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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285606

RESUMO

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243283, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278505

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Infectious agents cause serious diseases in humans worldwide and are responsible for the high rate of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of infectious disease (HCV) in the hospital visited patients referred by the physicians through the initial findings and their associated risk factors were studied in Swat. The data of 174 infected patients were collected during the period of 2015 to 2017 from two clinical laboratories of Tehsil Matta Swat. Inform consent form was taken before blood collection. After taking informed consent blood samples were collected and ICT test was performed and then ICT positive cases were conform through PCR. A total of 174 ICT positive samples [106 male and 68 females] were included in this study. Age was considered from 10 to 72 years. Of the 174 ICT strip positive, 99 [63 males, 36 females] were confirmed through PCR. The prevalence rate was recorded 56.89%. I.V/I.M injection was recorded in 100% of the individuals. Visits to the barber shop was reported in (58%) of the individuals, married individuals were (81.0), surgical operation was reported in (44.8%), sharing toothbrush was observed in (29.9%), piercing was reported in (39.7%), family history was reported in (26.4%), dental treatment was observed in (21.8%), jaundice were (13.2%) and tattooing was (1.7%). Blood transfusion, surgical operations, Jaundice, family history and dental treatment were found significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection. It was concluded that proper implementation of precautionary measures should be needed to control the spread of HCV in far near future.


RESUMO Agentes infecciosos causam doenças graves em humanos em todo o mundo, e são responsáveis pelo alto índice de morbimortalidade. A prevalência e a epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas no hospital que atendeu pacientes encaminhados pelos médicos por meio dos achados iniciais e seus fatores de risco associados foram estudadas em Peshawar. Os dados de 174 pacientes infectados foram coletados durante o período de 2015 a 2017 oriundos de dois laboratórios clínicos de Tehsil Matta Swat. O formulário de consentimento informado foi obtido antes da coleta de sangue. Após a obtenção do consentimento informado, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e foi realizado o teste ICT e, em seguida, os casos ICT positivos foram confirmados por PCR. Um total de 174 amostras ICT positivas [106 homens e 68 mulheres] foi incluído neste estudo. A idade considerada foi de 10 a 72 anos. Das 174 tiras de ICT positivas, 99 casos [63 homens, 36 mulheres] foram confirmados por PCR. A taxa de prevalência foi de 56,89%. A injeção IV / IM foi registrada em 100% dos indivíduos. A visita à barbearia foi relatada em (58%) dos indivíduos, os números de casados foram (81,0%), e a operação cirúrgica foi relatada em (44,8%), o compartilhamento de escova de dente foi observado em (29,9%), o piercing foi relatado em (39,7%), antecedentes familiares foram relatados em (26,4%), tratamento odontológico em (21,8%), icterícia (13,2%) e tatuagem em (1,7%). Transfusão de sangue, operações cirúrgicas, icterícia, histórico familiar e tratamento odontológico foram fatores de risco significativos para adquirir infecção por Vírus da Hepatite C (VHC). Concluiu-se que a implementação adequada de medidas de precaução deve ser necessária para controlar a propagação do VHC em um futuro próximo.

3.
J Card Surg ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628679

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common degenerative valvular heart disease that can affect left ventricular functions. Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio is a novel repolarization marker which is associated with adverse cardiovascular events in several cardiovascular diseases. In our study, our aim is to investigate the prognostic effect of Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios on mortality in patients who underwent successful surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). METHODS: A total of three hundred seventy-five patients undergoing successful surgical AVR were included in this study. Then, patients were divided into two groups according to mortality as group 1 without mortality (342 patients) and group 2 with mortality (33 patients). Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT, and Tp-e/QTc ratios were calculated for both groups. RESULTS: Tp-e interval (71 (63.7-77); 86 (84-88), p < .001), Tp-e/QT ratio (0.19 (0.17-0.20); 0.23 (0.22-0.23), p < .001) and Tp-e/QTc ratio (0.17 ± 0.02; 0.21 ± 0.01, p < .001) were higher in group 2 compared to group 1. In multivariate logistic regression analyses Tp-e interval (odds ratio [OR]: 1.315, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.203-1.437, p < .001), Tp-e/QT ratio (OR: 7.334, 95% CI: 3.274-1.643, p < .001) and Tp-e/QTc ratio (OR: 2.567, 95% CI: 4.106-1.605, p < .001) were found to be independent predictors of mortality. Additionally, a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis also revealed that long term survival was found to be significantly decreased in patients with higher Tp-e/QT ratio (Log-Rank p < .001) and Tp-e/QTc ratio (Log-Rank p < .001). CONCLUSION: Tp-e interval, Tp-e dispersion, Tp-e/QT, and Tp-e/QTc ratios are associated with worse prognosis after surgical AVR in patients with severe AS. All of them are also independent predictors of mortality.

