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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(7): 271-278, 2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176003

RESUMO

The first U.S. case of COVID-19 attributed to the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) was reported on December 1, 2021 (1), and by the week ending December 25, 2021, Omicron was the predominant circulating variant in the United States.* Although COVID-19-associated hospitalizations are more frequent among adults,† COVID-19 can lead to severe outcomes in children and adolescents (2). This report analyzes data from the Coronavirus Disease 19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)§ to describe COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among U.S. children (aged 0-11 years) and adolescents (aged 12-17 years) during periods of Delta (July 1-December 18, 2021) and Omicron (December 19, 2021-January 22, 2022) predominance. During the Delta- and Omicron-predominant periods, rates of weekly COVID-19-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 children and adolescents peaked during the weeks ending September 11, 2021, and January 8, 2022, respectively. The Omicron variant peak (7.1 per 100,000) was four times that of the Delta variant peak (1.8), with the largest increase observed among children aged 0-4 years.¶ During December 2021, the monthly hospitalization rate among unvaccinated adolescents aged 12-17 years (23.5) was six times that among fully vaccinated adolescents (3.8). Strategies to prevent COVID-19 among children and adolescents, including vaccination of eligible persons, are critical.*.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Vigilância da População , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 69: 102987, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979474

RESUMO

We examined the impact of telehealth on appointment retention among individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) by housing status. We evaluated appointment status using multivariate logistic regression with primary predictor variables of visit modality, patient's housing status and interaction between these two variables. Between March 1 and September 30, 2020, there were 18,206 encounters among 1,626 clients with SUD. For telehealth encounters, the probability of an appointment no-show was significantly higher for persons experiencing homelessness compared to stably housed (37% versus 25%, p < 0.001). Housing status influences the effectiveness of telehealth as a modality of healthcare delivery for individuals with SUD.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Telemedicina , Habitação , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
3.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 19(4): 290-292, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020464

RESUMO

The rate of enteric infections reported to public health surveillance decreased during 2020 amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Changes in medical care-seeking behaviors may have impacted the diagnosis of enteric infections contributing to these declines. We examined trends in outpatient medical care-seeking behavior for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Colorado during 2020 compared with the that of previous 3 years using electronic health record data from the Colorado Health Observation Regional Data Service (CHORDS). Outpatient medical encounters for AGE were identified using diagnoses codes from the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision and aggregated by year, quarter, age group, and encounter type. The rate of encounters was calculated by dividing the number of AGE encounters by the corresponding total number of encounters. There were 9064 AGE encounters in 2020 compared with an annual average of 18,784 from 2017 to 2019 (p < 0.01), representing a 52% decrease. The rate of AGE encounters declined after the first quarter of 2020 and remained significantly lower for the rest of the year. Moreover, previously observed trends, including seasonal patterns and the preponderance of pediatric encounters, were no longer evident. Telemedicine modalities accounted for 23% of all AGE encounters in 2020. AGE outpatient encounters in Colorado in 2020 were substantially lower than during the previous 3 years. Decreases remained stable over the second, third, and fourth quarters of 2020 (April-December) and were especially pronounced for children <18 years of age. Changes in medical care-seeking behavior likely contributed to declines in the number of enteric disease cases and outbreaks reported to public health. It is unclear to what extent people were ill with AGE and did not seek medical care because of concerns about the infection risk during a health care visit or to what extent there were reductions in certain exposures and opportunities for disease transmission resulting in less illness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastroenterite , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colorado/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(43): 1513-1519, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710076

