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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238812, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278475

RESUMO

Abstract Optimum planting arrangement is an important attribute for efficient utilization of available resources and to obtain high yield of cotton. Application of plant growth promoter and retardant on cotton in improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. Therefore, we planned a field study to assess the role of bio-stimulant and growth retardant in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars planted under variable row spacing at Agronomic Research Area Bahauddin Zakariya University and Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad during Kharif 2012. Experimental treatments consisted of cotton genotypes viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) with foliar spray of bio-stimulant (moringa leaf extract) and growth retardant (mepiquate chloride), either sole or in combination, keeping distilled water as a control. Exogenously applied MLE alone and MLE + MC significantly enhanced the number of squares, flowers and green bolls per plant leading to higher cotton seed and lint yield of CIM 598 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. While application of MC alone and MLE + MC produced maximum micronaire value, fiber strength and fiber uniformity ratio of CIM 573 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. The results suggested that application of MLE is a possible approach to enhance the cotton productivity and the use of MC to enhance the fiber quality attributes under conventional row spacing.


Resumo A configuração ideal de plantio é um atributo importante para a utilização eficiente dos recursos disponíveis e para obter alto rendimento de algodão. A aplicação de promotores de crescimento de plantas e reguladores de crescimento no algodão em uma densidade de plantio adequada são técnicas inovadoras na obtenção de safras de algodão mais produtivas. Portanto, foi planejado um estudo de campo para avaliar o papel de um bioestimulante e um regulador de crescimento na eficiência da utilização de recursos de cultivares de algodão plantadas com espaçamento variável entre linhas na Área de Pesquisa Agronômica Universidade Bahauddin Zakariya e Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad durante Kharif 2012. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram em genótipos de algodão viz. CIM-573 e CIM-598, cultivadas sob espaçamento convencional (75 cm), médio (50 cm) e ultraestreito (25 cm) e pulverização foliar de bioestimulante (extrato de folha de moringa) e regulador de crescimento (cloreto de mepiquato)), sozinho ou combinado, mantendo a água destilada como controle. O MLE aplicado exogenamente sozinho e o MLE + MC aumentaram significativamente o número de quadrados, flores e cápsulas verdes por planta, levando a um maior rendimento de sementes e fibra de algodão da cultivar CIM 598 cultivada sob espaçamento convencional entre fileiras. Enquanto a aplicação de MC sozinho e MLE + MC produziu valor máximo de micronaire, resistência da fibra e razão de uniformidade da fibra da cultivar CIM 573 cultivada sob espaçamento convencional entre linhas. Os resultados sugeriram que a aplicação do MLE é uma abordagem possível para aumentar a produtividade do algodão e o uso de MC para aprimorar os atributos de qualidade da fibra no espaçamento convencional entre linhas.

2.
Plant J ; 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743365

RESUMO

The Physcomitrium patens DICER-LIKE1a (PpDCL1a) mRNA encoding the essential Dicer protein for microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis harbors an intronic miRNA (miR1047). An autoregulatory mechanism to control PpDCL1a abundance that is based on competitive processing of the intronic miRNA and proper PpDCL1a mRNA splicing has previously been proposed. If intron splicing occurs first the mRNA can be translated into the functional PpDCL1a protein, whereas the processing of the intronic miRNA catalyzed by PpDCL1a itself, prior to pre-mRNA splicing, generates a truncated transcript unable to produce a functional protein. This proposed autoregulation of DCL1 has not been functionally analyzed in any plant species, and the existence of this autoregulatory control is expected to have a general impact on the overall miRNA biogenesis pathway and the transcriptome that is under miRNA control. We abolished PpDCL1a autoregulatory feedback control by the precise deletion of the MIR1047-containing intron. The generated line displayed hypersensitivity to salt stress and hyposensitivity to the plant hormone ABA, accompanied by the disturbed expression of miRNAs and mRNAs, revealed by transcriptome analyses. The feedback control together with the phenotypic abnormalities and molecular changes in the intron-less line can be rescued by the re-insertion of a modified intron harboring a sequence-unrelated artificial miRNA. Our findings indicate the physiological importance of miR1047-based feedback control of PpDCL1a transcript abundance, which controls the expression of miRNAs, and their cognate target RNAs during salt stress adaptation, and suggests a key role for this autoregulation in the molecular adaptation of land plants to terrestrial habitats.