4.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-6, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The surgical management of large and complex tumors of the posterior fossa poses a formidable challenge in neurosurgery. The standard retrosigmoid craniotomy approach has been performed at most neurosurgical centers; however, the retrosigmoid approach may not provide enough working space without significant retraction of the cerebellum. The transsigmoid approach provides wider and shallower surgical fields; however, there have been few clinical and no cadaveric studies on its usefulness. In the present study, the authors describe the transsigmoid approach in clinical cases and cadaveric specimens. METHODS: For the clinical study, the authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records and operative charts of patients who had been surgically treated for parabrainstem tumors using the transsigmoid approach between 1997 and 2019. They analyzed patient demographic and clinical data, as well as surgical and clinical outcomes. In the cadaveric study, they compared the surgical views obtained in different approaches (retrosigmoid, presigmoid, retrolabyrinthine, and transsigmoid) and measured the sigmoid sinus width at the level of the endolymphatic sac and the distance between the anterior edge of the sigmoid sinus and the endolymphatic sac on 35 sides in 19 cadaveric specimens. RESULTS: A total of 21 patients (6 males and 15 females) with a mean age of 42.2 (range 15-67) years were included in the clinical study. Eleven patients had meningioma, 7 had vestibular schwannoma, 2 had hemangioblastoma, and 1 had epidermoid cyst. Gross-total, near-total, and subtotal removal were achieved in 7 (33.3%), 3 (14.3%), and 11 (52.4%) patients, respectively. In the cadaveric study, 19 cadaveric specimens were used. The sigmoid sinus was cut in the middle, and the incision was extended from the retrosigmoid to the presigmoid dura. The dura was then retracted upward and downward like opening a door. The results indicated that this technique can widen the operative field anteriorly by approximately 2 cm as compared to the retrosigmoid approach and provides a better view anterior to the brainstem. CONCLUSIONS: The transsigmoid approach is useful for complex parabrainstem tumors in the posterior fossa because it provides a wider and shallower operative view with less retraction of the cerebellum. This enables safer tumor removal with less damage to important structures in the posterior fossa, resulting in better operative and clinical outcomes.

5.
Neurosurg Rev ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613526

RESUMO

The history of academic research on ependymoma is expansive. This review summarizes its history with a bibliometric analysis of the 100 most cited articles on ependymoma. In March 2020, we queried the Web of Science database to identify the most cited articles on ependymoma using the terms "ependymoma" or "ependymal tumors," yielding 3145 publications. Results were arranged by the number of times each article was cited in descending order. The top 100 articles spanned across nearly a century; the oldest article was published in 1924, while the most recent was in 2017. These articles were published in 35 unique journals, including a mix of basic science and clinical journals. The three institutions with the most papers in the top 100 were St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (16%), the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (6%), and the German Cancer Research Center (5%). We analyzed the publications that may be considered the most influential in the understanding and treatment management of ependymoma. Studies focused on the molecular classification of ependymomas were well-represented among the most cited articles, reflecting the field's current area of focus and its future directions. Additionally, this article also offers a reference for further studies in the ependymoma field.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613552

