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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248026, 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374638

RESUMO

Poultry industry is amongst highly developed industries of Pakistan, fulfilling the protein demand of rapidly increasing population. On the other hand, the untreated poultry waste is causing several health and environmental problems. The current study was designed to check the potential of keratinolytic fungal species for the conversion of chicken-feather waste into biofortified compost. For the purpose, three fungal species were isolated from soil samples. These strains were pure cultured and then characterized phenotypically and genotypically. BLAST searches of 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of the fungal isolates revealed that the two fungal isolates belonged to genus Aspergillus and one belonged to genus Chrysosporium. Optimum temperature for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Chrysosporium queenslandicum was 29, 26 and 25 oC, respectively. A. flavus showed maximum (53%) feather degradation, A. niger degraded feather waste up to 37%, while C. queenslandicum showed 21% keratinolytic activity on chicken feathers at their respective temperature optima. The degradation potential of these fungal species showed their ability to form compost that has agro-industrial importance.


A indústria avícola está entre as indústrias altamente desenvolvidas do Paquistão, atendendo a demanda de proteína da população em rápido crescimento. Por outro lado, os resíduos de aves não tratados estão causando diversos problemas de saúde e ambientais. O presente estudo foi desenhado para verificar o potencial de espécies de fungos queratinolíticos para a conversão de resíduos de penas de frango em composto biofortificado. Para tanto, três espécies de fungos foram isoladas de amostras de solo. Essas cepas foram cultivadas puramente e, em seguida, caracterizadas fenotipicamente e genotipicamente. As pesquisas do BLAST da sequência de nucleotídeos do rDNA 18S dos isolados de fungos revelaram que os dois isolados de fungos pertenciam ao gênero Aspergillus e um pertencia ao gênero Chrysosporium. A temperatura ótima para Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger e Chrysosporium queenslandicum foi de 29, 26 e 25 oC, respectivamente. A. flavus apresentou degradação máxima de penas (53%), A. niger degradou resíduos de penas em até 37%, enquanto C. queenslandicum apresentou 21% de atividade queratinolítica em penas de frango em suas respectivas temperaturas ótimas. O potencial de degradação dessas espécies de fungos mostrou sua capacidade de formar composto de importância agroindustrial.


Assuntos
Produtos Avícolas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Paquistão
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248026, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544900

RESUMO

Poultry industry is amongst highly developed industries of Pakistan, fulfilling the protein demand of rapidly increasing population. On the other hand, the untreated poultry waste is causing several health and environmental problems. The current study was designed to check the potential of keratinolytic fungal species for the conversion of chicken-feather waste into biofortified compost. For the purpose, three fungal species were isolated from soil samples. These strains were pure cultured and then characterized phenotypically and genotypically. BLAST searches of 18S rDNA nucleotide sequence of the fungal isolates revealed that the two fungal isolates belonged to genus Aspergillus and one belonged to genus Chrysosporium. Optimum temperature for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Chrysosporium queenslandicum was 29, 26 and 25 oC, respectively. A. flavus showed maximum (53%) feather degradation, A. niger degraded feather waste up to 37%, while C. queenslandicum showed 21% keratinolytic activity on chicken feathers at their respective temperature optima. The degradation potential of these fungal species showed their ability to form compost that has agro-industrial importance.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Plumas , Animais , Galinhas , Plumas/metabolismo , Plumas/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas , Temperatura
3.
J Appl Microbiol ; 124(6): 1566-1579, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444380

RESUMO

AIMS: The study was planned to characterize Planomicrobium sp. MSSA-10 for plant-beneficial traits and to evaluate its inoculation impact on physiology of pea plants under different salinity levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: Strain MSSA-10 was isolated from pea rhizosphere and identified by the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. The strain demonstrated phosphate solubilization and auxin production up to 2 mol l-1 NaCl and exhibited 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity up to 1·5 mol l-1 salt. In an inoculation experiment under different salinity regimes, a significant increase in growth was observed associated with decreased levels of reactive oxygen species and enhanced antioxidative enzyme activities. The strain also promoted the translocation of nutrients in plants with subsequent increase in chlorophyll and protein contents as compared to noninoculated plants. It has been observed that rifampicin-resistant derivatives of MSSA-10 were able to survive for 30 days at optimum cell density with pea rhizosphere. CONCLUSION: Growth-stimulating effect of MSSA-10 on pea plants may be attributed to its rhizosphere competence, nutrient mobilization and modulation of plant oxidative damage repair mechanisms under saline environment. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Planomicrobium sp. MSSA-10 might be used as potent bioinoculant to relieve pea plants from deleterious effects of salinity.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Ervilhas , Planococáceas , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ervilhas/microbiologia , Ervilhas/fisiologia , Planococáceas/isolamento & purificação , Planococáceas/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/microbiologia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/fisiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/toxicidade
4.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(2)2017 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28387877

