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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246002, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285612

RESUMO

Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Resumo A valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos é um novo conceito no manejo florestal. A avaliação econômica fornece base para o pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ecoturismo e os serviços de estoque de carbono do vale de Miandam, distrito Swat, Paquistão. Para o cálculo do estoque de carbono, um tamanho de amostra de 155 parcelas de 0,1 hectare (ha) foi tirado, usando pesquisa preliminar com intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro admissível de 10%. Os dados para serviços de turismo foram coletados de proprietários de todos os hotéis, 100 turistas e informantes-chave da área em 10% de intensidade de amostragem em questionário pré-testado para um período de 20 anos (1997-2017). Os resultados mostraram que o vale de Miandam tem estoque de carbono no valor de US$ 16.306.000, enquanto o valor do ecoturismo foi de US$ 1.578.458 anualmente. Os resultados também mostraram que a tendência do turismo diminuiu drasticamente para estrangeiros e locais após o incidente de 11 de Setembro, e a situação se agravou ainda mais durante a era da talibanização ou militância de 2008-2011. Este estudo recomenda a implementação da estratégia de PES na taxa de 5%, portanto um total de US$ 78.922 pode ser ganho com ecoturismo e crédito de carbono na área de estudo anualmente, o que pode desempenhar um papel importante no manejo florestal sustentável.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243774, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278468

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted for the taxonomic, morphometric and limnological assessment of the commercially important ichthyofauna of Sakhakot Stream, Malakand, Pakistan. The study area was divided into three sites along the water course namely Dargai Stream, Sakhakot Stream and Shergarh Stream. Fish samples were collected randomly during January to August 2017 with the help of fish gears. A taxonomic key was designed for the collected fish specimens. Ten fish species were identified belonging to 3 orders and 4 families. Family Cyprinidae was the dominant family with seven representative species while families Siluridae, Nemacheilidae and Mastacembelidae were represented by one species each. Lower mean total length and standard length was recorded in Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) as 9.2 ± 0.6 cm and 7.3 ± 0.6 cm respectively, while highest mean total length and standard length was recorded in Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) as 28.1 ± 1.7 cm and 15.9 ± 2.4 cm respectively. Mean pH of the water ranged from 6.1 at Shergarh Stream in August to 8.7 at Sakhakot Stream in January. Average temperature range was recorded from 10.9 °C in January at Dargai Stream to 18.7 °C in August at Shergarh Stream. No statistically significant difference was found for temperature (p = 0.96) and pH (p = 0.14) in the three water streams. The present study will provide a baseline for the rearing and enhancement of wild stock of the commercially important ichthyofauna in the field of aquaculture and fisheries.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação taxonômica, morfométrica e limnológica da ictiofauna comercialmente importante do Riacho Sakhakot, Malakand, Paquistão. A área de estudo foi dividida em três locais ao longo do curso de água, nomeadamente Riacho Dargai, Riacho Sakhakot e Riacho Shergarh. As amostras de peixes foram coletadas aleatoriamente durante janeiro e agosto de 2017, com a ajuda de artes de peixes. Uma chave taxonômica foi projetada para os espécimes de peixes coletados. Foram identificadas dez espécies de peixes pertencentes a 3 ordens e 4 famílias. A família Cyprinidae foi a família dominante, com sete espécies representativas, enquanto as famílias Siluridae, Nemacheilidae e Mastacembelidae foram representadas por uma espécie cada. O comprimento total médio mais baixo e o comprimento padrão foram registrados em Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) como 9.2 ± 0.6 cm e 7.3 ± 0.6 cm, respectivamente, enquanto o comprimento total médio e o comprimento padrão mais altos foram registrados em Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede, 1800) como 28.1 ± 1.7 cm e 15.9 ± 2.4 cm, respectivamente. O pH médio da água variou de 6.1 no Riacho Shergarh em agosto a 8.7 no Riacho Sakhakot em janeiro. A faixa de temperatura média foi registrada de 10.9 °C em janeiro no Riacho Dargai a 18.7 °C em agosto no Riacho Shergarh. Não foi encontrada diferença estatisticamente significativa para temperatura (p = 0,96) e pH (p = 0,14) nos três cursos de água. O presente estudo fornecerá uma linha de base para a criação e aprimoramento do estoque selvagem da ictiofauna comercialmente importante no campo da aquicultura e pesca.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730700