3.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101423, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534853

RESUMO

Spotty liver disease (SLD) is a serious condition affecting extensively housed laying hens. The causative bacterium was described in 2015 and characterized in 2016 and named Campylobacter hepaticus. Antibiotics are the only tool currently available to combat SLD. However, antimicrobial resistance has already been detected, so finding therapeutic alternatives is imperative. Isoquinoline alkaloids (IQA), such as sanguinarine and chelerythrine, have been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. It has been hypothesized that IQA could ameliorate some of the deleterious effects of SLD. This study aimed to address that hypothesis in an experimental disease induction model. Birds were fed with diets containing 2 different doses of an IQA containing product, 100 mg of product/kg of feed (0.5 ppm of sanguinarine) and 200 mg of product/kg of feed (1.0 ppm of sanguinarine). Two additional groups remained untreated (a challenged positive control and an unchallenged negative control). After 4 wk of treatment, birds from all groups except the negative control group were exposed to C. hepaticus strain HV10. The IQA treated groups showed a reduction in the number of miliary lesions on the liver surface and reduced lesion scores compared with untreated hens. A significant reduction of egg mass was detected 6 d after exposure to C. hepaticus in the untreated group (P = 0.02). However, there was not a significant drop in egg-mass in the IQA groups, especially those fed with a high dose of IQA (P = 0.93). IQA supplementation did not produce significant changes in intestinal villus height and crypt depth but did result in a significant reduction in the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8, in the blood (P < 0.01). Microbiota analysis showed that IQA treatment did not alter the alpha diversity of the cecal microbiota but did produce changes in the phylogenetic structure, with the higher dose of IQA increasing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Other minor changes in production indicators included an increase in feed consumption (P < 0.01) and an increase in body weight of the treated hens (P < 0.0001). The present study has demonstrated that IQA confers some protection of chickens from the impact of SLD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Hepatopatias , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Campylobacter , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Isoquinolinas , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468530

RESUMO

Asiatic black bear is present in variety of habitats like broad-leaves and coniferous forests, extending form sea level to 4300m elevation and change their habitat for food purpose seasonally. The present study was conducted at Kaghan and Siran Valleys, District Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to assess habitat of black bear. Line transect method was used for observation of bear signs. Twelve meter circular radius plots were selected for the concern vegetation's i.e. (trees, shrubs and herbs) and three to six plots were placed in each transect. At the result of sign survey, thirteen different categories of bear signs were recorded and encounter rate was calculated for each sign. A total of 1858 signs were observed during field surveys. Total (81%) coniferous species were recoded among trees, with the highest appearance of Pinus wallichiana (34.22%) and Spruce spp (27.76%), similarly broad leaves trees (18.56%) were also recoded from habitat plots. Most of the signs were encountered in bushy areas, whereas high number of Viburnum Spp (60.29%) was present. It is indicated that black bear prefers blend of Coniferous Trees, Viburnum and Ferns Species; probably because these plants provide enough food, protection, and meticulous shelter because more than 80% of habitat composed of these three species. Currently habitat destruction and increase in human population are the up-growing issues for wild animals (especially Asiatic black bear), which is highly sensitive to such problems. High levels of conservation efforts are recommended for the protection of black bear habitat and to avoid human interference in their territory.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Acetilcisteína , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Paquistão , Árvores
5.
Patterns (N Y) ; 2(8): 100315, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337569

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is a new strain of coronavirus that is regarded as a respiratory disease and is transmittable among humans. At present, the disease has caused a pandemic, and COVID-19 cases are ballooning out of control. The impact of such turbulent situations can be controlled by tracking the patterns of infected and death cases through accurate prediction and by taking precautions accordingly. We collected worldwide COVID-19 case information and successfully predicted infected victims and possible death cases around the world and in the United States. In addition, we analyzed some leading stock market shares and successfully forecast their trends. We also scrutinized the share market price by proper reasoning and considered the state of affairs of COVID-19, including geographical dispersity. We publicly release our developed dashboard that presents statistical data of COVID-19 cases, shows predicted results, and reveals the impact of COVID-19 on leading companies and different countries' job markets.