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent efforts to characterize hematologic cancers with genetic and molecular detail have largely relied on mutational profiling via next-generation sequencing (NGS). The application of NGS-guided disease prognostication and clinical decision making requires a basic understanding of sequencing advantages, pitfalls, and areas where clinical care might be enhanced by the knowledge generated. This article identifies avenues within the landscape of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) where mutational data hold the opportunity to enhance understanding of disease biology and patient care. RECENT FINDINGS: NGS-based assessment of measurable residual disease (MRD) after ALL treatment allows for a sensitive and specific molecular survey that is at least comparable, if not superior, to existing techniques. Mutational assessment by NGS has unraveled complex signaling networks that drive pathogenesis of T-cell ALL. Sequencing of patients with familial clustering of ALL has also identified novel germline mutations whose inheritance predisposes to disease development in successive generations. While NGS-based assessment of hematopoietic malignancies often provides actionable information to clinicians, patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are left underserved due to a lack of disease classification and prognostication schema that integrate molecular data. Ongoing research is positioned to enrich the molecular toolbox available to clinicians caring for adult ALL patients and deliver new insights to guide therapeutic selection, monitor clinical response, and detect relapse.

7.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(3): 601-610, July-Sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762649

RESUMO

The present study aimed to assess population structure and phylogenetic relationships of nine subspecies of Brassica rapa L. represented with thirty-five accessions cover a wide range of species distribution area using isozyme analysis in order to select more diverse accessions as supplementary resources that can be utilized for improvement of B. napus. Enzyme analysis resulted in detecting 14 putative polymorphic loci with 27 alleles. Mean allele frequency 0.04 (rare alleles) was observed in Cat4A and Cat4B in sub species Oleifera accession CR 2204/79 and in subspecies trilocularis accessions CR 2215/88 and CR 2244/88. The highest genetic diversity measures were observed in subspecies dichotoma, accession CR 1585/96 (the highest average of observed (H0) and expected heterozygosity (He), and number of alleles per locus (Ae)). These observations make this accession valuable genetic resource to be included in breeding programs for the improvement of oilseed B. napus. The average fixation index (F) is significantly higher than zero for the analysis accessions indicating a significant deficiency of heteozygosity. The divergence among subspecies indicated very great genetic differentiation (FST = 0.8972) which means that about 90% of genetic diversity is distributed among subspecies, while 10% of the diversity is distributed within subspecies. This coincides with low value of gene flow (Nm = 0.0287). B. rapa ssp. oleifera (turnip rape) and B. rapa ssp. trilocularis (sarson) were grouped under one cluster which coincides with the morphological classification.(AU)


O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a estrutura populacional e as relações filogenéticas de nove subespécies de Brassica rapa L. representadas com 35 acessos, cobrindo uma ampla gama de áreas de distribuição de espécies usando análise isoenzimática, a fim de selecionar acessos mais diversos como recursos suplementares que podem ser utilizados para melhoria de B. napus. A análise enzimática resultou na detecção de 14 loci polimórficos putativos com 27 alelos. A frequência média de 0,04 alelo (alelos raros) foi observada em Cat4A e Cat4B, nas subespécies Oleifera CR 2204/79 e nas subespécies trilocularis CR 2215/88 e CR 2244/88. As maiores medidas de diversidade genética foram observadas na subespécie dicotômica CR 1585/96 (a média mais alta observada (H0) e heterozigosidade esperada (He) e número de alelos por locus (Ae). Essas observações tornam esse acesso um valioso recurso genético a ser incluído em programas de melhoramento de oleaginosas B. napus. O índice médio de fixação (F) é significativamente maior que 0 para os acessos à análise, indicando uma deficiência significativa de heterozigose. A divergência entre as subespécies indicou uma grande diferenciação genética (FST = 0,8972), o que significa que cerca de 90% da diversidade genética é distribuída entre as subespécies, enquanto 10% da diversidade é distribuída nas subespécies. Isso coincide com o baixo valor do fluxo gênico (Nm = 0,0287). B. rapa ssp. oleifera (nabo) e B. rapa ssp. trilocularis (sarson) foram agrupados conforme a classificação morfológica.(AU)


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica rapa/classificação , Isoenzimas , Variação Genética
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516380