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), Willmott's index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Paquistão
4.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 25(9): 732-737, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long COVID-19 syndrome refers to the persistence of symptoms for more than 12 weeks after the start of acute symptoms. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not yet clear.OBJECTIVE: To assess long COVID-19 symptoms in hospitalised and non-hospitalised patients.METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was used. The study included 262 patients who were divided into two groups based on their hospital admission history: 167 (63.7%) were not hospitalised, while 95 (36.3%) were hospitalised.RESULTS: Long-COVID was reported in 157 out of 262 patients (59.9%), and was significantly more frequent in non-hospitalised patients (68.3% vs. 45.3%; P < 0.001). During the acute phase, hospitalised patients had more respiratory symptoms (95.9% vs. 85.6%), while non-hospitalised patients had more neuropsychiatric symptoms (84.4% vs. 69.5%; P < 0.05). Constitutional and neuropsychiatric symptoms were the most frequently reported persistent symptoms in both groups, but all persistent symptoms were more frequent in the non-hospitalised group (P < 0.005).CONCLUSION: Long COVID-19 symptoms affect both hospitalised and non-hospitalised patients. Neuropsychiatric manifestations were the most common persistent COVID-19 symptoms. Rehabilitation and psychotherapy could be advised for all recovered COVID-19 patients. Non-hospitalised COVID-19 patients should be counselled to contact healthcare providers whenever needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Over the past few years, obesity and metabolic syndrome prevalence among children and adolescence have an increasing trend. This study aims to investigate the association of obesity phenotypes during childhood and adolescence with early adulthood carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were divided into four obesity phenotypes: Metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Participants were followed for 18 years. Multivariate-adjusted Risk Ratios (RRs) were calculated for high CIMT (≥95% percentile) incidence. In this cohort study 1220 children and adolescents with the average age of 10.9 ± 4.0 years were included. CIMT values had a significantly increasing trend from MHNW to MUO group (p for trend<0.001). Individuals with normal weight status, even with an unhealthy metabolic profile did not have higher risk of high CIMT. Similarly, Children with obesity but healthy metabolic status was not at higher risk. On the other hand, MUO phenotype during childhood was associated with increased risk of high CIMT in early adulthood (RR = 2.13, 95%CI (1.02-4.48)). This association became insignificant for all obesity phenotypes after adjusting for adulthood BMI. CONCLUSION: Adulthood CIMT has an increasing trend based on childhood and adolescence obesity phenotypes from MHNW to MUO. Children with MUO phenotype was the only ones that had an increased risk of high CIMT incidence in early adulthood.

6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 936-942, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605459

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is one of the important infectious causes of Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO). The objective of the present study was to determine the seropositivity and molecular detection of human brucellosis among the patients with pyrexia of unknown origin on both risk and non-risk group of individuals in greater Mymensingh. A total of 400 blood samples were randomly collected from pyretic patients started from September 2018 to August 2019. Questionnaires were used to collect data on both risk and non-risk group of individuals. All samples were initially screened for anti-Brucella antibodies using the Brucella-specific latex agglutination test. For accurate investigation, seropositive as well as seronegative serum samples were tested by BCSP31 Brucella genus-specific TaqMan real-time PCR. Overall 32(8%) cases were positive out of 400 samples by Brucella-specific latex agglutination test and/or BCSP31 Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR. Brucella-specific latex agglutination test documented 7% (28/400) positivity for brucellosis. 22(5.5%) samples found Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR positive out of 400 samples. Most real-time PCR positive cases were found from sero-positive samples of risk group population (15/32). Sero-negative but real-time PCR positive cases also found only from risk group population (4/32). There were 10 seropositive cases where real-time PCR was negative. In addition to Brucella-specific latex agglutination test as a screening test, Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR was performed for confirmation and also to avoid unjustified costs, drug toxicity, and masking of other potentially dangerous diseases.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Febre , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Testes de Função Tireóidea
7.
Front Digit Health ; 3: 643042, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713113