6.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 656657, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211484

RESUMO

The biological significance of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has been firmly established to be important for the regulation of genes involved in stress acclimation. Light plays an important role for the growth of plants providing the energy for photosynthesis; however, excessive light conditions can also cause substantial defects. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate transcript levels of protein-coding genes and mediate epigenetic silencing. Next generation sequencing facilitates the identification of small non-coding RNA classes such as miRNAs (microRNAs) and small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), but changes in the ncRNA transcriptome in response to high light are poorly understood. We subjected Arabidopsis plants to high light conditions and performed a temporal in-depth study of the transcriptome data after 3 h, 6 h, and 2 days of high light treatment. We identified a large number of high light responsive miRNAs and sRNAs derived from NAT gene pairs, lncRNAs and TAS transcripts. We performed target predictions for differentially expressed miRNAs and correlated their expression levels through mRNA sequencing data. GO analysis of the targets revealed an overrepresentation of genes involved in transcriptional regulation. In A. thaliana, sRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression in response to high light treatment is mainly carried out by miRNAs and sRNAs derived from NAT gene pairs, and from lncRNAs. This study provides a deeper understanding of sRNA-dependent regulatory networks in high light acclimation.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238812, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161424

RESUMO

Optimum planting arrangement is an important attribute for efficient utilization of available resources and to obtain high yield of cotton. Application of plant growth promoter and retardant on cotton in improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. Therefore, we planned a field study to assess the role of bio-stimulant and growth retardant in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars planted under variable row spacing at Agronomic Research Area Bahauddin Zakariya University and Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad during Kharif 2012. Experimental treatments consisted of cotton genotypes viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) with foliar spray of bio-stimulant (moringa leaf extract) and growth retardant (mepiquate chloride), either sole or in combination, keeping distilled water as a control. Exogenously applied MLE alone and MLE + MC significantly enhanced the number of squares, flowers and green bolls per plant leading to higher cotton seed and lint yield of CIM 598 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. While application of MC alone and MLE + MC produced maximum micronaire value, fiber strength and fiber uniformity ratio of CIM 573 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. The results suggested that application of MLE is a possible approach to enhance the cotton productivity and the use of MC to enhance the fiber quality attributes under conventional row spacing.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Água , Flores , Humanos
10.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112661, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962284

RESUMO

The issue of waste management has received considerable critical attention due to the increase of waste generation worldwide. One of the solutions for waste disposal that has been widely implemented is through the use of the landfill due to its economic benefits. Landfill, however, results in many adverse impacts on the environment and human health. Recycling can extract some useful materials from waste, however not every waste can be recycled and a significant volume of waste, particularly the municipal solid waste (MSW) goes to landfill even though it has extractable energy potentials. Extraction of energy from MSW has been a key focus of research due to the scope of energy recovery, environmental and economic benefits. The principal concept of waste to energy is to convert waste into energy through thermal and/or biological processes. In addition, thermochemical processes such as gasification have been found as a promising technology offering several benefits. This paper presents a critical assessment of waste to energy gasification technology for MSW on processing, energy recovery, environmental performance and economic perspectives. These aspects have been analyzed for the landfill as well. The review also explored and identified suitable simulation tools for optimizing gasification. Subsequently, an assessment and comparison of different gasification reactors were carried out which indicate that the plasma gasification can be a feasible technology for MSW management due to higher energy efficiency (816 kWh/tonne) with minimum emission and lowest residue. Although plasma gasification is an energy intensive application which has relatively higher investment cost, it can be built as a large system (up to several 1000 MW system), which can make it economically competitive too. Other technologies such as; fluidized bed gasifier, fixed bed gasifier also have good energy efficiency (547-571 kWh/tonne) however, they contribute to higher CO2 emission. Considering overall waste management, it was found that gasification technology is beneficial to economy, environment and energy extraction compared to the landfill option. A number of tools and their relevant properties have been identified to develop appropriate gasifier model. It is expected that this study will advance further research and innovation that will be helpful to manage waste efficiently as well as to improve the environment.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
11.
Vet Med Int ; 2021: 6610778, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833863

