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2.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(6): 1369-1375, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782584

RESUMO

The objective of the current work was to examine the relationships between quality of life (QOL) domains in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their levels of weekly leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), anthropometric variables, and body composition variables. This exploratory cross-sectional study consisted of baseline data collected as part of a randomized clinical trial at a VA Medical Center and SCI center. A convenience sample of 36 community-dwelling persons with SCI participated in the current study. Outcome measures included the World Health Organization Quality of Life Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF), Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Spinal Cord Injury (LTPAQ-SCI), anthropomorphic measures (waist, hip, and abdominal circumference), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to quantify regional and total body composition. Multiple regression models suggested that engagement in LTPA accounted for 35.7% of the variance in physical health QOL, 33.5% in psychological QOL, 14.2% in social relationships QOL, and 38.2% in environmental QOL. Anthropometric measures accounted for 11.3%, 3.1%, 12.0%, and 6.7% of the variance in these QOL indices, respectively, and DXA indices accounted for 18.7%, 17.5%, 27.4%, and 21.9%. Within these models, the number of minutes of heavy LTPA per day uniquely predicted physical health QOL, the number of mild LTPA days per week uniquely predicted psychological QOL, and the amount of mild LTPA per day uniquely predicted environmental QOL. Bivariate analyses also suggested that android and trunk fat, as well as supine waist and abdominal circumferences, were positively associated with social relationships QOL. Encouraging individuals with SCI to engage in LTPA may robustly enhance multiple aspects of QOL while reducing the risk for cardiovascular and metabolic morbidities associated with SCI. Moreover, this may lead to a further understanding of how QOL may impact longitudinal intervention trials. The study protocol and procedures were reviewed and approved by the McGuire VA Research Institutional Review Board (IRB# 02152, approval date August 9, 2015; IRB# 02375, approval date May 2, 2018).

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245261, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249221

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.


Resumo O presente estudo foi planejado para determinar variações nos parâmetros externos e internos de qualidade dos ovos de diferentes espécies de aves, incluindo avestruz Struthio camelus, patos Anas platyrhynchos, frango Gallus gallus, perus Meleagris gallopavo e francolin cinza Francolinus pondicerinus. Todas as aves foram mantidas em condições de criação semelhantes. Um total de 150 ovos foi coletado para cada espécie para registrar as características externas desses ovos. Variações estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05) foram registradas no peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo e largura do ovo entre os ovos de avestruz, patos, galinha, peru e codorna. Significativamente (p < 0,05) maior peso do ovo, comprimento e largura do ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto o mesmo foi menor para ovos de francolina cinza. Da mesma forma, significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores valores de índice de forma e volume de ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto os menores valores de índice de forma foram registrados para ovos de peru e o volume de ovo foi menor para francolina cinza. Significativamente, maiores (p < 0,05) valores de densidade de ovos foram observados para ovos de codorna e os mesmos foram menores para ovos de avestruz. Variações não significativas nos valores de densidade de ovos foram observadas entre os ovos de pato, frango, peru e francolina cinza. Concluiu-se que as correlações positivas entre as características internas e externas de qualidade do ovo indicaram que as características podem ser melhoradas por meio da seleção.

4.
J Spinal Cord Med ; : 1-12, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arm crank ergometry (ACE), functional electrical stimulation leg cycling exercise (FES-LCE), and the combination of the two (FES hybrid exercise) have all been used as activities to help improve the fitness-related health of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). More recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become popular in the non-disabled community due to its ability to produce greater aerobic fitness benefits or equivalent benefits with reduced time commitment. OBJECTIVE: This thematic review of the literature sought to determine the potential benefits and practicality of using ACE, FES-LCE, and FES hybrid exercise in an interval training format for individuals with SCI. METHODS: Systematic literature searches were conducted in May 2020 and March 2021 focusing on interval training in individuals with SCI. Pre-defined nested search terms were used to narrow the available literature from 4273 citations to 1362 articles. The titles and abstracts were then reviewed to determine the appropriateness of the articles ending with fifteen articles. RESULTS: The literature was limited to fifteen articles with low participant numbers (n = 1-20). However, in each article, HIIT protocols either demonstrated a greater improvement in cardiovascular, metabolic, or practicality scores compared to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols, or improvement during relatively brief time commitments. CONCLUSION: The available literature lacked sufficient numbers of randomized control trials. However, the available evidence is encouraging concerning the potential benefits and practicality of using HIIT (ACE, FES-LCE, or FES hybrid exercise) to improve aerobic and anaerobic capacity and decrease cardiometabolic risk after SCI.