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic diversity of different Pakistani mango varieties is important for germplasm management and varietal characterization. Microsatellites are efficient and highly polymorphic markers for comparative genome mapping, and were used in the present study to determine the genetic relatedness and variability among 15 indigenous mango cultivars (Mangifera indica L.). Overall, 181 bands were produced using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Out of the 12 primers used, 10 were polymorphic and two were monomorphic. Genetic relatedness among cultivars was assessed by constructing a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means. The accessions exhibited coefficients of similarity ranging from 75 to 100%, indicating the frequent use of only a few parent cultivars and the presence of inbreeding. The primers used in the present study were found to be valuable for identifying genetic relationships among mango cultivars.


Assuntos
Mangifera/genética , Primers do DNA , DNA de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Paquistão , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Polimorfismo Genético
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(39): 10791-6, 2016 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27621453

RESUMO

Observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) since the late 1970s and measurements of CH4 trapped in ice and snow reveal a meteoric rise in concentration during much of the twentieth century. Since 1750, levels of atmospheric CH4 have more than doubled to current globally averaged concentration near 1,800 ppb. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the CH4 growth rate slowed substantially and was near or at zero between 1999 and 2006. There is no scientific consensus on the drivers of this slowdown. Here, we report measurements of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric CH4 ((13)C/(12)C and D/H) from a rare air archive dating from 1977 to 1998. Together with more modern records of isotopic atmospheric CH4, we performed a time-dependent retrieval of methane fluxes spanning 25 y (1984-2009) using a 3D chemical transport model. This inversion results in a 24 [18, 27] Tg y(-1) CH4 increase in fugitive fossil fuel emissions since 1984 with most of this growth occurring after year 2000. This result is consistent with some bottom-up emissions inventories but not with recent estimates based on atmospheric ethane. In fact, when forced with decreasing emissions from fossil fuel sources our inversion estimates unreasonably high emissions in other sources. Further, the inversion estimates a decrease in biomass-burning emissions that could explain falling ethane abundance. A range of sensitivity tests suggests that these results are robust.

6.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 65(7): 871-86, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26079561

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: This paper presents a one-year record of in situ air-quality data from nine sites throughout Saudi Arabia. The data set is composed of hourly measurements of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) at six of the largest cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Jeddah, Makkah, Yanbu, Dammam, Hafouf) and two remote locations in the mountainous southwestern region of Alsodah for the year 2007. The authors found that international O3 and CO standards were routinely exceeded throughout the year at many sites, and that exceedances increased during Ramadan (Sep. 12-Oct. 13), the Islamic month of fasting when much of normal daily activity is shifted to nighttime hours. In general NO2 and CO levels were higher in Saudi cities compared to U.S. cities of comparable population, while O3 levels were lower. There was a general trend for O3 and NO2 to be negatively correlated in Saudi cities in contrast to U.S. cities where the correlation is positive, suggesting that ozone chemistry in Saudi Arabia is limited by volatile organic compound emissions. This may be caused by low biogenic emissions from vegetation. Pollutant levels were lower at most Saudi sites during the four day Hajj period (Dec. 18-21) but higher in Makkah which receives millions of visitors during Hajj. The authors also found that ozone levels were elevated during the weekend (Thursday & Friday) relative to weekday levels despite lower NO2, a phenomenon known as the "weekend effect." As little air quality data is available from Saudi Arabia in the English-language literature, this data set fills a knowledge gap and improves understanding of air quality in an important but under-reported region of the world. IMPLICATIONS: Air quality measurements at nine sites in Saudi Arabia provide a detailed look at spatial and temporal patterns of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). NO2 and CO levels increased in most cities during the fasting month of Ramadan, whereas O3 levels decreased. This led to an increased frequency of CO exceedances based on international standards. NO2 and CO also increased in Makkah during the Hajj pilgrimage. In general, NO2 and O3 levels were anticorrelated at most sites, suggesting that O3 chemistry is limited by volatile organic compound emissions throughout much of Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monóxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/química , Ozônio/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Arábia Saudita , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 64(7): 817-26, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25122955