RESUMO

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been identified as a non-invasive and inexpensive imaging modality to discover potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's diagnosis and progress determination. Current hypotheses presume the thickness of the retinal layers, which are analyzable within OCT scans, as an effective biomarker for the presence of Alzheimer's. As a logical first step, this work concentrates on the accurate segmentation of retinal layers to isolate the layers for further analysis. This paper proposes a generative adversarial network (GAN) that concurrently learns to increase the image resolution for higher clarity and then segment the retinal layers. We propose a multi-stage \& multi-discriminatory generative adversarial network (MultiSDGAN) specifically for superresolution and segmentation of OCT scans of the retinal layer. The resulting generator is adversarially trained against multiple discriminator networks at multiple stages. We aim to avoid early saturation of generator model training leading to poor segmentation accuracies and enhance the process of OCT domain translation by satisfying all the discriminators in multiple scales. We also investigated incorporating the Dice loss and Structured Similarity Index Measure (SSIM) as additional loss functions to specifically target and improve our proposed GAN architecture's segmentation and superresolution performance, respectively. The ablation study results conducted on our data set suggest that the proposed MultiSDGAN with ten-fold cross-validation (10-CV) provides a reduced equal error rate with 44.24% and 34.09% relative improvements, respectively (p-values of the improvement level tests<.01). Furthermore, our experimental results also demonstrate that the addition of the new terms to the loss function improves the segmentation results significantly by relative improvements of 31.33% (p-value<.01).

9.
Brain Pathol ; : e13017, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538024

RESUMO

Periventricular white matter hyperintensities (pvWMH) are neuroimaging abnormalities surrounding the lateral ventricles that are apparent on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They are associated with age, neurodegenerative disease, and cerebrovascular risk factors. While pvWMH ultimately represent a loss of white matter structural integrity, the pathological causes are heterogeneous in nature, and currently, cannot be distinguished using neuroimaging alone. pvWMH could occur because of a combination of small vessel disease (SVD), ependymal loss, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, and microgliosis. In this study we aimed to characterize microvascular stenosis, fibrinogen extravasation, and microgliosis within pvWMH with and without imaging evidence of periventricular infarction. Using postmortem neuroimaging of human brains (n = 20), we identified pvWMH with and without periventricular infarcts (PVI). We performed histological analysis of microvessel stenosis, perivascular spaces, microgliosis, and immunohistochemistry against fibrinogen as a measure of serum protein extravasation. Herein, we report distinctions between pvWMH with and without periventricular infarcts based on associations with microvessel stenosis, enlarged perivascular spaces, and fibrinogen IHC. Microvessel stenosis was significantly associated with PVI and with cellular deposition of fibrinogen in the white matter. The presence of fibrinogen was associated with PVI and increased number of microglia. These findings suggest that neuroimaging-based detection of infarction within pvWMH may help distinguish more severe lesions, associated with underlying microvascular disease and BBB dysfunction, from milder pvWMH that are a highly frequent finding on MRI.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524376

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a non-communicable disease throughout the world in which there is persistently high blood glucose level from the normal range. The diabetes and insulin resistance are mainly responsible for the morbidities and mortalities of humans in the world. This disease is mainly regulated by various enzymes and hormones among which Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a principle enzyme and insulin is the key hormone regulating it. The GSK-3, that is the key enzyme is normally showing its actions by various mechanisms that include its phosphorylation, formation of protein complexes, and other cellular distribution and thus it control and directly affects cellular morphology, its growth, mobility and apoptosis of the cell. Disturbances in the action of GSK-3 enzyme may leads to various disease conditions that include insulin resistance leading to diabetes, neurological disease like Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Fluoroquinolones are the most common class of drugs that shows dysglycemic effects via interacting with GSK-3 enzyme. Therefore, it is the need of the day to properly understand functions and mechanisms of GSK-3, especially its role in glucose homeostasis via effects on glycogen synthase.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Resistência à Insulina , Glucose , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Homeostase , Humanos
11.
Phytopathology ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579556