RESUMO

Colibacillosis in Indonesia until now still appears frequently, so the case of colibacillosis laying hens cannot reach the peak of egg production; the egg production period is delayed and easily infected with other diseases. The purpose of this research is that the acidifier-dextrose combination is expected to be able to suppress the development of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) bacteria in laying hens so that, in the end, the case of colibacillosis can be controlled in Indonesia. A total of 240 heads of laying hens were divided into 6 treatments and each consisted of 40 replications. The results of this research state that a combination of acidifier-dextrose can increase Hen Day Production (p < 0.05) and decrease Feed Conversion Ratio (p < 0.05) in laying hens infected with APEC. The Hen Day Production results of the treatment group infected with APEC showed the lowest results, amounting to 65.75% whereas the other treatments are still above 90%. Furthermore, the highest Feed Conversion Ratio results were on treatments infected with APEC, which amounted to 2.17 while other treatments of the Feed Conversion Ratio results are still below 1.80. In general, the use of a combination of acidifier and dextrose with the lowest dose, that is, 1 g/3.75 liters of drinking water can still give good results to Hen Day Production and Feed Conversion Ratio for laying hens infected with APEC. Giving combination of acidifier-dextrose can increase Hen Day Production and decrease Feed Conversion Ratio in laying hens infected with APEC. The recommended dosage of acidifier-dextrose combination in laying hens based on this research is 1 g/3.75 liters of drinking water.

12.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593966

RESUMO

The rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A, causative agents of typhoid and paratyphoid, have led to fears of untreatable infections. Of specific concern is the emerging resistance against azithromycin, the only remaining oral drug to treat extensively drug resistant (XDR) typhoid. Since the first report of azithromycin resistance from Bangladesh in 2019, cases have been reported from Nepal, India, and Pakistan. The genetic basis of this resistance is a single point mutation in the efflux pump AcrB (R717Q/L). Here, we report 38 additional cases of azithromycin-resistant (AzmR) Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A isolated in Bangladesh between 2016 and 2018. Using genomic analysis of 56 AzmR isolates from South Asia with AcrB-R717Q/L, we confirm that this mutation has spontaneously emerged in different Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A genotypes. The largest cluster of AzmR Typhi belonged to genotype 4.3.1.1; Bayesian analysis predicts the mutation to have emerged sometime in 2010. A travel-related Typhi isolate with AcrB-R717Q belonging to 4.3.1.1 was isolated in the United Kingdom, increasing fears of global spread. For real-time detection of AcrB-R717Q/L, we developed an extraction-free, rapid, and low-cost mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA). Validation of MAMA using 113 AzmR and non-AzmR isolates yielded >98% specificity and sensitivity versus phenotypic and whole-genome sequencing assays currently used for azithromycin resistance detection. With increasing azithromycin use, AcrB-R717Q/L is likely to be acquired by XDR strains. The proposed tool for active detection and surveillance of this mutation may detect pan-oral drug resistance early, giving us a window to intervene.IMPORTANCE In the early 1900s, with mortality of ∼30%, typhoid and paratyphoid ravaged parts of the world; with improved water, sanitation, and hygiene in resource-rich countries and the advent of antimicrobials, mortality dwindled to <1%. Today, the burden rests disproportionately on South Asia, where the primary means for combatting the disease is antimicrobials. However, prevalence of antimicrobial resistance is rising and, in 2016, an extensively drug resistant Typhi strain triggered an ongoing outbreak in Pakistan, leaving only one oral drug, azithromycin, to treat it. Since the description of emergence of azithromycin resistance, conferred by a point mutation in acrB (AcrB-R717Q/L) in 2019, there have been increasing numbers of reports. Using genomics and Bayesian analysis, we illustrate that this mutation emerged in approximately 2010 and has spontaneously arisen multiple times. Emergence of pan-oral drug resistant Salmonella Typhi is imminent. We developed a low-cost, rapid PCR tool to facilitate real-time detection and prevention policies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genótipo , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação Puntual , Salmonella typhi/classificação , Salmonella typhi/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
Plant Mol Biol ; 107(4-5): 293-305, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598827