RESUMO

Air pollution has been an increasing concern within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries. In this work the authors present an analysis of daily ozone (O3), nitrogen oxide (NO(x)), and particulate matter (< 10 miccrom aerodynamic diameter; PM10) concentrations for two years (2010 and 2011) at sites in and around the coastal city of Jeddah, as well as a remote background site for comparison. Monthly and weekly variations, along with their implications and consequences, were also examined. O3 within Jeddah was remarkably low, and exhibited the so-called weekend effect--elevated O3 levels on the weekends, despite reduced emissions of O3 precursors on those days. Weekend O3 increases averaged between 12% and 14% in the city, suggesting that NO(x)/volatile organic compound (VOC) ratios within cities such as Jeddah may be exceptionally high. Sites upwind or far removed from Jeddah did not display this weekend effect. Based on these results, emission control strategies in and around Jeddah must carefully address NO(x)/VOC ratios so as to reduce O3 at downwind locations without increasing it within urban locations themselves. PM10 concentrations within Jeddah were elevated compared with North American cites of similar climatology though comparable to other large cities within the Middle East. Implications: Daily concentrations of O3, PM10, and NO(x) in and around the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, are analyzed and compared with those of other reference cities. Extremely low O3 levels, along with a significant urban weekend effect (higher weekend O3, despite reduced NO(x) concentrations), is apparent, along with high levels of PM10 within the city. Urban O3 in Jeddah was found to be lower than that of other comparable cities, but the strong weekend effect suggests that care must be taken to reduce downwind O3 levels without increasing them within the city itself. Further research into the emissions and chemistry contributing to the reduced O3 levels within the city is warranted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ozônio , Material Particulado/química , Arábia Saudita , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 38(2): 364-6, 2004 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14750708

RESUMO

In the wake of the Kyoto and Montreal Protocols, there is a need to verify whether policies to reduce emissions are working. We present data showing that emissions of ozone-depleting compounds, such as the chlorofluorocarbons and methyl chloroform, are decreasing from some regions of the United States but emissions of the greenhouse gases do not appear to be declining.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Clorofluorcarbonetos/análise , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Ozônio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Combustíveis Fósseis , Incineração , Estados Unidos
9.
Indian Heart J ; 51(5): 515-20, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10721642

RESUMO

Inflammatory response in the atherosclerotic lesions of coronary artery disease, mediated by cellular immune mechanisms is well appreciated. The significance of the immuno-inflammatory processes for the development of acute ischaemic sequelae of these lesions remains unsettled. Fifty patients of acute coronary syndromes were studied for complement components and immunoglobin levels by single radial immunodiffusion method. Twenty-eight patients of acute myocardial infarction showed significantly lower levels of complement components C3 and C4 at admission (C3--69.19 +/- 12.91 mg% compared to 82.40 +/- 9.26 mg% in controls, p < 0.01; C4--14.56 +/- 2.46 mg% compared to 18.53 +/- 2.69 mg% in controls, p < 0.01). Twenty-two patients of unstable angina did not show any significant change (C3--83.14 +/- 8.01 mg% and C4--19.07 +/- 4.47 mg%). Sixteen patients of acute myocardial infarction who were thrombolysed with streptokinase showed a steep rise in the levels of complement components immediately after thrombolysis (C3--69.19 +/- 12.91 mg% before and 100.56 +/- 17.09 mg% after thrombolysis, p < 0.001; C4--14.56 +/- 2.46 mg% before and 21.48 +/- 4.78 mg% after thrombolysis, p < 0.001). Plasma C3 and C4 levels in acute myocardial infarction showed no relationship with peak CPK levels. Plasma immunoglobulins remained unchanged in patients of acute coronary syndromes.