5.
Can J Anaesth ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811700

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on maternal outcomes associated with uterine exteriorization compared with in situ repair in women undergoing Cesarean delivery. METHODS: We searched for randomized controlled trials comparing uterine exteriorization with in situ repair during Cesarean delivery. Primary outcomes were intraoperative nausea and vomiting (IONV) and perioperative decrease in hemoglobin concentration. Secondary outcomes were postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), estimated blood loss, fever, endometritis, wound infection, intraoperative and postoperative pain, postoperative analgesic use, duration of surgery and hospital stay, and time to return of bowel function. RESULTS: Twenty studies with 20,909 parturients were included. Exteriorization was associated with higher risk of IONV (odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.63; I2 = 0%), with no difference in perioperative hemoglobin concentration decrease (mean difference, - 0.06 g·dL-1; 95% CI, - 0.20 to 0.08; I2 = 97%) compared with in situ repair. There were no significant differences in estimated blood loss, transfusion requirement, PONV, duration of surgery, duration of hospital stay, time to return of bowel function, fever, endometritis, or wound infection. Postoperative pain (incidence of pain graded > 5/10) at six hours (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.03; I2 = 0%) was higher with exteriorization, but there was no difference in need for rescue analgesia (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 0.89 to 6.90; I2 = 94%) or pain scores at 24 hr compared with in situ repair. CONCLUSIONS: In this updated systematic review and meta-analysis, uterine exteriorization was associated with an increased risk of IONV but no significant change in perioperative hemoglobin decrease compared with in situ repair. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42020190074); registered 5 July 2020.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830637

RESUMO

This review of literature provides the latest evidence involving invasive and non-invasive uses of electrical stimulation therapies that assist in restoring functional abilities and the enhancement of quality of life in those with spinal cord injuries. The review includes neuromuscular electrical stimulation and functional electrical stimulation activities that promote improved body composition changes and increased muscular strength, which have been shown to improve abilities in activities of daily living. Recommendations for optimizing electrical stimulation parameters are also reported. Electrical stimulation is also used to enhance the skills of reaching, grasping, standing, and walking, among other activities of daily living. Additionally, we report on the use of invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation techniques targeting improved mobility, including standing, postural control, and assisted walking. We attempt to summarize the effects of epidural stimulation on cardiovascular performance and provide a mechanistic explanation to the current research findings. Future trends such as the combination of epidural stimulation and exoskeletal-assisted walking are also discussed.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21672, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737347

RESUMO

The present work aims to study 6-amino-4-aryl-2-oxo-1-phenyl-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile derivatives namely: 6-Amino-2-oxo-1,4-diphenyl-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile (PdC-H), 6-Amino-2-oxo-1-phenyl-4-(p-tolyl)-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile (PdC-Me) and 6-Amino-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxo-1-phenyl-1,2-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile (PdC-OH) as corrosion inhibitors to provide protection for carbon steel in a molar hydrochloric acid medium. Chemical measurements such as (weight loss) and electrochemical techniques such as (Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Electron frequency modulation) were applied to characterize the inhibitory properties of the synthesized derivatives. The adsorption of these derivatives on the carbon steel surface was confirmed by Attenuated Total Refraction Infrared (ATR-IR), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Our findings revealed that the tested derivatives have corrosion inhibition power, which increased significantly from 75.7 to 91.67% on the addition of KI (PdC-OH:KI = 1:1) to inhibited test solution with PdC-OH derivative at 25 °C. The adsorption process on the metal surface follows the Langmuir adsorption model. XPS analysis showed that the inhibitor layer consists of an iron oxide/hydroxide mixture in which the inhibitor molecules are incorporated. Computational chemical theories such as DFT calculations and Mont Carlo simulation have been performed to correlate the molecular properties of the investigated inhibitors with experimental efficiency. The theoretical speculation by Dmol3 corroborates with the results from the experimental findings.