RESUMO

Shrub willows (Salix spp.) are emerging as a viable lignocellulosic, second-generation bioenergy crop with many growth characteristics favorable for marginal lands in New York State and surrounding areas. Willow rust, caused by members of the genus Melampsora, is the most limiting disease of shrub willow in this region and remains extremely understudied. In this study, genetic diversity, genetic structure, and pathogen clonality were examined in Melampsora americana over two growing seasons using genotyping-by-sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers. In conjunction with this project, a reference genome of rust isolate R15-033-03 was generated to aid in variant discovery. Sampling between years allowed for regional and site-specific investigation into population dynamics, in the context of both wild and cultivated hosts within high density plantings. This work revealed that this pathogen is largely panmictic over the sampled areas with few sites showing moderate genetic differentiation. This data supports the hypothesis of sexual recombination between growing seasons as no genotype persisted across the two years of sampling. Additionally, clonality was determined as a driver of pathogen populations within cultivated fields and single shrubs, however there is also evidence of high genetic diversity of rust isolates in all settings. Together, this work provides a framework for M. americana population structure in the Great Lakes region, providing crucial information that can aid in future resistance breeding efforts.

13.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 601-610, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153382

RESUMO

Abstract The present study aimed to assess population structure and phylogenetic relationships of nine subspecies of Brassica rapa L. represented with thirty-five accessions cover a wide range of species distribution area using isozyme analysis in order to select more diverse accessions as supplementary resources that can be utilized for improvement of B. napus. Enzyme analysis resulted in detecting 14 putative polymorphic loci with 27 alleles. Mean allele frequency 0.04 (rare alleles) was observed in Cat4A and Cat4B in sub species Oleifera accession CR 2204/79 and in subspecies trilocularis accessions CR 2215/88 and CR 2244/88. The highest genetic diversity measures were observed in subspecies dichotoma, accession CR 1585/96 (the highest average of observed (H0) and expected heterozygosity (He), and number of alleles per locus (Ae)). These observations make this accession valuable genetic resource to be included in breeding programs for the improvement of oilseed B. napus. The average fixation index (F) is significantly higher than zero for the analysis accessions indicating a significant deficiency of heteozygosity. The divergence among subspecies indicated very great genetic differentiation (FST = 0.8972) which means that about 90% of genetic diversity is distributed among subspecies, while 10% of the diversity is distributed within subspecies. This coincides with low value of gene flow (Nm = 0.0287). B. rapa ssp. oleifera (turnip rape) and B. rapa ssp. trilocularis (sarson) were grouped under one cluster which coincides with the morphological classification.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a estrutura populacional e as relações filogenéticas de nove subespécies de Brassica rapa L. representadas com 35 acessos, cobrindo uma ampla gama de áreas de distribuição de espécies usando análise isoenzimática, a fim de selecionar acessos mais diversos como recursos suplementares que podem ser utilizados para melhoria de B. napus. A análise enzimática resultou na detecção de 14 loci polimórficos putativos com 27 alelos. A frequência média de 0,04 alelo (alelos raros) foi observada em Cat4A e Cat4B, nas subespécies Oleifera CR 2204/79 e nas subespécies trilocularis CR 2215/88 e CR 2244/88. As maiores medidas de diversidade genética foram observadas na subespécie dicotômica CR 1585/96 (a média mais alta observada (H0) e heterozigosidade esperada (He) e número de alelos por locus (Ae). Essas observações tornam esse acesso um valioso recurso genético a ser incluído em programas de melhoramento de oleaginosas B. napus. O índice médio de fixação (F) é significativamente maior que 0 para os acessos à análise, indicando uma deficiência significativa de heterozigose. A divergência entre as subespécies indicou uma grande diferenciação genética (FST = 0,8972), o que significa que cerca de 90% da diversidade genética é distribuída entre as subespécies, enquanto 10% da diversidade é distribuída nas subespécies. Isso coincide com o baixo valor do fluxo gênico (Nm = 0,0287). B. rapa ssp. oleifera (nabo) e B. rapa ssp. trilocularis (sarson) foram agrupados conforme a classificação morfológica.

