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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e260090, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374700

RESUMO

Ophiactis savignyi could be discovered all over the world in tropical marine environments. People could have aided in the spread of O. savignyi, particularly in the western and eastern populations of Panama's Isthmus. The brittle star Ophiactis savignyi, often known as savigny's brittle star, coexists alongside the sponge Geodia corticostylifera. The focus of this research has been to assess the functional relevance of G. corticostylifera secondary metabolites as antifoulant against mussels, protection against generalist fish, and chemical cues to affiliated brittle stars. Both in flow-through and static seawater laboratory studies, O. savignyi which has previously been connected with sponges, was given both treated and control mimics at the same time. The sponge extract was also tested for its ability to protect fish against predators and fouling. Deterrence test using chemicals indicated that the normal level of the sponge extract may also suppress generalist fish predation in the field as well as the mussel Perna perna's normal attachment in clinical contexts. According to the findings, G. corticostylifera crude extract has many roles in the aquatic environments, apparently being accountable for this sponge's tighter relationship with O. savignyi, which protects the ophiuroid and inhibits epibionts on itself.


Ophiactis savignyi pode ser descoberta em todo o mundo em ambientes marinhos tropicais. A população pode ter contribuído para a propagação de O. savignyi, particularmente as populações ocidentais e orientais do istmo do Panamá. A estrela-quebradiça O. savignyi, muitas vezes conhecida como estrela-quebradiça de Savignyi, coexiste com a esponja Geodia corticostylifera. O foco desta pesquisa foi avaliar a relevância funcional dos metabólitos secundários de G. corticostylifera como anti-incrustante contra mexilhões, proteção contra peixes generalistas e sinais químicos para estrelas-quebradiças afiliadas. Em estudos de laboratório com fluxo contínuo e estático de água do mar, O. savignyi, que anteriormente havia se ligado a esponjas, recebeu mimetizadores tratados e controle ao mesmo tempo. O extrato de esponja também foi testado por sua capacidade de proteger os peixes contra predadores e incrustações. Testes de dissuasão usando produtos químicos indicaram que o nível normal de extrato de esponja também pode suprimir a predação de peixes generalistas no campo, bem como a fixação normal do mexilhão Perna perna em ambientes clínicos. De acordo com os achados, o extrato bruto de G. corticostylifera tem diversas funções em ambientes aquáticos, aparentemente responsáveis ​​pela relação mais próxima dessa esponja com O. savignyi, protegendo o ofiuroide e inibindo os epibiontes.


Assuntos
Animais , Poríferos/parasitologia , Simbiose , Bactérias , Geodia/parasitologia
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260090, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613214

RESUMO

Ophiactis savignyi could be discovered all over the world in tropical marine environments. People could have aided in the spread of O. savignyi, particularly in the western and eastern populations of Panama's Isthmus. The brittle star Ophiactis savignyi, often known as savigny's brittle star, coexists alongside the sponge Geodia corticostylifera. The focus of this research has been to assess the functional relevance of G. corticostylifera secondary metabolites as antifoulant against mussels, protection against generalist fish, and chemical cues to affiliated brittle stars. Both in flow-through and static seawater laboratory studies, O. savignyi which has previously been connected with sponges, was given both treated and control mimics at the same time. The sponge extract was also tested for its ability to protect fish against predators and fouling. Deterrence test using chemicals indicated that the normal level of the sponge extract may also suppress generalist fish predation in the field as well as the mussel Perna perna's normal attachment in clinical contexts. According to the findings, G. corticostylifera crude extract has many roles in the aquatic environments, apparently being accountable for this sponge's tighter relationship with O. savignyi, which protects the ophiuroid and inhibits epibionts on itself.


Assuntos
Geodia , Animais , Peixes , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
3.
Arch Razi Inst ; 77(3): 1269-1273, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36618276

RESUMO

It has been approved that one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogenic bacteria is E. coli O157:H7, which is responsible for several infection and death cases worldwide. It is well documented that in the developing countries E. coli O157:H7 is considered the main causative pathogen of human gastrointestinal infections. Therefore, the current research was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in dairy cattle's milk using a rapid method, in Iraq (Najaf, Baghdad, Kirkuk, and Erbil). Over a period of 6 months (During hot months) samples were obtained and investigated by culturing on selective media (CT-SMAC). The multiplex PCR (m-PCR) also used for milk sample direct investigation. Using biochemical tests the recorded data showed that, 2 recognized isolates were E. coli, while the recorded data obtained from m-PCR assay revealed that none of the isolated E. coli was toxigenic E.coli O157:H7. The results of m-PCR on the milk samples revealed that 45 milk samples contained at least one of the following genes: O157, H7, stx1, stx2 genes. Also the results of the m-PCR revealed that 2 samples (raw milk) were toxigenic O157:H7 positive. In conclusion, to the best of authors' knowledge, this investigation was the first report on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in the raw milk samples in Iraq. The results showed that the proportion of contaminated milk samples contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 identified in the current survey were similar to that the results of the previously published research from different dairy products across different countries in the Middle East region.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli O157 , Bovinos , Animais , Humanos , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Iraque/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leite/microbiologia
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