8.
J Clin Anesth ; 75: 110527, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626927

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate efficacy and safety of liposomal bupivacaine (LB) transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with or without intrathecal morphine (ITM) compared with ITM alone for postsurgical analgesia after cesarean delivery (CD). DESIGN: Multicenter, open-label, randomized trial (NCT03853694). SETTING: Operating room. PATIENTS: Women with term pregnancy of 37 to 42 weeks scheduled for elective CD under spinal anesthesia. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to LB 266 mg TAP block alone (LB group), ITM 50 µg followed by LB 266 mg TAP block (LB + ITM group), or ITM 150 µg alone (ITM group). All groups received the same postsurgical multimodal analgesic regimen. MEASUREMENTS: The LB and LB + ITM groups were compared with the ITM group for all efficacy outcomes. Postsurgical opioid consumption in morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) through 72 h was compared by assessing noninferiority before testing superiority. Postsurgical pruritus severity was assessed on an 11-point numerical rating scale. MAIN RESULTS: Between March 4, 2019, and January 10, 2020, 153 patients (LB, n = 52; LB + ITM, n = 48; ITM, n = 53) were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were comparable across groups. The LB group had statistically noninferior postsurgical opioid consumption through 72 h compared with the ITM group (least squares mean [LSM], 19.2 vs 16.4 MMEs; LSM treatment ratio, 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-1.86]; noninferiority P < 0.0034) as did the LB + ITM group (LSM, 14.6 vs 16.4 MMEs; LSM treatment ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.55-1.44]; noninferiority P < 0.0001). The LB and LB + ITM groups had significantly reduced pruritus severity scores through 12, 24, 48, and 72 h compared with the ITM group (P ≤ 0.0121). Adverse events occurred in 58%, 85%, and 81% of the LB, LB + ITM, and ITM groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: LB TAP block with or without ITM resulted in statistically noninferior postsurgical opioid consumption through 72 h, reduced pruritus, and favorable safety compared with ITM in women undergoing CD.

9.
J Neurophysiol ; 126(6): 1843-1859, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669485

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly results in permanent loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function. Recent clinical studies have shown that epidural spinal cord stimulation may provide a beneficial adjunct for restoring lower extremity and other neurological functions. Herein, we review the recent clinical advances of lumbosacral epidural stimulation for restoration of sensorimotor function in individuals with motor complete SCI and we discuss the putative neural pathways involved in this promising neurorehabilitative approach. We focus on three main sections: review recent clinical results for locomotor restoration in complete SCI; discuss the contemporary understanding of electrical neuromodulation and signal transduction pathways involved in spinal locomotor networks; and review current challenges of motor system modulation and future directions toward integrative neurorestoration. The current understanding is that initial depolarization occurs at the level of large diameter dorsal root proprioceptive afferents that when integrated with interneuronal and latent residual supraspinal translesional connections can recruit locomotor centers and augment downstream motor units. Spinal epidural stimulation can initiate excitability changes in spinal networks and supraspinal networks. Different stimulation parameters can facilitate standing or stepping, and it may also have potential for augmenting myriad other sensorimotor and autonomic functions. More comprehensive investigation of the mechanisms that mediate the transformation of dysfunctional spinal networks to higher functional states with a greater focus on integrated systems-based control system may reveal the key mechanisms underlying neurological augmentation and motor restoration after severe paralysis.

