between SPF and the number of lymph nodes involved when metastatic cases were subdivided into <4 lymph node-positive cases and > or =4 lymph node-positive cases. Significant correlations were also found between SPF and tumor grade (p = 0.0244), as well as between SPF and tumor size (p = 0.048). In conclusion, DNA flow cytometric analysis of SPF carried out in our laboratory could reasonably predict the chances of lymph node metastasis, tumor grade and size in breast cancer patients, thus proving to be an important prognostic marker in the Pakistani setting. This requires further investigations regarding the survival of patients so as to evaluate its capacity of predicting the outcome of Pakistani patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Fase S , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Axila/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Separação Celular , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Paquistão , Prognóstico
13.
Circulation ; 103(16): 2108-13, 2001 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11319203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The data on the long-term safety and efficacy of intracoronary beta-radiation in animal models are limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 30 coronary arteries in 15 swine were subjected to balloon or stent injury followed by beta-radiation from a centered 32P source (2000 cGy to 1 mm beyond lumen surface) or a sham radiation procedure. The animals received aspirin for 6 months and ticlopidine for 30 days. Five of the 10 animals subjected to radiation died (at 5 days, 7 days, 3 months [n = 2], and 4 months) as a result of layered, occlusive thrombus at the intervention site (3 stent and 2 balloon injury sites). No deaths occurred in the control group. In the surviving animals, balloon-injured and irradiated vessels showed a trend toward larger lumens than controls (2.15 +/- 0.17 versus 1.80 +/- 0.08 mm2, P=0.06) and larger external elastic lamina areas (3.32 +/- 0.21 versus 2.62 +/- 0.10 mm2, P=0.003). In the stent-injured vessels from surviving animals, lumen, neointimal, and external elastic lamina areas were 3.58 +/- 0.33, 3.16 +/- 0.35, and 8.12 +/- 0.42 mm2 for irradiated vessel segments; these values were not different from those in controls (3.21 +/- 0.15, 2.84 +/- 0.27, and 7.76 +/- 0.28 mm2, respectively). Histologically, healing was complete in most survivors, although intramural fibrin and hemorrhage were occasionally seen. CONCLUSION: In the long-term (6 month) porcine model of restenosis, the inhibition by intracoronary beta-radiotherapy of the neointimal formation that is known to be present at 1 month is not sustained. This lack of effect on neointimal formation after balloon and stent arterial injury is accompanied by subacute and late thrombosis that leads to cardiac death on a background of continuous aspirin but relatively brief ticlopidine treatment.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Partículas beta/efeitos adversos , Reestenose Coronária/radioterapia , Vasos Coronários/efeitos da radiação , Stents/efeitos adversos , Animais , Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Reestenose Coronária/complicações , Reestenose Coronária/patologia , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Trombose Coronária/patologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Masculino , Taxa de Sobrevida , Porco Miniatura , Tempo , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular/efeitos da radiação
14.
Cardiovasc Radiat Med ; 2(4): 225-30, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12160764