RESUMO

Telework has become a universal working style under the background of COVID-19. With the increased time of working at home, problems, such as lack of physical activities and prolonged sedentary behavior become more prominent. In this situation, a self-managing working pattern regulation may be the most practical way to maintain worker's well-being. To this end, this paper validated the idea of using an Internet of Things (IoT) system (a smartphone and the accompanying smartwatch) to monitor the working status in real-time so as to record the working pattern and nudge the user to have a behavior change. By using the accelerometer and gyroscope enclosed in the smartwatch worn on the right wrist, nine-channel data streams of the two sensors were sent to the paired smartphone for data preprocessing, and action recognition in real time. By considering the cooperativity and orthogonality of the data streams, a shallow convolutional neural network (CNN) model was constructed to recognize the working status from a common working routine. As preliminary research, the results of the CNN model show accurate performance [5-fold cross-validation: 0.97 recall and 0.98 precision; leave-one-out validation: 0.95 recall and 0.94 precision; (support vector machine (SVM): 0.89 recall and 0.90 precision; random forest: 0.95 recall and 0.93 precision)] for the recognition of working status, suggesting the feasibility of this fully online method. Although further validation in a more realistic working scenario should be conducted for this method, this proof-of-concept study clarifies the prospect of a user-friendly online working tracking system. With a tailored working pattern guidance, this method is expected to contribute to the workers' wellness not only during the COVID-19 pandemic but also take effect in the post-COVID-19 era.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638895

RESUMO

Beta-Caryophyllene (BCP), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene abundantly found in cloves, hops, and cannabis, is the active candidate of a relatively new group of vascular-inhibiting compounds that aim to block existing tumor blood vessels. Previously, we have reported the anti-cancer properties of BCP by utilizing a series of in-vitro anti-tumor-related assays using human colorectal carcinoma cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BCP on in-vitro, ex-vivo, and in-vivo models of anti-angiogenic assays and evaluate its anti-cancer activity in xenograft tumor (both ectopic and orthotopic) mice models of human colorectal cancer. Computational structural analysis and an apoptosis antibody array were also performed to understand the molecular players underlying this effect. BCP exhibited strong anti-angiogenic activity by blocking the migration of endothelial cells, tube-like network formation, suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion from human umbilical vein endothelial cells and sprouting of rat aorta microvessels. BCP has a probable binding at Site#0 on the surface of VEGFR2. Moreover, BCP significantly deformed the vascularization architecture compared to the negative control in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. BCP showed a remarkable reduction in tumor size and fluorescence molecular tomography signal intensity in all the mice treated with BCP, in a dose-dependent relationship, in ectopic and orthotopic tumor xenograft models, respectively. The histological analysis of the tumor from BCP-treated mice revealed a clear reduction of the density of vascularization. In addition, BCP induced apoptosis through downregulation of HSP60, HTRA, survivin, and XIAP, along with the upregulation of p21 expressions. These results suggest that BCP acts at multiple stages of angiogenesis and could be used as a promising therapeutic candidate to halt the growth of colorectal tumor cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Neovascularização Patológica/prevenção & controle , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide/irrigação sanguínea , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/irrigação sanguínea , Células HCT116 , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Microvasos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
J Chem Phys ; 155(16): 164201, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717352

