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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285619

RESUMO

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235612, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153466

RESUMO

Abstract The experiment was carried out on mango cv. Dusehri to investigate the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality. Eight different fertilizer combinations such as T1 (control), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T8 (NPK) were used. Individual or combine fertilizer application of N (1000 g), P (750 g) and K (750 g) were applied during growing season in February and August. All the treatments significantly influenced on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and other physiochemical attributes of mango as compared to control. Least effect was observed with individual fertilizer application while combine fertilizer treatments enhanced most of the investigated parameters. Especially, qualitative traits showed non-significant differences between treated and untreated mango trees. However, among the different treatments T8 (NPK) showed significance for fruiting aspects such as maximum size of growth flushes (177.51 mm), total number of panicles/tree (845), total number of flowers/panicle (974), sex ratio (69.18%), fruit retention (13.85%), total number of fruits/tree (379), yield (82 kg/tree), fruit weight (197.5 g), pulp weight (135.5 g) and physiochemical parameters namely TSS (24.53), Vit. C (57.63 mg/100 mL) and total sugar (20.84%). In general, combine application of NPK (T8) were the most effective in enhancing fruiting aspects, yield, physiochemical characteristics as well as improved fruit quality of mango trees.


Resumo O experimento foi realizado em manga cv. Dusehri para investigar o efeito dos fertilizantes N, P e K no crescimento vegetativo, reprodutivo, produtividade e de qualidade do fruto. Foram utilizadas oito combinações diferentes de fertilizantes: T1 (controle), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) e T8 (NPK). Cada tratamento de N (1.000 g), P (750 g) e K (750 g) foi aplicado duas vezes durante a estação de crescimento em fevereiro e agosto. Todos os tratamentos influenciaram significativamente o crescimento vegetativo, floração, frutificação, produtividade e outros atributos físico-químicos da manga em relação ao controle. Menos efeito foi observado com a aplicação individual de fertilizante, enquanto os tratamentos combinados aumentaram a maioria dos parâmetros investigados. Especialmente as características qualitativas mostraram diferenças não significativas entre mangueiras tratadas e não tratadas. No entanto, entre os diferentes tratamentos, T8 (NPK) apresentou significância para aspectos de frutificação, como tamanho máximo de folgas de crescimento (177,51 mm), número total de panículas/árvore (845), número total de flores/panícula (974), razão sexual (69,18%), retenção de frutos (13,85%), número total de frutos/árvore (379), produção (82 kg/árvore), peso do fruto (197,5 g) e peso da polpa (135,5 g), além de parâmetros físico-químicos, como TSS (24,53), vitamina C (57,63 mg/100 mL) e açúcar total (20,84%). Em geral, a aplicação combinada de NPK (T8) foi a mais eficaz no aprimoramento dos aspectos de frutificação, produtividade, características físico-químicas, além da melhoria da qualidade dos frutos das mangueiras.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762044

RESUMO

Abstract The experiment was carried out on mango cv. Dusehri to investigate the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality. Eight different fertilizer combinations such as T1 (control), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T8 (NPK) were used. Individual or combine fertilizer application of N (1000 g), P (750 g) and K (750 g) were applied during growing season in February and August. All the treatments significantly influenced on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and other physiochemical attributes of mango as compared to control. Least effect was observed with individual fertilizer application while combine fertilizer treatments enhanced most of the investigated parameters. Especially, qualitative traits showed non-significant differences between treated and untreated mango trees. However, among the different treatments T8 (NPK) showed significance for fruiting aspects such as maximum size of growth flushes (177.51 mm), total number of panicles/tree (845), total number of flowers/panicle (974), sex ratio (69.18%), fruit retention (13.85%), total number of fruits/tree (379), yield (82 kg/tree), fruit weight (197.5 g), pulp weight (135.5 g) and physiochemical parameters namely TSS (24.53), Vit. C (57.63 mg/100 mL) and total sugar (20.84%). In general, combine application of NPK (T8) were the most effective in enhancing fruiting aspects, yield, physiochemical characteristics as well as improved fruit quality of mango trees.