10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 51: 69-75, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical and laboratory features of children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) to those evaluated for MIS-C in the Emergency Department (ED). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical record of encounters with testing for inflammatory markers in an urban, tertiary care Pediatric ED from March 1, 2020 to July 31, 2020. We abstracted demographic information, laboratory values, selected medications and diagnoses. We reviewed the record for clinical presentation for the subset of patients admitted to the hospital for suspected MIS-C. We then used receiver operating curves and logistic regression to evaluate the utility of candidate laboratory values to predict MIS-C status. RESULTS: We identified 32 patients with confirmed MIS-C and 15 admitted and evaluated for MIS-C but without confirmation of SARS CoV-2 infection. We compared these patients to 267 encounters with screening laboratories for MIS-C. Confirmed MIS-C patients had an older median age, higher median fever on presentation and were predominantly of Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity. All children with MIS-C had a C-reactive protein (CRP) >4.5 mg/dL, were more likely to have Brain Natriuretic Peptide >400 pg/mL (OR 10.50, 95%CI 4.40-25.04), D-Dimer >3 µg/mL (7.51, [3.18-17.73]), and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) <1.5 K/mcL (21.42, [7.19-63.76]). We found CRP >4.5 mg/dL and ALC <1.5 K/mcL to be 86% sensitive and 91% specific to identify MIS-C among patients screened in our population. CONCLUSIONS: We identified that elevated CRP and lymphopenia was 86% sensitive and 91% specific for identification of children with MIS-C.

11.
Anesthesiol Res Pract ; 2021: 4750149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603442

RESUMO

Objectives: Dexamethasone has been shown to have analgesic properties in the general surgical population. However, the analgesic effects for women that undergo cesarean deliveries under spinal anesthesia remain unclear and may be related to the timing of dexamethasone administration. We hypothesized that intravenous dexamethasone administered before skin incision would significantly reduce postoperative opioid consumption at 24 h after cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine. Methods: Women undergoing elective cesarean deliveries under spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive 8 mg of intravenous dexamethasone or placebo prior to skin incision. Both groups received a standardized spinal anesthetic and multimodal postoperative analgesic regime. The primary outcome was cumulative opioid consumption at 24 h. Secondary outcomes included cumulative opioid consumption at 48 h, time to first analgesic request, and pain scores at rest and on movement at 2, 24, and 48 h. Results: 47 patients were analyzed-23 subjects that received dexamethasone and 24 subjects that received placebo. There was no difference in the median (Q1, Q3) cumulative opioid consumption in the first 24 hours following cesarean delivery between the dexamethasone group {15 (7.5, 20.0) mg} and the placebo group {13.75 (2.5, 31.25) mg} (P=0.740). There were no differences between the groups in cumulative opioid consumption at 48 h, time to first analgesic request, and pain scores. Conclusions: Intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg administered prior to skin incision did not reduce the opioid consumption of women that underwent cesarean deliveries under spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine and multimodal postoperative analgesic regimen.