14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 50: 156-159, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365065

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a serious consequence of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic there was a closure of Pennsylvania (PA) liquor stores on March 17, 2020. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational study of AWS patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital. We used descriptive statistics for continuous and categorical variables and compared AWS consults placed to the medical toxicology service for six months preceding liquor store closure to those placed between March 17, 2020 and August 31, 2020. We compared this to consults placed to the medical toxicology service placed from October 1, 2019 through March 16, 2020. Charts were identified based on consults placed to the medical toxicology service, and alcohol withdrawal was determined via chart review by a medical toxicologist. This study did not require IRB approval. We evaluated Emergency Department (ED) length of stay (LOS), weekly and monthly consultation rate, rate of admission and ED recidivism, both pre- and post-liquor store closure. RESULTS: A total of 324 AWS consults were placed during the ten month period. 142 (43.8%) and 182 (56.2%) consults were pre- and post-liquor store closure. The number of consults was not statistically significant comparing these two time frames. There was no significant difference by patient age, gender, or race or by weekly or monthly consultation rate when comparing pre- and post-liquor store periods. The median ED LOS was 7 h (95% Confidence Interval (CI) Larson et al. (2012), Pollard et al. (2020) [5, 11]) and did not significantly differ between pre- and post-liquor store periods (p = 0.78). 92.9% of AWS patients required admission without significant difference between the pre- and post-liquor store closure periods (94.4% vs. 91.8%, p = 0.36). There was a significant increase in the number of AWS patients requiring a return ED visit (Odds Ratio 2.49; 95% CI [1.38, 4.49]) post closure. CONCLUSION: There were nearly 2.5 times greater odds of ED recidivism among post-liquor store closure AWS patients compared with pre-closure AWS patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse nosocomial transmission in the early stages of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at a large multisite healthcare institution. Nosocomial incidence is linked with infection control interventions. METHODS: Viral genome sequence and epidemiological data were analysed for 574 consecutive patients, including 86 nosocomial cases, with a positive PCR test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the first 19 days of the pandemic. RESULTS: Forty-four putative transmission clusters were found through epidemiological analysis; these included 234 cases and all 86 nosocomial cases. SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences were obtained from 168/234 (72%) of these cases in epidemiological clusters, including 77/86 nosocomial cases (90%). Only 75/168 (45%) of epidemiologically linked, sequenced cases were not refuted by applying genomic data, creating 14 final clusters accounting for 59/77 sequenced nosocomial cases (77%). Viral haplotypes from these clusters were enriched 1-14x (median 4x) compared to the community. Three factors implicated unidentified cases in transmission: (a) community-onset or indeterminate cases were absent in 7/14 clusters (50%), (b) four clusters (29%) had additional evidence of cryptic transmission, and (c) in three clusters (21%) diagnosis of the earliest case was delayed, which may have facilitated transmission. Nosocomial cases decreased to low levels (0-2 per day) despite continuing high numbers of admissions of community-onset SARS-CoV-2 cases (40-50 per day) and before the impact of introducing universal face masks and banning hospital visitors. CONCLUSION: Genomics was necessary to accurately resolve transmission clusters. Our data support unidentified cases-such as healthcare workers or asymptomatic patients-as important vectors of transmission. Evidence is needed to ascertain whether routine screening increases case ascertainment and limits nosocomial transmission.

16.
Elife ; 102021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431476

RESUMO

Neuroimaging stands to benefit from emerging ultrahigh-resolution 3D histological atlases of the human brain; the first of which is 'BigBrain'. Here, we review recent methodological advances for the integration of BigBrain with multi-modal neuroimaging and introduce a toolbox, 'BigBrainWarp', that combines these developments. The aim of BigBrainWarp is to simplify workflows and support the adoption of best practices. This is accomplished with a simple wrapper function that allows users to easily map data between BigBrain and standard MRI spaces. The function automatically pulls specialised transformation procedures, based on ongoing research from a wide collaborative network of researchers. Additionally, the toolbox improves accessibility of histological information through dissemination of ready-to-use cytoarchitectural features. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of BigBrainWarp with three tutorials and discuss the potential of the toolbox to support multi-scale investigations of brain organisation.