Resumo O experimento foi realizado em manga cv. Dusehri para investigar o efeito dos fertilizantes N, P e K no crescimento vegetativo, reprodutivo, produtividade e de qualidade do fruto. Foram utilizadas oito combinações diferentes de fertilizantes: T1 (controle), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) e T8 (NPK). Cada tratamento de N (1.000 g), P (750 g) e K (750 g) foi aplicado duas vezes durante a estação de crescimento em fevereiro e agosto. Todos os tratamentos influenciaram significativamente o crescimento vegetativo, floração, frutificação, produtividade e outros atributos físico-químicos da manga em relação ao controle. Menos efeito foi observado com a aplicação individual de fertilizante, enquanto os tratamentos combinados aumentaram a maioria dos parâmetros investigados. Especialmente as características qualitativas mostraram diferenças não significativas entre mangueiras tratadas e não tratadas. No entanto, entre os diferentes tratamentos, T8 (NPK) apresentou significância para aspectos de frutificação, como tamanho máximo de folgas de crescimento (177,51 mm), número total de panículas/árvore (845), número total de flores/panícula (974), razão sexual (69,18%), retenção de frutos (13,85%), número total de frutos/árvore (379), produção (82 kg/árvore), peso do fruto (197,5 g) e peso da polpa (135,5 g), além de parâmetros físico-químicos, como TSS (24,53), vitamina C (57,63 mg/100 mL) e açúcar total (20,84%). Em geral, a aplicação combinada de NPK (T8) foi a mais eficaz no aprimoramento dos aspectos de frutificação, produtividade, características físico-químicas, além da melhoria da qualidade dos frutos das mangueiras.

4.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 353-359, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508343

RESUMO

Curcumin is a potent antimicrobial herb used traditionally as a spice in culinary. This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and virus were administered on the 15th day of incubation and were checked after every 24 hours up to 96th hour post inoculation by random selection of 3 eggs. Death and survival rate were noted in all groups. Gross and histopathological lesions were also observed. Results revealed that Curcuma longa extract had significantly (p<0.05) reduced the mortality rate of embryos infected with H9N2 virus. In G3, increased lymphocytes and mild fatty changes were seen in liver. Whereas, mature RBCs, plasma cells and some lymphoblast's were observed in Spleen. Similarly, the bursa follicles were with lymphocytic aggregation. The G4 (Curcuma longa) and G5 (Ribazole) were with maximum embryo survival after 48 and 72 h post inoculation. This study revealed potential antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9N2 influenza viruses and can be opted as alternative to antibiotics and antiviral drugs to minimize the antimicrobial resistance in human and animal population.

5.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 295: 102481, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390883

RESUMO

Corrosion is the degradation of a metal due to its reaction with the environment. One of the most efficient ways of securing metal surfaces from corrosion is the use of corrosion inhibitors. Their efficacy is connected to their chemical composition, their molecular structures, and their adsorption affinities on the metal surface. This review article focuses on the prospects of different types of monomeric and gemini surfactants, mixed surfactants systems, surfactants- additives mixed systems, inhibitors-surfactants (as additives) mixed systems, and ionic liquid based surfactants as promising corrosion-inhibiting formulations in the aqueous phase and the role of surfactants in developing protective coatings. The analysis starts with an accurate overview of the characteristics, types, and structure-property-performance relationship of anti-corrosion formulations of such inhibitors.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244435, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431906

RESUMO

Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Romã (Fruta) , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
7.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(6): 404-411, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955242