12.
Physiol Rep ; 9(21): e15089, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713983

RESUMO

The dose de-escalation (DD) effects of testosterone and evoked resistance training (RT) on body composition, cardiometabolic, and neuromuscular variables were investigated. Thirteen men with chronic complete spinal cord injury (SCI) were followed for additional 16 weeks after receiving either testosterone treatment only (TT) or TT+RT. During the 16-week DD period, the TT+RT group underwent a program of once weekly electrical stimulation with gradually decreasing ankle weights and testosterone patches of 2 mg day-1 (TT+RT group). The TT only group did not receive any intervention throughout the detraining period (no-TT group). Body composition was tested using anthropometrics, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and magnetic resonance imaging. After an overnight fast, basal metabolic rate (BMR), lipid panel, serum testosterone, inflammatory biomarkers, glucose effectiveness, and insulin sensitivity were measured. Finally, peak isometric and isokinetic torques were measured only in the TT+RT group. All measurements were conducted at the beginning and at the end of DD. Absolute thigh muscle cross-sectional areas (CSAs) demonstrated interaction effects (p < 0.05) between the TT+RT (-8.15%, -6.5%) and no-TT (2.3%, 4.4%) groups. Similarly, absolute knee extensor muscle CSA demonstrated interaction effects (p < 0.05) between the TT+RT (-11%, -7.0%) and no-TT (2.6%, 3.8%) groups. There was a trend (p = 0.07) of increasing visceral adipose tissue (VAT) CSAs in the TT+RT (18%) and in the no-TT (16% cm2 ) groups. There was an interaction (p = 0.005) between TT+RT (decreased by 3.7%) and no-TT groups (increased by 9.0%) in BMR. No interactions were evident between groups over time for biomarkers related to carbohydrate, lipid metabolism, or inflammation. Finally, there were no changes (p > 0.05) in peak isometric or isokinetic torques and rise time following 16 weeks of the DD period in the TT+RT group. TT+RT during 16 weeks of DD was minimally effective at preventing detraining relative to no-TT on muscle size, BMR, and VAT. However, neuromuscular gains were successfully maintained.

13.
Curr Pediatr Rep ; : 1-11, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703656

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: We provide the readers with a review of cardiac complications in children with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and its short-term outcomes. Recent Findings: Recent reports described the acute cardiac manifestations of MIS-C in children and provided a glimpse of the short-term outcomes. Summary: Children with MIS-C have been reported to acutely have variable degrees of cardiac findings including abnormal cardiac enzymes, abnormal electrocardiographs, decreased systolic function, coronary artery abnormalities from coronary dilation to giant aneurysms, mitral valve regurgitation, tricuspid valve regurgitation, aortic valve insufficiency, pericardial effusion, diastolic dysfunction, abnormal cardiac strain, and abnormal cardiac MRI. The majority of these abnormalities resolved during short-term follow-up. Further studies are needed to assess if transient or persistent cardiac complications are associated with long-term adverse cardiac events in children with MIS-C. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40124-021-00258-5.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681643