RESUMO

A microscopy platform that leverages the arrival time of individual photons to enable 3D single-particle tracking of fast-moving (translational diffusion coefficient of ≃3.3 µm2/s) particles in high-background environments is reported here. It combines a hardware-based time-gating module, which enables the rate of photon processing to be as high as 100 MHz, with a two-photon-excited 3D single-particle tracking confocal microscope to enable high sample penetration depth. Proof-of-principle experiments where single quantum dots are tracked in solutions containing dye-stained cellulose, are shown with tracking performance markedly improved using the hardware-based time-gating module. Such a microscope design is anticipated to be of use to a variety of communities who wish to track single particles in cellular environments, which commonly have high fluorescence and scattering background.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257645, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634073

RESUMO

Renewable energy has become the most prominent source of energy to reduce carbon emissions around the globe. Undoubtedly, hydro energy is very much clean energy among other sources. In Bangladesh, hydro energy is available only in a specific southern area contributing several hundred megawatts to the national grid. This paper devotes to assessing the capacity and practicability of a hydropower plant to boost the power output by implementing the combined cycle hydropower system. The proposed method has been developed by 1) studying the existing plant based on surveyed data, 2) selecting the site for installing the hydrokinetic turbine, 3) designing with consideration of numerous constraints of inter dependability, and 4) creating a prototype model to ensure the practicability. Preliminary results show that a significant amount of additional electric energy can be generated from the plant with higher efficiency.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Centrais Elétricas/tendências , Energia Renovável , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Bangladesh , Eletricidade , Humanos , Centrais Elétricas/economia
11.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17386, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584796

RESUMO

Infertility is a common medical issue with different etiologies. It can be related to female factors, male factors, or factors related to both partners. We report the case of a 35-year-old male patient who presented with primary infertility for 10 years. He was otherwise healthy with unremarkable past medical history. Physical examination revealed normal external genitalia with both testes were normal in size. Basic semen analysis revealed decreased sperm volume and sperm count. Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed an absent right kidney. Subsequently, the patient under a computed tomography scan that confirmed the right renal agenesis and demonstrated a well-defined right seminal vesicle cyst. Such findings were consistent with the diagnosis of Zinner syndrome. He underwent aspiration of the cyst that resulted in improvement in the sperm parameter of basic semen analysis. The case demonstrated a rare etiology of male infertility that was successfully managed conservatively. Despite its rarity, physicians should consider the developmental anomalies of the genitourinary system when encountering patients with infertility.

12.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537419

RESUMO

In the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic era, the number of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) with peripheral blood (PB) grafts increased significantly compared with HCTs with bone marrow (BM) grafts, which may be associated with adverse outcomes. We compared outcomes of HCT in BM graft and PB graft recipients age ≥18 years with hematologic malignancies who underwent T cell- replete haploidentical HCT and received graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. Among the 264 patients, 180 (68%) received a BM graft and 84 (32%) received a PB graft. The median patient age was 50 years in both groups. The majority (n = 199; 75%) received reduced-intensity conditioning. The rate of acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome was higher in the BM graft recipients compared with the PB graft recipients (85% [n = 152] versus 55% [n = 46]; P < .01). The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment and the incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were comparable in the 2 groups. Among the patients with grade II-IV aGVHD, the rate of steroid-refractory aGVHD was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5% to 18%) in the BM group versus 32% (95% CI, 19% to 54%) in the PB group (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7, 95% CI, 1.5 to 9.3; P = .006). At 1 year post-HCT, the rate of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 8% (95% CI, 4% to 13%) in the BM group versus 22% (95% CI, 14% to 36%) in the PB group (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4-6.6; P = .005), and the rate of systemic therapy-requiring cGVHD was 2.5% (95% CI, 1% to 7%) versus 14% (95% CI, 7% to 27%), respectively (HR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 18; P = .004). The PB group had a significantly higher risk of bacterial and viral infections, with no appreciable advantage in the duration of hospitalization, immune reconstitution, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or survival. Our data suggest a benefit of the use of BM grafts over PB grafts for haplo-HCT.