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aim to identify any changes in outcome for patients undergoing nonelective surgery at the start of the UK pandemic in our district general hospital. This was a single-centre retrospective cohort review of a UK district general hospital serving a population of over 250,000 people. METHODS: Participants were all patients undergoing a surgical procedure in the acute theatre list between 23 March to 11 May in both 2019 and 2020. Primary outcome was 90-day postoperative mortality. Secondary outcomes include time to surgical intervention and length of inpatient stay. RESULTS: A total of 132 patients (2020) versus 141 (2019) patients were included. Although overall 90-day postoperative mortality was higher in 2020 (9.8%) compared with 2019 (5.7%), this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.196). In 2020, eight patients tested positive for COVID-19 either as an inpatient or within 2 weeks of discharge, of whom five patients died. Time to surgical intervention was significantly faster for NCEPOD (National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death) code 3 patients in 2020 than in 2019 (p=0.027). There were no significant differences in mean length of inpatient stay. CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients were appropriately prioritised using NCEPOD classification, with no statistically significant differences in 90-day postoperative mortality and length of inpatient stay compared with the 2019 period. A study on a larger scale would further elucidate the profile and outcomes of patients requiring acute surgery to generate statistical significance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Distrito/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e235612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681899

RESUMO

The experiment was carried out on mango cv. Dusehri to investigate the effect of N, P and K fertilizers on vegetative, reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality. Eight different fertilizer combinations such as T1 (control), T2 (N), T3 (P), T4 (K), T5 (NP), T6 (NK), T7 (PK) and T8 (NPK) were used. Individual or combine fertilizer application of N (1000 g), P (750 g) and K (750 g) were applied during growing season in February and August. All the treatments significantly influenced on vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting, yield and other physiochemical attributes of mango as compared to control. Least effect was observed with individual fertilizer application while combine fertilizer treatments enhanced most of the investigated parameters. Especially, qualitative traits showed non-significant differences between treated and untreated mango trees. However, among the different treatments T8 (NPK) showed significance for fruiting aspects such as maximum size of growth flushes (177.51 mm), total number of panicles/tree (845), total number of flowers/panicle (974), sex ratio (69.18%), fruit retention (13.85%), total number of fruits/tree (379), yield (82 kg/tree), fruit weight (197.5 g), pulp weight (135.5 g) and physiochemical parameters namely TSS (24.53), Vit. C (57.63 mg/100 mL) and total sugar (20.84%). In general, combine application of NPK (T8) were the most effective in enhancing fruiting aspects, yield, physiochemical characteristics as well as improved fruit quality of mango trees.


Assuntos
Mangifera , Animais , Aves , Fertilizantes , Frutas , Árvores
9.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(1): 125-136, Jan.-Feb. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30634

RESUMO

Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid, involved in key biological functions in plants and humans. Rootstocks have a major impact on citrulline accumulation in grafted watermelon. Information regarding rootstock induced changes in citrulline metabolism is elusive. To understand the regulatory mechanism, parallel changes in the expression profiles of citrulline metabolic genes and citrulline content of watermelon were monitored during the development of self-rooted watermelon and watermelon grafted onto pumpkin, wild and bottle gourd rootstocks. Results demonstrated that rootstocks regulated the expression profiles in different ways to influence the citrulline content. GAT, NAGPR, ASS3 ASS2 and Asl2 showed the negative correlation with citrulline content in pumpkin grafted watermelon. Pumpkin rootstock promoted the citrulline content by high down-regulation and synergistic effect of ASS2, ASS3, ASL1 and ASl2 genes. In wild grafted watermelon, citrulline was accumulated as a result of down regulation of GAT, NAGS and ASL2 genes, which showed an inverse correlation with citrulline. In gourd grafted watermelon, changes in citrulline content were observed to be linked with lower expressions of GAT, NAGK, ASS2, ASS3, ASL1 and ARG which were negatively correlated with citrulline content. Our study will provide the basis to understand the molecular mechanism of citrulline accumulation in various rootstocks.(AU)