RESUMO

Novel xanthine and imidazolone derivatives were synthesized based on oxazolone derivatives 2a-c as a key intermediate. The corresponding xanthine 3-5 and imidazolone derivatives 6-13 were obtained via reaction of oxazolone derivative 2a-c with 5,6-diaminouracils 1a-e under various conditions. Xanthine compounds 3-5 were obtained by cyclocondensation of 5,6-diaminouracils 1a-c with different oxazolones in glacial acetic acid. Moreover, 5,6-diaminouracils 1a-e were reacted with oxazolones 2a-c in presence of drops of acetic acid under fused condition yielding the imidazolone derivatives 6-13. Furthermore, Schiff base of compounds 14-16 were obtained by condensing 5,6-diaminouracils 1a,b,e with 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in acetic acid. The structural identity of the resulting compounds was resolved by IR, 1H-, 13C-NMR and Mass spectral analyses. The novel synthesized compounds were screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. Compounds 3, 6, 13 and 16 displayed the highest activity against Escherichia coli as revealed from the IC50 values (1.8-1.9 µg/mL). The compound 16 displayed a significant antifungal activity against Candia albicans (0.82 µg/mL), Aspergillus flavus (1.2 µg/mL) comparing to authentic antibiotics. From the TEM microgram, the compounds 3, 12, 13 and 16 exhibited a strong deformation to the cellular entities, by interfering with the cell membrane components, causing cytosol leakage, cellular shrinkage and irregularity to the cell shape. In addition, docking study for the most promising antimicrobial tested compounds depicted high binding affinity against acyl carrier protein domain from a fungal type I polyketide synthase (ACP), and Baumannii penicillin- binding protein (PBP). Moreover, compound 12 showed high drug- likeness, and excellent pharmacokinetics, which needs to be in focus for further antimicrobial drug development. The most promising antimicrobial compounds underwent theoretical investigation using DFT calculation.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of NMES and/or FES training on different body composition parameters in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). DATA SOURCES: Three independent reviewers searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Central, and Virtual Health Library until March 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included if they applied NMES/FES on the lower limb muscles after SCI, reported stimulation parameters (frequency, pulse duration, and amplitude of current), and body composition parameters which included muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), fat-free mass (FFM), lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and intramuscular fat (IMF). DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 46 studies were included in the final analysis with total sample size of 414 subjects. NMES loading exercise and FES cycling exercise were commonly used for training. Increases in muscle CSA ranged from 5.7 to 75% with an average of 26% (n=33). Fifteen studies reported changes (both increase and decrease) in LM or FFM ranged from -4% to 35%, with an average of less than 5%. Changes in FM (n=10) were modest. The effect on ectopic adipose tissue is inconclusive with two studies showing an average reduction in IMF by 9.9%. Stimulation parameters ranged from 200 to 1000 µs for pulse duration, 2 to 60 Hz for the frequency and the amplitude of the current ranged from 10 to 200 mA. Finally, increase in weekly training volumes following NMES loading exercise resulted in a remarkable increase in percentage changes in LM or muscle CSA. CONCLUSIONS: NMES/FES is an effective rehabilitation strategy for muscle hypertrophy and increasing LM. Weekly training volumes are associated with muscle hypertrophy after NMES loading exercise. Furthermore, positive muscle adaptations occur despite the applied stimulation parameters. Finally, the included studies reported wide range of stimulation parameters without reporting rationale for such selection.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is a newly defined complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection that can result in cardiogenic shock in the pediatric population. Early detection of cardiac dysfunction is imperative in directing therapy and identifying patients at highest risk for deterioration. This study compares the strengths of conventional and strain echocardiography in identifying cardiac dysfunction in critically ill children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and their association with ICU therapeutic needs and clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: A large, quaternary care PICU. PATIENTS: Sixty-five pediatric patients admitted to the PICU with the diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children from March 2020 to March 2021. INTERVENTIONS: Global longitudinal strain four chamber was measured retrospectively by strain echocardiography and compared with conventional echocardiography. Cardiac dysfunction was defined by left ventricular ejection fraction less than 55% and global longitudinal strain four chamber greater than or equal to -17.2%. Clinical variables examined included cardiac biomarkers, immune therapies, and ICU interventions and outcomes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (37%) had abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction and 56 (86%) had abnormal global longitudinal strain four chamber. Between patients with normal and abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction, we failed to identify a difference in cardiac biomarker levels, vasoactive use, respiratory support needs, or ICU length of stay. Global longitudinal strain four chamber was associated with maximum cardiac biomarker levels. Abnormal global longitudinal strain four chamber was associated with greater odds of any vasoactive use (odds ratio, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.3-25.3; z-statistic, 2.3; p = 0.021). The number of days of vasoactive infusion was correlated with global longitudinal strain four chamber (r = 0.400; 95% CI, 2.4-3.9; p < 0.001). Children with abnormal strain had longer ICU length of stay (4.5 d vs 2 d; p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest strain echocardiography can detect abnormalities in cardiac function in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children patients unrecognized by conventional echocardiography. These abnormalities are associated with increased use of intensive care therapies. Evaluation of these patients with strain echocardiography may better identify those with myocardial dysfunction and need for more intensive therapy.