RESUMO

In mid-June 2021, B.1.671.2 (Delta) became the predominant variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, circulating in the United States. As of July 2021, the Delta variant was responsible for nearly all new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the United States.* The Delta variant is more transmissible than previously circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants (1); however, whether it causes more severe disease in adults has been uncertain. Data from the CDC COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), a population-based surveillance system for COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, were used to examine trends in severe outcomes in adults aged ≥18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during periods before (January-June 2021) and during (July-August 2021) Delta variant predominance. COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates among all adults declined during January-June 2021 (pre-Delta period), before increasing during July-August 2021 (Delta period). Among sampled nonpregnant hospitalized COVID-19 patients with completed medical record abstraction and a discharge disposition during the pre-Delta period, the proportion of patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), or died while hospitalized did not significantly change from the pre-Delta period to the Delta period. The proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients who were aged 18-49 years significantly increased, from 24.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 23.2%-26.3%) of all hospitalizations in the pre-Delta period, to 35.8% (95% CI = 32.1%-39.5%, p<0.01) during the Delta period. When examined by vaccination status, 71.8% of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in the Delta period were in unvaccinated adults. Adults aged 18-49 years accounted for 43.6% (95% CI = 39.1%-48.2%) of all hospitalizations among unvaccinated adults during the Delta period. No difference was observed in ICU admission, receipt of IMV, or in-hospital death among nonpregnant hospitalized adults between the pre-Delta and Delta periods. However, the proportion of unvaccinated adults aged 18-49 years hospitalized with COVID-19 has increased as the Delta variant has become more predominant. Lower vaccination coverage in this age group likely contributed to the increase in hospitalized patients during the Delta period. COVID-19 vaccination is critical for all eligible adults, including those aged <50 years who have relatively low vaccination rates compared with older adults.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(9): e206-e214, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, the United States has the largest number of reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and deaths globally. Using a geographically diverse surveillance network, we describe risk factors for severe outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2491 adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between 1 March-2 May 2020, as identified through the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network, which comprises 154 acute-care hospitals in 74 counties in 13 states. We used multivariable analyses to assess associations between age, sex, race and ethnicity, and underlying conditions with intensive care unit (ICU) admission and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The data show that 92% of patients had ≥1 underlying condition; 32% required ICU admission; 19% required invasive mechanical ventilation; and 17% died. Independent factors associated with ICU admission included ages 50-64, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 years versus 18-39 years (adjusted risk ratios [aRRs], 1.53, 1.65, 1.84, and 1.43, respectively); male sex (aRR, 1.34); obesity (aRR, 1.31); immunosuppression (aRR, 1.29); and diabetes (aRR, 1.13). Independent factors associated with in-hospital mortality included ages 50-64, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥ 85 years versus 18-39 years (aRRs, 3.11, 5.77, 7.67, and 10.98, respectively); male sex (aRR, 1.30); immunosuppression (aRR, 1.39); renal disease (aRR, 1.33); chronic lung disease (aRR 1.31); cardiovascular disease (aRR, 1.28); neurologic disorders (aRR, 1.25); and diabetes (aRR, 1.19). CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality increased markedly with increasing age. Aggressive implementation of prevention strategies, including social distancing and rigorous hand hygiene, may benefit the population as a whole, as well as those at highest risk for COVID-19-related complications.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(32): 1081-1088, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790664

RESUMO

Most reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children aged <18 years appear to be asymptomatic or mild (1). Less is known about severe COVID-19 illness requiring hospitalization in children. During March 1-July 25, 2020, 576 pediatric COVID-19 cases were reported to the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), a population-based surveillance system that collects data on laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in 14 states (2,3). Based on these data, the cumulative COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate among children aged <18 years during March 1-July 25, 2020, was 8.0 per 100,000 population, with the highest rate among children aged <2 years (24.8). During March 21-July 25, weekly hospitalization rates steadily increased among children (from 0.1 to 0.4 per 100,000, with a weekly high of 0.7 per 100,000). Overall, Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) and non-Hispanic black (black) children had higher cumulative rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations (16.4 and 10.5 per 100,000, respectively) than did non-Hispanic white (white) children (2.1). Among 208 (36.1%) hospitalized children with complete medical chart reviews, 69 (33.2%) were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU); 12 of 207 (5.8%) required invasive mechanical ventilation, and one patient died during hospitalization. Although the cumulative rate of pediatric COVID-19-associated hospitalization remains low (8.0 per 100,000 population) compared with that among adults (164.5),* weekly rates increased during the surveillance period, and one in three hospitalized children were admitted to the ICU, similar to the proportion among adults. Continued tracking of SARS-CoV-2 infections among children is important to characterize morbidity and mortality. Reinforcement of prevention efforts is essential in congregate settings that serve children, including childcare centers and schools.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pandemias , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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