A citrulina é um aminoácido não essencial, envolvida em importantes funções biológicas de plantas e seres humanos. Os porta-enxertos têm um grande impacto no acúmulo de citrulina na melancia enxertada. Informações sobre alterações induzidas por porta-enxertos no metabolismo da citrulina ainda não foram descritas. Para entender o mecanismo regulatório, foram monitoradas mudanças paralelas nos perfis de expressão dos genes metabólicos de citrulina e no teor de citrulina da melancia durante o desenvolvimento da melancia e da melancia enxertada em porta-enxertos de abóbora, silvestre e cabaça. Os resultados demonstraram que o porta-enxerto regulou os perfis de expressão de diferentes maneiras para influenciar no conteúdo de citrulina. GAT, NAGPR, ASS3, ASS2 e ASL2 apresentaram correlação negativa com o teor de citrulina em melancia enxertada de abóbora. O porta-enxerto de abóbora promoveu o conteúdo de citrulina por meio de baixa regulação e efeito sinérgico de duas famílias de genes ASS e ASL. Na melancia enxertada, a acumulação de citrulina resultou na regulação negativa de GAT, NAGS e ASL2, que mostraram uma correlação inversa com a citrulina. Na melancia enxertada, observou-se que as alterações no conteúdo de citrulina foram associadas a menores expressões de GAT, NAGK, ASS2, ASS3, ASL1 e ARG, que foram negativamente correlacionadas com o conteúdo de citrulina. Esses resultados fornecem a base para identificar o mecanismo molecular do acúmulo de citrulina em vários porta-enxertos.(AU)


Assuntos
Citrulina , Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrullus/genética , Expressão Gênica
10.
QJM ; 114(3): 182-189, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elderly patients with COVID-19 disease are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Current data regarding disease characteristics and outcomes in this population are limited. AIM: To delineate the adverse factors associated with outcomes of COVID-19 patients ≥75 years of age. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Patients were classified into mild/moderate, severe/very severe and critical disease (intubated) based on oxygen requirements. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 355 patients aged ≥75 years hospitalized with COVID-19 between 19 March and 25 April 2020 were included.Mean age was 84.3 years. One-third of the patients developed critical disease. Mean length of stay was 7.10 days. Vasopressors were required in 27%, with the highest frequency in the critical disease group (74.1%). Overall mortality was 57.2%, with a significant difference between severity groups (mild/moderate disease: 17.4%, severe/very severe disease: 71.3%, critical disease: 94.9%, P < 0.001).Increased age, dementia, and severe/very severe and critical disease groups were independently associated with increased odds for mortality while diarrhea was associated with decreased odds for mortality (OR: 0.12, 95% CI: 0.02-0.60, P < 0.05). None of the cardiovascular comorbidities were significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Age and dementia are associated with increased odds for mortality in patients ≥75 years of age hospitalized with COVID-19. Those who require intubation have the greatest odds for mortality. Diarrhea as a presenting symptom was associated with lower odds for mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Tomada de Decisões , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 125-136, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153313

RESUMO

Abstract Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid, involved in key biological functions in plants and humans. Rootstocks have a major impact on citrulline accumulation in grafted watermelon. Information regarding rootstock induced changes in citrulline metabolism is elusive. To understand the regulatory mechanism, parallel changes in the expression profiles of citrulline metabolic genes and citrulline content of watermelon were monitored during the development of self-rooted watermelon and watermelon grafted onto pumpkin, wild and bottle gourd rootstocks. Results demonstrated that rootstocks regulated the expression profiles in different ways to influence the citrulline content. GAT, NAGPR, ASS3 ASS2 and Asl2 showed the negative correlation with citrulline content in pumpkin grafted watermelon. Pumpkin rootstock promoted the citrulline content by high down-regulation and synergistic effect of ASS2, ASS3, ASL1 and ASl2 genes. In wild grafted watermelon, citrulline was accumulated as a result of down regulation of GAT, NAGS and ASL2 genes, which showed an inverse correlation with citrulline. In gourd grafted watermelon, changes in citrulline content were observed to be linked with lower expressions of GAT, NAGK, ASS2, ASS3, ASL1 and ARG which were negatively correlated with citrulline content. Our study will provide the basis to understand the molecular mechanism of citrulline accumulation in various rootstocks.