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: This study focused on the key regulatory function of Physcomitrium patens GRAS12 gene underlying an increasing plant complexity, an important step in plant terrestrialization and the evolutionary history of life. The miR171-GRAS module has been identified as a key player in meristem maintenance in angiosperms. PpGRAS12 is a member of the GRAS family and a validated target for miR171 in Physcomitrium (Physcomitrella) patens. Here we show a regulatory function of miR171 at the gametophytic vegetative growth stage and targeted deletion of the PpGRAS12 gene adversely affects sporophyte production since fewer sporophytes were produced in ΔPpGRAS12 knockout lines compared to wild type moss. Furthermore, highly specific and distinct growth arrests were observed in inducible PpGRAS12 overexpression lines at the protonema stage. Prominent phenotypic aberrations including the formation of multiple apical meristems at the gametophytic vegetative stage in response to elevated PpGRAS12 transcript levels were discovered via scanning electron microscopy. The production of multiple buds in the PpGRAS12 overexpression lines similar to ΔPpCLV1a/1b disruption mutants is accompanied by an upregulation of PpCLE and downregulation of PpCLV1, PpAPB, PpNOG1, PpDEK1, PpRPK2 suggesting that PpGRAS12 acts upstream of these genes and negatively regulates the proposed pathway to specify simplex meristem formation. As CLV signaling pathway components are not present in the chlorophytic or charophytic algae and arose with the earliest land plants, we identified a key regulatory function of PpGRAS12 underlying an increasing plant complexity, an important step in plant terrestrialization and the evolutionary history of life.

14.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 18-26, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153311

RESUMO

Abstract Plant growth regulators and improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. A field study was planned to assess the role of growth regulators in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars under different row spacing at Agronomic Research Area, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan and Usmania Agricultural Farm, Shujaabad during Kharif 2012. The study was comprised of cotton cultivars viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and improved ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) and foliar spray of growth regulators viz. moringa leaf extract (MLE) and mepiquat chloride (MC), either alone or in combination, distilled water as a control. The application of MLE alone and in combination (MLE + MC) showed the promoting effect on crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area index, leaf area duration, sympodial branches and number of bolls leading to higher seed cotton yield of both cotton cultivars grown under conventional row spacing. While application of MC averts the plant growth without considerably improving the productivity. MLE being rich source of growth promoting hormone and nutrients showed its potential to a far greater extent under conventional row spacing in efficient utilization of available resources compared to MC and distilled water.


Resumo Reguladores de crescimento de plantas e melhor densidade de plantio são técnicas inovadoras no estabelecimento de culturas mais produtivas de algodão. Um estudo de campo foi planejado com o objetivo de avaliar o papel dos reguladores de crescimento na eficiência de uso de recursos de cultivares de algodão sob diferentes espaçamentos na Área de Pesquisa Agronômica, da Universidade Multil de Bahauddin Zakariya, e na Fazenda Agrícola da Usmania, Shujabad, durante o Kharif 2012. O estudo foi composto de cultivares de algodão CIM-573 e CIM-598, cultivados em espaçamento de linhas convencional (75 cm), médio (50 cm) e superestreito (25 cm) e de pulverização foliar de reguladores de crescimento, a saber, extrato de folhas de moringa (MLE) e cloreto de mepiquat (MC), isoladamente ou em combinação, e água destilada como controle. A aplicação de MLE isoladamente e em combinação (MLE + MC) mostrou efeito promotor na taxa de crescimento da cultura, taxa de assimilação líquida, índice de área foliar, duração de área foliar, ramos simpodiais e número de cápsulas levando à maior produção de algodão nas cultivares com espaçamento de linha convencional. Em contrapartida, a aplicação de MC evitou o crescimento da planta sem melhorar consideravelmente a produtividade. O MLE, por ser uma rica fonte de hormônio promotor de crescimento e nutrientes, mostrou seu potencial em uma extensão muito maior sob o espaçamento convencional entre as linhas no uso eficiente dos recursos disponíveis em comparação com o MC e a água destilada.

15.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(1): 18-26, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762756

RESUMO

Plant growth regulators and improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. A field study was planned to assess the role of growth regulators in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars under different row spacing at Agronomic Research Area, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan and Usmania Agricultural Farm, Shujaabad during Kharif 2012. The study was comprised of cotton cultivars viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and improved ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) and foliar spray of growth regulators viz. moringa leaf extract (MLE) and mepiquat chloride (MC), either alone or in combination, distilled water as a control. The application of MLE alone and in combination (MLE + MC) showed the promoting effect on crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area index, leaf area duration, sympodial branches and number of bolls leading to higher seed cotton yield of both cotton cultivars grown under conventional row spacing. While application of MC averts the plant growth without considerably improving the productivity. MLE being rich source of growth promoting hormone and nutrients showed its potential to a far greater extent under conventional row spacing in efficient utilization of available resources compared to MC and distilled water.(AU)