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A dose-response study was performed in swine to investigate the vascular effects of 32P over a broad range of doses in order to define the therapeutic window of intracoronary radiotherapy (ICR) with 32P. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 131 porcine arteries were subjected to balloon injury or stenting followed by 0-36 Gy of ICR from a centered 32P source wire to 1 mm beyond lumen surface or a sham ICR procedure. Animals were euthanized at 4 weeks, and vessels were harvested for histomorphometry. RESULTS: In the balloon-injured arteries, doses of 7 and 9 Gy did not impact restenosis. At doses of 14-36 Gy, neointima was markedly reduced, with mild dilatation at the highest dose, 36 Gy. In the stent-injured arteries, the lowest dose of 9 Gy failed to reduce neointimal growth, while 14-26 Gy showed the most favorable response. CONCLUSIONS: ICR with 32P features a broad therapeutic window. Doses of 14-26 Gy to 1 mm beyond lumen surface provided an optimal combination of efficacy and safety. Doses of 7 and 9 Gy were generally ineffective, suggesting a minimum threshold for ICR with 32P to effectively inhibit restenosis.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Reestenose Coronária/prevenção & controle , Vasos Coronários/lesões , Radioisótopos de Fósforo/uso terapêutico , Stents , Animais , Braquiterapia , Reestenose Coronária/radioterapia , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Masculino , Suínos
15.
Circulation ; 102(9): 951-8, 2000 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10961957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracoronary gamma- and beta-radiation have reduced restenosis in animal models. In the clinical setting, the effectiveness of beta-emitters has not been studied in a broad spectrum of patients, particularly those receiving stents. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective, randomized, sham-controlled study of intracoronary radiotherapy with the beta-emitting (32)P source wire, using a centering catheter and automated source delivery unit, was conducted. A total of 105 patients with de novo (70%) or restenotic (30%) lesions who were treated by stenting (61%) or balloon angioplasty (39%) received 0 (control), 16, 20, or 24 Gy to a depth of 1 mm in the artery wall. Angiography at 6 months showed a target site late loss index of 11+/-36% in radiotherapy patients versus 55+/-30% in controls (P:<0.0001). A low late loss index was seen in stented and balloon-treated patients and was similar across the 16, 20, and 24 Gy radiotherapy groups. Restenosis (>/=50%) rates were significantly lower in radiotherapy patients at the target site (8% versus 39%; P:=0.012) and at target site plus adjacent segments (22% versus 50%; P:=0.018). Target lesion revascularization was needed in 5 radiotherapy patients (6%) and 6 controls (24%; P:<0.05). Stenosis adjacent to the target site and late thrombotic events reduced the overall clinical benefit of radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: beta-radiotherapy with a centered (32)P source is safe and highly effective in inhibiting restenosis at the target site after stent or balloon angioplasty. However, minimizing edge narrowing and late thrombotic events must be accomplished to maximize the clinical benefit of this modality.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Radioisótopos de Fósforo/uso terapêutico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/instrumentação , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Automação , Partículas beta , Terapia Combinada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Doença das Coronárias/radioterapia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/efeitos da radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Radioisótopos de Fósforo/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Stents , Ticlopidina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Coron Artery Dis ; 11(4): 351-7, 2000 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10860179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restenosis after angioplasty remains an unresolved problem despite an increase in use of coronary stents. It has been theorized that nitric oxide (NO) exerts several actions that can prevent restenosis. These include inhibition of proliferation of smooth muscle cells, prevention of arterial spasms, and decreasing aggregation of platelets in response to exposure to collagen. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether NO coated stents decrease restenosis in a pig balloon injury model. METHODS: We used coronary stents impregnated with a slow-release precursor of NO in the porcine model of restenosis. Tantalum coil coronary stents (Cordis) were coated with a polymer impregnated with a slow-release precursor of NO. Polymer-coated stents without active precursors were used as controls. Oversized stents were mounted on a delivery balloon and subsequently deployed in the right coronary and left anterior descending arteries of each animal. RESULTS: Repeated recording of angiograms demonstrated that changes in minimum lumen diameter on going from immediately after stenting to 28-day follow-up for the control and NO-eluting-stent groups were similar, namely decreases of 1.89 +/- 0.33 and 2.08 +/- 0.28 mm, respectively. The morphometric results, showing that severe luminal narrowing occurred for both groups, were similar. The percentage area stenoses were 85 +/- 5% for the control group and 84 +/- 6% for the NO-eluting group. Histology demonstrated that profuse formation of neointima and an inflammatory cell infiltrate occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Severe diameter stenosis occurred both for control and for treatment groups. The degree of angiographic stenosis was markedly worse than that previously reported for this model. Sustained release of a precursor of NO did not prevent restenosis in this model. This might have been due to a lack of efficacy of nitric oxide or to a profuse and overwhelming stimulatory effect of the polymer in the coated stents.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Stents , Animais , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Prevenção Secundária , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
18.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 44(3): 280-4, 2000 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10714840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A controversy exists over the effectiveness and clinical value of intraperitoneal local anaesthetics for treating pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The use of intraperitoneal lidocaine was evaluated in this study. METHODS: At the end of surgery, 200 ml saline containing 200 mg lidocaine, or the same volume of saline, were randomly splashed under the right diaphragmatic surface in 50 patients in a double-blind manner. Postoperative shoulder and abdominal pain intensity were recorded on a numeric grading scale and a visual analogue scale, respectively. Analgesic consumption was also recorded. Respiratory function tests were compared before and after surgery. Side effects and recovery variables were assessed by the nurses at 2-h intervals. RESULTS: The incidence, severity and duration of shoulder pain were reduced from 40% of patients scoring 3.9+/-0.2 for duration of 17.9+/-0.2 h in the control group to 12% scoring 2.5+/-0.5 for duration of 1.6+/-0.01 h in the lidocaine group. Lidocaine treated patients had significantly less abdominal postoperative pain immediately on return to the ward and during the first postoperative day (P<0.05). "No pain on deep inspiration" was reported by 72% of patients in the lidocaine group immediately on return to the ward compared to 8% of those in the control group. Analgesic consumption for 24 h after surgery was significantly less in the lidocaine group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in respiratory function tests, recovery variables or incidence of side effects between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal lidocaine is simple to use and results in a long-lasting reduction of pain after a single administration.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Lidocaína/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Ann Med ; 32(9): 622-31, 2000 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11209970