Resumo A citrulina é um aminoácido não essencial, envolvida em importantes funções biológicas de plantas e seres humanos. Os porta-enxertos têm um grande impacto no acúmulo de citrulina na melancia enxertada. Informações sobre alterações induzidas por porta-enxertos no metabolismo da citrulina ainda não foram descritas. Para entender o mecanismo regulatório, foram monitoradas mudanças paralelas nos perfis de expressão dos genes metabólicos de citrulina e no teor de citrulina da melancia durante o desenvolvimento da melancia e da melancia enxertada em porta-enxertos de abóbora, silvestre e cabaça. Os resultados demonstraram que o porta-enxerto regulou os perfis de expressão de diferentes maneiras para influenciar no conteúdo de citrulina. GAT, NAGPR, ASS3, ASS2 e ASL2 apresentaram correlação negativa com o teor de citrulina em melancia enxertada de abóbora. O porta-enxerto de abóbora promoveu o conteúdo de citrulina por meio de baixa regulação e efeito sinérgico de duas famílias de genes ASS e ASL. Na melancia enxertada, a acumulação de citrulina resultou na regulação negativa de GAT, NAGS e ASL2, que mostraram uma correlação inversa com a citrulina. Na melancia enxertada, observou-se que as alterações no conteúdo de citrulina foram associadas a menores expressões de GAT, NAGK, ASS2, ASS3, ASL1 e ARG, que foram negativamente correlacionadas com o conteúdo de citrulina. Esses resultados fornecem a base para identificar o mecanismo molecular do acúmulo de citrulina em vários porta-enxertos.

13.
Braz J Biol ; 81(1): 125-136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321067

RESUMO

Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid, involved in key biological functions in plants and humans. Rootstocks have a major impact on citrulline accumulation in grafted watermelon. Information regarding rootstock induced changes in citrulline metabolism is elusive. To understand the regulatory mechanism, parallel changes in the expression profiles of citrulline metabolic genes and citrulline content of watermelon were monitored during the development of self-rooted watermelon and watermelon grafted onto pumpkin, wild and bottle gourd rootstocks. Results demonstrated that rootstocks regulated the expression profiles in different ways to influence the citrulline content. GAT, NAGPR, ASS3 ASS2 and Asl2 showed the negative correlation with citrulline content in pumpkin grafted watermelon. Pumpkin rootstock promoted the citrulline content by high down-regulation and synergistic effect of ASS2, ASS3, ASL1 and ASl2 genes. In wild grafted watermelon, citrulline was accumulated as a result of down regulation of GAT, NAGS and ASL2 genes, which showed an inverse correlation with citrulline. In gourd grafted watermelon, changes in citrulline content were observed to be linked with lower expressions of GAT, NAGK, ASS2, ASS3, ASL1 and ARG which were negatively correlated with citrulline content. Our study will provide the basis to understand the molecular mechanism of citrulline accumulation in various rootstocks.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Citrulina , Citrullus/genética , Humanos , Raízes de Plantas
14.
J Hosp Infect ; 109: 96-100, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cases of Clostridiodes difficile infection (CDI) diagnosed after hospital discharge account for a substantial proportion of new infections. It is unclear whether post-discharge infections originate from hospital-based transmission. METHODS: This was a Retrospective cohort study at a tertiary-care cancer center (non-outbreak setting). For all laboratory-identified cases of CDI in 2015-2016, patients with post-discharge (PD) CDI within eight weeks of their hospital stay were included in the study. Isolates from PD-CDI cases and their CDI-positive unit-based contacts were first genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Common strains were further examined by core genome sequencing (CGS) to evaluate transmission links. RESULTS: Of 173 cases examined by MLST, 50% of PD cases matched previous unit contacts. Next, 34 isolates, including 16 PD cases and their 18-unit contacts were examined by CGS. None were ≤3 single-nucleotide variants apart. Seventy percent of PD cases had in-hospital antibiotic exposure before CDI onset in the community. CONCLUSION: Our study results suggest that symptomatic CDI cases are not a substantial source of transmission to PD cases. Frequent antibiotic exposure in post-discharge CDI cases is an important target for surveillance and stewardship efforts.