14.
Blood Adv ; 5(20): 4278-4284, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521116

RESUMO

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is the leading cause of late morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. To better understand patients at highest risk for nonrelapse mortality (NRM), we analyzed patient-, transplant-, and cGVHD-related variables, risk factors, and causes of nonrelapse deaths in an updated cohort of 937 patients enrolled on 2 prospective, longitudinal observational studies through the Chronic GVHD Consortium. The median follow-up of survivors was 4 years (range, 0.1 months to 12.5 years). Relapse accounted for 25% of the 333 deaths. The cumulative incidence of NRM was 22% at 5 years, and it increased over time at a projected 40% (95% confidence interval, 30%-50%) at 12 years. Centers reported that cGVHD (37.8%) was the most common cause of NRM and was associated with organ failure, infection, or additional causes not otherwise specified. The next most frequent causes without mention of cGVHD were infection (17%) and respiratory failure (10%). In multivariable analysis, an increased risk for NRM was significantly associated with the use of reduced intensity conditioning, higher total bilirubin, National Institutes of Health (NIH) skin score of 2 to 3, NIH lung score of 1 to 3, worse modified Human Activity Profile adjusted activity score, and decreased distance on walk test. To summarize, cGVHD NRM does not plateau but increases over time and is most commonly attributed to GVHD or infection, presumably associated with immunocompromised status. Severe skin and lung cGVHD remain challenging manifestations associated with increased NRM, for which novel therapeutic options that do not predispose patients to infections are needed.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common autoimmune inflammatory skin disease, with no clear cause, treated with topical agents and phototherapy to conventional immunosuppressant drugs and biologic agents. Stem cell therapy has showed significant interest in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to use mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy compared to the topical application of the standard conventional corticosteroid cream. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 male adult albino rats were used, divided into 4 groups, 10 rats each. Group I (control), Group II (Psoriasis-like lesions induced by usage of Aldara cream), Group III (treated with Betamethasone) and Group IV (treated with mesenchymal stem cells). Specimens were stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin, Masson's trichrome, immune-histochemical technique for CD4, CD8 and CD31. Ultra-sections were prepared for transmission electron microscope examination. RESULTS: MSCs demonstrated efficacy in reduction of disease severity in the form of uniform epidermal thickness covered by a very thin keratin layer. Normally- arranged layers of epidermal layers, with a clear border demarcation was seen between the epidermis and the dermis with apparently intact basement membrane. TEM showed absence of gaps between the tightly connected cells of the basal layer and the resting basement membrane. CONCLUSIONS: application of MSCs raises hope for developing a new, safe and effective therapy for psoriatic patients, avoiding the side effects of betamethasone.

16.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378665

RESUMO

Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Paquistão
17.
J Environ Manage ; 297: 113402, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333312

RESUMO

Inefficient water management in rice paddy is responsible for a large quantity of water and nutrient loss, which causes tremendous economic and environmental costs. Yet, quantified data on the water and nutrient losses are limited. A study was conducted during 2018-2019 with an Aman (wet)-Boro (dry)-Aman (wet) rice rotation to evaluate the effect of water management on water and nutrient losses through different pathways. The treatments in 2018 Aman season were: (i) rainfed, (ii) I6D (irrigation after six days of ponded water disappearance), and (iii) I3D. In 2019, the Boro season had (i) I6D and (ii) I3D, and the Aman season had (i) rainfed, (ii) I9D, and (iii) I1D treatments. The water input and output from the studied lysimeters were measured daily, and samples from the leachates, ponded water, and topsoil were routinely analyzed for nutrient content. In both Aman seasons, the rainfed cultivation had lower percolation losses (38-44 % of total input) than other treatments (45-70 %). Evapotranspiration in the Boro season (5.4-5.9 mm/day) was higher than that in the Aman seasons (4.2-4.6 mm/day) because of the drier Boro season. Ammonium (NH4⁺-N) leached at 0.6-6.7 mg/L and nitrate (NO3⁻-N) 0.6-5.6 mg/L in these rice seasons. Phosphorus concentration ranged 0.04-0.37 mg/L in the leachates and 0.04-0.51 mg/L in the ponded water. The rainfed and I9D exerted higher nutrient leaching concentration in some events and less so for the I6D treatment than the I3D and I1D, possibly because of the better nitrification and preferential flow paths induced by the prolonged drying processes. However, the rainfed, I9D, and I6D had less leaching load than the I3D and I1D because the latter had larger percolation volume. For example, the I6D treatment in the Boro season reduced the N leaching load by 44 % and P load by 39 % compared with the I3D, and the I9D in 2019 Aman season had 42 and 13 % less N and P leaching load, respectively, than the I1D treatment. The findings will contribute to the effort of developing a sustainable and climate-resilient rice production system.