17.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(10): 6183-6196, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580743

RESUMO

The well-known probiotic GRAS Saccharomyces boulardii (CNCM I-745) was used for the first time to produce glutathione (GSH). The culture conditions affecting GSH biosynthesis were screened using a Plackett-Burman design (PBD). Analyzing the regression coefficients for 12 tested variables, yeast extract, glucose, peptone, cysteine, temperature and agitation rate had a positive significant effect on GSH production with a maximum yeild 192 mg/L. The impact of kinetics of adding cysteine was investigated in 19 experiments during the growth time course (0-36 h), and the maximum yield of glutathione (235 mg/L) was obtained by addition of cysteine after 8 h post-inoculation. The most significant variables were further explored at five levels using central composite rotatable design (CCRD), giving a maximum production of GSH (552 mg/L). Using baffled flasks, the yield of GSH was increased to 730 mg/L, i.e., 1.32-fold increment. The two rate-limiting genes of GSH biosynthesis "γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GSH1) and GSH-synthetase (GSH2)" were amplified and sequenced to validate the GSH biosynthetic potency of S. boulardii. The sequences of genes showed 99% similarity with GSH1 and GSH2 genes of S. cerevisiae. Glutathione peroxidase was purified and characterized from S. boulardii with molecular mass and subunit structure of 80 kDa and 35 kDa as revealed from native and SDS-PAGE, ensuring its homodimeric identity. The activity of GPx was reduced by 2.5-fold upon demetallization confirming its metalloproteinic identity. The GPx was strongly inhibited by hydroxylamine and DTNB, ensuring the implication of surface lysine and cysteine residues on the enzyme active site domains.


Assuntos
Glutationa , Saccharomyces boulardii , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Sintase , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 730471, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566992

RESUMO

The ligand-binding surface of the B cell receptor (BCR) is formed by encoded and non-encoded antigen complementarity determining regions (CDRs). Genetically reproducible or 'public' antibodies can arise when the encoded CDRs play deterministic roles in antigen recognition, notably within human broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV and influenza virus. We sought to exploit this by engineering virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines that harbor multivalent affinity against gene-encoded moieties of the BCR antigen binding site. As proof of concept, we deployed a library of RNA bacteriophage VLPs displaying random peptides to identify a multivalent antigen that selectively triggered germline BCRs using the human VH gene IGVH1-2*02. This VLP selectively primed IGHV1-2*02 BCRs that were present within a highly diversified germline antibody repertoire within humanized mice. Our approach thus provides methodology to generate antigens that engage specific BCR configurations of interest, in the absence of structure-based information.

19.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468515

RESUMO

During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird's houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Columbidae , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
J Pediatr ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate practice variation in pharmacologic management in the International Kawasaki Disease Registry (IKDR). STUDY DESIGN: Practice variation in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, anti-inflammatory agents, statins, beta-blockers, antiplatelet therapy, and anticoagulation was described. RESULTS: We included 1627 patients from 30 IKDR centers with maximum coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) z scores 2.5-4.99 in 848, 5.0-9.99 in 349, and ≥10.0 (large/giant) in 430 patients. All centers reported IVIG and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as primary therapy and use of additional IVIG or steroids as needed. In 23 out of 30 centers, (77%) infliximab was also used; 11 of these 23 centers reported using it in <10% of their patients, and 3 centers used it in >20% of patients. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents were used in >10% of patients in only nine centers. Beta-blocker (8.8%, all patients) and abciximab (3.6%, all patients) were mainly prescribed in patients with large/giant CAAs. Statins (2.7%, all patients) were mostly used in one center and only in patients with large/giant CAAs. ASA was the primary antiplatelet modality for 99% of patients, used in all centers. Clopidogrel (18%, all patients) was used in 24 centers, 11 of which used it in >50% of their patients with large/giant CAAs. CONCLUSIONS: In the IKDR, IVIG and ASA therapy as primary therapy is universal with common use of a second dose of IVIG for persistent fever. There is practice variation among centers for adjunctive therapies and anticoagulation strategies, likely reflecting ongoing knowledge gaps. Randomized controlled trials nested in a high-quality collaborative registry may be an efficient strategy to reduce practice variation.

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