15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13098-13100, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378063

RESUMO

COVID-19 is rapidly spreading throughout the world since December 2019. It has hit South Asian countries with faded impact, which can be attributed to (a) availability of kits, (b) number of people tested for COVID-19, (c) immunity, (d) environmental conditions and (e) vaccination.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Umidade , Malária/imunologia , Temperatura , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Ásia Ocidental/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/provisão & distribuição , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
18.
QJM ; 113(8): 546-550, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an ongoing threat to society. Patients who develop the most severe forms of the disease have high mortality. The interleukin-6 inhibitor tocilizumab has the potential to improve outcomes in these patients by preventing the development of cytokine release storm. AIMS: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 disease treated with the interleukin-6 inhibitor tocilizumab. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, case-control, single-center study in patients with severe to critical COVID-19 disease treated with tocilizumab. Disease severity was defined based on the amount of oxygen supplementation required. The primary endpoint was the overall mortality. Secondary endpoints were mortality in non-intubated patients and mortality in intubated patients. RESULTS: A total of 193 patients were included in the study. Ninety-six patients received tocilizumab, while 97 served as the control group. The mean age was 60 years. Patients over 65 years represented 43% of the population. More patients in the tocilizumab group reported fever, cough and shortness of breath (83%, 80% and 96% vs. 73%, 69% and 71%, respectively). There was a non-statistically significant lower mortality in the treatment group (52% vs. 62.1%, P = 0.09). When excluding intubated patients, there was statistically significant lower mortality in patients treated with tocilizumab (6% vs. 27%, P = 0.024). Bacteremia was more common in the control group (24% vs. 13%, P = 0.43), while fungemia was similar for both (3% vs. 4%, P = 0.72). CONCLUSION: Our study showed a non-statistically significant lower mortality in patients with severe to critical COVID-19 disease who received tocilizumab. When intubated patients were excluded, the use of tocilizumab was associated with lower mortality.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Metallomics ; 12(3): 416-426, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976503

RESUMO

Animals carefully control homeostasis of Cu, a metal that is both potentially toxic and an essential nutrient. During infection, various shifts in Cu homeostasis can ensue. In mice infected with Candida albicans, serum Cu progressively rises and at late stages of infection, liver Cu rises, while kidney Cu declines. The basis for these changes in Cu homeostasis was poorly understood. We report here that the progressive rise in serum Cu is attributable to liver production of the multicopper oxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp). Through studies using Cp-/- mice, we find this elevated Cp helps recover serum Fe levels at late stages of infection, consistent with a role for Cp in loading transferrin with Fe. Cp also accounts for the elevation in liver Cu seen during infection, but not for the fluctuations in kidney Cu. The Cu exporting ATPase ATP7B is one candidate for kidney Cu control, but we find no change in the pattern of kidney Cu loss during infection of Atp7b-/- mice, implying alternative mechanisms. To test whether fungal infiltration of kidney tissue was required for kidney Cu loss, we explored other paradigms of infection. Infection with the intravascular malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei caused a rise in serum Cu and decrease in kidney Cu similar to that seen with C. albicans. Thus, dynamics in kidney Cu homeostasis appear to be a common feature among vastly different infection paradigms. The implications for such Cu homeostasis control in immunity are discussed.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/fisiologia , Candidíase/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Animais , Candidíase/sangue , Ceruloplasmina/metabolismo , Cobre/sangue , Feminino , Homeostase , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
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