Assuntos
Oryza , Agricultura , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Solo , Água
18.
J Exp Biol ; 224(16)2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435626

RESUMO

The fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enzymes are the predominant catabolic regulators of the major endocannabinoids (eCBs) anadamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), respectively. The expression and roles of eCBs during early embryogenesis remain to be fully investigated. Here, we inhibited FAAH and MAGL in zebrafish embryos during the first 24 h of life and examined motor neuron and locomotor development at 2 and 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Application of the dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor, JZL195 (2 µmol l-1), resulted in a reduction in primary and secondary motor neuron axonal branching. JZL195 also reduced nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression at neuromuscular junctions. Application of URB597 (5 µmol l-1), a specific inhibitor of the FAAH enzyme, also decreased primary motor neuron branching but did not affect secondary motor neuron branching and nAChR expression. Interestingly, JZL184 (5 µmol l-1), a specific inhibitor of MAGL, showed no effects on motor neuron branching or nAChR expression. Co-treatment of the enzyme inhibitors with the CB1R inhibitor AM251 confirmed the involvement of CB1R in motor neuron branching. Disruption of FAAH or MAGL reduced larval swimming activity, and AM251 attenuated the JZL195- and URB597-induced locomotor changes, but not the effects of JZL184. Together, these findings indicate that inhibition of FAAH, or augmentation of AEA acting through CB1R during early development, may be responsible for locomotor deficiencies.


Assuntos
Endocanabinoides , Monoacilglicerol Lipases , Amidoidrolases/genética , Animais , Monoacilglicerol Lipases/genética , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 725-737, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226462

RESUMO

Multi-drug resistant Typhoid fever (resistant to previously used chloramphenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) has been commonly described in the South East Asia region and a recent report suggests that the salmonella typhi have reduced response to fluoroquinolones (nalidixic acid-resistant). The optimum treatment protocol for this type of serovar has not been established. This study compared different antimicrobial regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever which was conducted in the medicine ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and outdoor setting in private practice in Dhaka metropolitan city, Mymensingh and Sylhet town from January 2017 to December 2017. Bangladeshi adults with uncomplicated typhoid fever were included in this an open-label randomized controlled trial. Ciprofloxacin (20mg/kg of body weight/day for 14 days), azithromycin (20mg/kg/day for 14 days), and Cefixime (16mg/kg/day for 14 days) were compared. Of the 81 enrolled patients, 62 were eligible for analysis (61 S. enterica serovar Typhi, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A). Of the S enterica serovar Typhi isolates, 88.7% (55/62) were MDR and 93.5% (58/62) were nalidixic acid resistant (NAR). The clinical cure rate was 62% (13/21) with ciprofloxacin, 71% (15/21) with Cefixime, and 85% (17/20) with azithromycin (p=0.053). The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) fever clearance time for patients treated with azithromycin (5.8 days [5.1 to 6.5 days]) was shorter than that for patients treated with cefixime (7.1 days [6.2 to 8.1 days]) and ciprofloxacin (8.2 days [7.2 to 9.2 days]) (p<0.001). All three antibiotics were well tolerated. A 7-day course of azithromycin can be successfully used in uncomplicated typhoid fever due to isolates of MDR S enterica serovar Typhi.


Assuntos
Azitromicina , Febre Tifoide , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Cefixima/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella typhi , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
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