RESUMO

More than 50 different pharmacological and mechanical interventions have been tested to date for prevention of vascular restenosis without success. Intracoronary radiotherapy is the first one showing promise of significantly attenuating neointimal proliferation, causing positive vascular remodelling and thus inhibiting restenosis. This promising modality has moved from animal experiments via safety and feasibility testing into the phase of clinical trials of efficacy in large numbers of patients. While ongoing research continues to search for new sources and delivery techniques, currently available technology is being optimized. The randomized clinical trials conducted to date have shown consistently a reduction of target site restenosis rates by 55-79%. Lower incidence of major adverse cardiac events after radiotherapy has also been demonstrated, primarily as a result of reduction in target site and target vessel revascularization rates. However, experimental and clinical research has identified two major complications of this approach: stenosis at the ends of the radiation zone ('edge effect' or 'candywrapper') as well as late thrombosis (beyond 30 days after intervention) of the angioplasty or stent site. If these two adverse effects can be minimized, intracoronary radiotherapy may prove to be a major breakthrough in percutaneous coronary interventions.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos
20.
JAMA ; 281(10): 927-30, 1999 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10078490

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The risk of acquiring babesiosis by blood transfusion is largely unknown since in areas where it is endemic it is often an asymptomatic infection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and treat a cluster of blood transfusion-associated babesiosis cases. DESIGN: Case series and epidemiologic investigation. SETTING: Urban inner-city hospital. PATIENTS: Six persons who received Babesia microti-infected blood components from a donor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Diagnosis and successful therapy of babesiosis following transfusion. RESULTS: Six individuals (1 adult, 1 child, and 4 neonates) were exposed to products from a single blood donation by an asymptomatic Babesia-infected donor. Three of the 6 exposed patients became parasitemic. Polymerase chain reaction testing, animal inoculation studies, and indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing were used to confirm the presence of Babesia microti in the donor's blood and to establish the presence of infection in 3 of the 6 recipients. The 3 infected recipients and 1 additional recipient were treated without incident. CONCLUSION: Physicians should consider babesiosis in the differential diagnosis of a febrile hemolytic disorder after blood transfusion. Prompt diagnosis is important since babesiosis is responsive to antibiotic therapy and, untreated, can be a fatal disease in certain risk groups.


Assuntos
Babesiose/transmissão , Busca de Comunicante , Reação Transfusional , Idoso , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Doadores de Sangue , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/transmissão
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