Reguladores de crescimento de plantas e melhor densidade de plantio são técnicas inovadoras no estabelecimento de culturas mais produtivas de algodão. Um estudo de campo foi planejado com o objetivo de avaliar o papel dos reguladores de crescimento na eficiência de uso de recursos de cultivares de algodão sob diferentes espaçamentos na Área de Pesquisa Agronômica, da Universidade Multil de Bahauddin Zakariya, e na Fazenda Agrícola da Usmania, Shujabad, durante o Kharif 2012. O estudo foi composto de cultivares de algodão CIM-573 e CIM-598, cultivados em espaçamento de linhas convencional (75 cm), médio (50 cm) e superestreito (25 cm) e de pulverização foliar de reguladores de crescimento, a saber, extrato de folhas de moringa (MLE) e cloreto de mepiquat (MC), isoladamente ou em combinação, e água destilada como controle. A aplicação de MLE isoladamente e em combinação (MLE + MC) mostrou efeito promotor na taxa de crescimento da cultura, taxa de assimilação líquida, índice de área foliar, duração de área foliar, ramos simpodiais e número de cápsulas levando à maior produção de algodão nas cultivares com espaçamento de linha convencional. Em contrapartida, a aplicação de MC evitou o crescimento da planta sem melhorar consideravelmente a produtividade. O MLE, por ser uma rica fonte de hormônio promotor de crescimento e nutrientes, mostrou seu potencial em uma extensão muito maior sob o espaçamento convencional entre as linhas no uso eficiente dos recursos disponíveis em comparação com o MC e a água destilada.(AU)


Assuntos
Gossypium , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal
16.
J Appl Microbiol ; 131(3): 1405-1416, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484618

RESUMO

AIM: Clavibacter michiganensis (Cm) is a seed-borne plant pathogen that significantly reduces tomato production worldwide. Due to repeated outbreaks and rapid spread of the disease, seeds/transplants need to be certified free of the pathogen before planting. To this end, we developed a multiplex TaqMan qPCR assay that can accurately detect Cm in infected samples. METHODS AND RESULTS: A specific region of Cm (clvG gene) was selected for primer design using comparative genomics approach. A fully synthetic universal internal control (UIC) was also designed to detect PCR inhibitors and false-negative results in qPCRs. The Cm primers can be used alone or in a triplex TaqMan qPCR assay with UIC and previously described Clavibacter primers. The assay was specific for Cm and detected up to 10 fg of Cm DNA in sensitivity and spiked assays. Addition of the UIC did not change the specificity or sensitivity of the multiplex TaqMan qPCR assay. CONCLUSION: The triplex TaqMan qPCR provides a specific and sensitive diagnostic assay for Cm. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This assay can be used for biosecurity surveillance, routine diagnostics, estimating bacterial titres in infected material and for epidemiological studies. The UIC is fully synthetic, efficiently amplified and multiplex compatible with any other qPCR assay.


Assuntos
Clavibacter/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Genômica , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
17.
Braz J Biol ; 81(1): 18-26, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074169

RESUMO

Plant growth regulators and improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. A field study was planned to assess the role of growth regulators in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars under different row spacing at Agronomic Research Area, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan and Usmania Agricultural Farm, Shujaabad during Kharif 2012. The study was comprised of cotton cultivars viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and improved ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) and foliar spray of growth regulators viz. moringa leaf extract (MLE) and mepiquat chloride (MC), either alone or in combination, distilled water as a control. The application of MLE alone and in combination (MLE + MC) showed the promoting effect on crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area index, leaf area duration, sympodial branches and number of bolls leading to higher seed cotton yield of both cotton cultivars grown under conventional row spacing. While application of MC averts the plant growth without considerably improving the productivity. MLE being rich source of growth promoting hormone and nutrients showed its potential to a far greater extent under conventional row spacing in efficient utilization of available resources compared to MC and distilled water.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Humanos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Água
18.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 23 Suppl 1: 162-169, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236382