17.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) is a significant symptom of COVID-19 and may be the earliest symptom, or it may sometimes be the only manifestation of the disease. AIMS: To investigate whether OD is correlated with chest computed tomography (CT) findings, blood test parameters, and disease severity in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The files of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively reviewed, and the ones who had information about smelling status and CT were taken into consideration. A total of 180 patients were divided into two groups: the OD group consisted of 89 patients with self-reported OD, and the No-OD group consisted of 91 subjects who did not complain of OD. The two groups were compared for the amount of lung consolidation on CT, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and blood test parameters (complete blood count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, D-dimer, interleukin-6 (IL-6)). RESULTS: The amount of lung consolidation and ICU admission were significantly higher in the No-OD group (p < 0.001 for both). White blood cell (p = 0.06), monocyte (p = 0.26), and platelet (p = 0.13) counts and hemoglobin (p = 0.63), ALT (p = 0.89), and D-dimer (p = 0.45) levels of the two groups were similar. Lymphocyte count (p = 0.01), neutrophil count (p = 0.01), and AST (p = 0.03), CK (p = 0.01), LDH (p < 0.001), CRP (p < 0.001), ESR (p < 0.001), ferritin (p < 0.001), and IL-6 (p < 0.001) levels were significantly higher in the No-OD group. CONCLUSIONS: The patients presenting to the hospital with self-reported OD may have less lung involvement and a milder disease course compared to patients without OD on admission.

18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378658

RESUMO

In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Assuntos
Bacillus pumilus , Bacillus , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus pumilus/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Esgotos , Temperatura
19.
Anal Biochem ; 630: 114339, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411552

RESUMO

This article reports results of one of our projects related to the investigation of interactions of miglitol (MIG) with normal human serum albumin (HSA) and glycated HSA (GHSA) with the help of recording spectroscopic and electrochemical data. The experimental data were analyzed by conventional and chemometric methods to extract useful information for comprehensive justifications of the interactions of the MIG with HSA and GHSA. Hard- and soft-modeling chemometric methods were used to extract quantitative and qualitative information. Then, molecular docking techniques were used to further investigation of the binding of the MIG with HSA and GHSA and the extracted results were compatible with those obtained by experimental methods. Finally, according to the binding of the BV with HSA and GHSA, second-order differential pulse voltammetric data were recorded and calibrated with three-way calibration methods for exploiting second-order advantage for determination of the GHSA in the presence of the HSA to develop a novel chemometrics assisted-electroanalytical method for diagnostic and monitoring of diabetic.

20.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 163(10): 2881-2894, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Petrous bone lesions (PBLs) are rare with few reports in the neurosurgical literature. In this study, the authors describe our current technique of extradural subtemporal approach (ESTA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the role and efficacy of ESTA for treatment of the PBLs. To our knowledge, this is the largest reported clinical series of using an ESTA-treated PBLs in which the clinical outcomes were evaluated. METHODS: Between 1994 and 2019, 67 patients with PBLs treated by ESTA were retrospectively reviewed. Extent of resection, neurological outcomes, recurrence rate, and surgical complications were evaluated and compared with previous studies. The indications, advantages, limitations, and outcomes of ESTA were analyzed according to pathology. RESULTS: This series included 7 facial nerve schwannomas (10.4%), 16 cholesterol granulomas (23.9%), 16 chordomas (23.9%), 6 chondrosarcomas (9%), 5 trigeminal schwannomas (7.5%), 9 epidermoids/dermoids (13.4%), and 8 other pathologies (11.9%). The most common location of PBLs operated with ESTA was at the petrous apex and rhomboid areas (68.7%). Gross total resection was achieved in 35 (55.6%). Symptomatic improvement occurred in 56 patients (83.6%). Complications occurred in 7 (10.4%) of cases including one mortality. Nine patients (17%) had recurrence within the mean follow-up 71 months. Compared to previous literature, our results demonstrated comparable outcomes but with higher rates of hearing and facial nerve preservation as well as minimal morbidity. From our results, ESTA is an effective therapeutic option for lesions located at the rhomboid and petrous apex, particularly when patients presented with intact facial and hearing function. CONCLUSION: Our series demonstrated that ESTA provided satisfactory outcomes with excellent benefits of hearing and facial function preservation for patients with petrous bone lesions. ESTA should be considered as a safe and effective therapeutic option for selected patients with PBLs.

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