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) pollution of agricultural land is a major threat to crop production. Exogenous chemical treatment is an easily accessible and rapid approach to remediate metal toxicity, including Cu toxicity in plants. We compared the effects of ascobin (ASC; ascorbic acid:citric acid at 2:1) and glutathione (GSH) in mitigation of Cu toxicity in rice. Plants subjected to Cu stress displayed growth inhibition and biomass reduction, which were connected to reduced levels of chlorophylls, RWC, total phenolic compounds, carotenoids and Mg2+ . Increased accumulation of ROS and malondialdehyde indicated oxidative stress in Cu-stressed plants. However, application of ASC or GSH minimized the inhibitory effects of Cu stress on rice plants by restricting Cu2+ uptake and improving mineral balance, chlorophyll content and RWC. Both ASC and GSH pretreatments reduced levels of ROS and malondialdehyde and improved activities of antioxidant enzymes, suggesting their roles in alleviating oxidative damage. A comparison on the effects of ASC and GSH under Cu stress revealed that ASC was more effective in restricting Cu2+ accumulation (69.5% by ASC and 57.1% by GSH), Ca2+ and Mg2+ homeostasis, protection of photosynthetic pigments and activation of antioxidant defence mechanisms [catalase (110.4%), ascorbate peroxidase (76.5%) and guaiacol peroxidase (39.0%) by ASC, and catalase (58.9%) and ascorbate peroxidase (59.9%) by GSH] in rice than GSH, eventually resulting in better protection of ASC-pretreated plants against Cu stress. In conclusion, although ASC and GSH differed in induction of stress protective mechanisms, both were effective in improving rice performance in response to Cu phytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Glutationa , Oryza , Antioxidantes , Cobre/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Homeostase , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oryza/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Plântula/metabolismo
19.
Poult Sci ; 99(12): 6946-6953, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248610

RESUMO

This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of probiotics (Protexin) and prebiotics (active MOS, mannan oligosaccharides) on growth performance, carcasses, and antibody titer in broilers. A total number of 360-day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly divided into 9 groups in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Nine broiler starter (0-21 d) and finisher (21-35 d) diets were formulated by using 3 levels of probiotics (0, 1, and 2 g/kg of feed) and 3 levels of MOS (0, 1, and 1.5 g/kg of feed) and were randomly allotted to 9 groups. Feed intake was not affected by interaction of treatments during all phases (P > 0.05). Feed intake was improved due to the main effect of probiotic (P = 0.0001) or MOS (P = 0.005). No interaction (P > 0.05) was observed for weight gain in the starter, finisher, and overall phases. While, during the starter and finisher phases, weight gain was increased by probiotics (P = 0.028 or 0.04, respectively). Dietary supplementation of MOS improved weight gain (P = 0.01) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.03) during the overall period, but during starter and finisher periods, weight gain and FCR were not affected by prebiotics. Apart from dressing percentage, no interaction or individual effect of probiotics and prebiotics was observed for carcass, breast, thigh, heart, liver, and gizzard weight. Antibody titer for infectious bursal disease (IBD) was improved (P = 0.026) by the interaction effect between probiotics and prebiotics, when compared with the control group. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND) was not affected by probiotics or prebiotics or their interactions (P > 0.05). It could be concluded that supplementation of prebiotics or probiotics can improve the growth performance of broilers. It may also be helpful in improving the antibody titer against IBD in broilers fed antibiotic-free diets.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Composição Corporal , Galinhas , Imunidade , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(21): 9476-9484, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108191

RESUMO

Cholesterol is believed to induce the formation of membrane domains, "rafts", which are implicated in a range of natural and pathologic membrane processes. Therefore, it is important to understand the role that cholesterol plays in the formation of these structures. Here, we use label-free spectroscopic imaging to investigate cholesterol fractioning in supported bilayer membranes at nanoscale. Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) was used to visualize the formation of cholesterol-induced domains in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) membranes. Our results revealed the coexistence of phase separated domains in DMPC lipids with 10 mol % cholesterol content, whereas a mostly homogeneous bilayer was found at low (5 mol %) and high (15 mol %) cholesterol content. Near-field nano-FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify the cholesterol-rich domains based on their qualitative chemical compositions. It was determined that cholesterol binds to phosphodiester and alkyl glycerol ester moieties, likely via hydrogen bonding of the alcohol to either of the ester oxygens. The results also confirm the existence of an ideal cholesterol-lipid mixture ratio (∼15:85) with a geometrically defined packing. At lower cholesterol content there is phase separation between liquid ordered and almost neat DMPC domains. Thus, the liquid ordered phase exists at an energy minimum at a given lipid-cholesterol ratio.


Assuntos
Colesterol/química , Dimiristoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Glicerol/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Microscopia , Oxigênio/química , Transição de Fase , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície
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