Assuntos
Angina Instável/imunologia , Complemento C3/imunologia , Complemento C4/imunologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Angina Instável/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Estreptoquinase/uso terapêutico , Terapia Trombolítica
10.
J Urol ; 159(5): 1731-4, 1998 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9554402

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To gain understanding of the seminal vesicle as a muscular organ, seminal vesicle compliance and contractile properties were quantified with an in vivo, microsurgical rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microsurgical dissection was performed on anesthetized rats to enable simultaneous organ filling and monitoring of intraluminal pressures. The reliability and reproducibility of post-ganglionic hypogastric nerve-induced ipsilateral (4 rats) and bilateral (5 rats) seminal vesicle contractile responses were assessed during repeated nerve stimulation. Seminal vesicle resting compliance was assessed during a constant saline infusion (10 rats). Functional performance curves were obtained at fixed fill-volumes by measuring organ contraction after nerve stimulation (4 rats). RESULTS: A reproducible seminal vesicle contractile response was obtained with a nerve stimulation interval > 15 minutes. Bilateral seminal vesicle responses were observed with unilateral nerve stimulation. The resting organ compliance curve with saline filling exhibited a characteristic, triphasic response. Functional performance studies revealed that contractile performance improves as the fill-volume increases until the distensibility limit of the organ is reached. CONCLUSIONS: A reliable, in vivo, rat model of seminal vesicle organ compliance and contractility is described. The seminal vesicle is a highly contractile, compliant smooth muscular organ with dynamic properties analogous to that of the urinary bladder. This experimental system may allow for the investigation of pharmacologic and other physiological influences on in vivo organ activity.


Assuntos
Glândulas Seminais/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Microcirurgia , Modelos Biológicos , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Urodinâmica
11.
Br J Urol ; 78(3): 426-31, 1996 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8881955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the usefulness of a test for prostate specific antigen (PSA) to predict survival in hormonally treated patients with metastatic prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study comprised 49 patients (mean age 72 years, SD 6) who underwent orchidectomy for metastatic prostate cancer. PSA was measured before orchidectomy and after 6 months, and the absolute, differential and proportional decreases calculated. A Cox proportional hazards regression model, which controlled for patient age, tumour (Gleason) grade and the number of skeletal metastases, was then used to evaluate these estimates of PSA as predictors of survival. RESULTS: The 6-month proportional decrease in PSA from the pre-operative level was the most accurate predictor of patient survival (P = 0.006) after hormonal therapy for metastatic prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: This information may help to direct appropriate patients to new and experimental therapies for metastatic disease.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Orquiectomia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Cintilografia , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
J Urol ; 153(2): 337-41, 1995 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7815577

RESUMO

Post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence probably is multifactorial and sphincteric nerve injury could be a contributing cause. Controversy still exists regarding the innervation of the external sphincter, and currently pudendal nerve injury is not believed to be an etiological factor in post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. To understand better the sphincter and its innervation, we undertook an anatomical and histological study of 18 adult male cadavers, which revealed that the external urethral sphincter receives part of its innervation through special branches originating from the dorsal nerve of the penis after it splits from the pudendal nerve. These nerve branches were located 0.3 to 1.3 cm. from the prostatic apex, and in 50% of the cadavers they were identified only unilaterally or had only 1 branch on each side. The proximity of these nerves to the prostatic apex may make them liable to injury during radical prostatectomy. These nerves are most likely sensory in nature although the presence of motor components cannot be completely ruled out. Injury to these nerves may explain several features of post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence.


Assuntos
Prostatectomia/métodos , Uretra/inervação , Idoso , Cadáver , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Uretra/citologia , Uretra/lesões , Incontinência Urinária/prevenção & controle
14.
Theor Appl Genet ; 86(4): 401-5, 1993 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24193585

RESUMO

InAntirrhinum majus,pal-rec, an allele of thepallida series, is considered to be involved in anthocyanin production. Thepal-rec gene normally mutates autonomously from the recessive condition to the dominant giving fully pigmentedPal spots on a colorless background. TheSfm element, when inserted at thepal locus, destabilizes the activity of thepal-rec gene in such a way that the repressor (Sf) component abolishes gene activity in almost all of the cell lineages, whereas the mutator (m) acts to release full gene expression in some of the cells. Such a flip-flop control of thepal-rec results in what is known as shifting.

15.
Theor Appl Genet ; 79(4): 475-80, 1990 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24226451

RESUMO

The pal-rec-low-o is a special repressed state of the pallida-recurrens allele, which normally mutates from the recessive to the dominant condition, giving pigmented Pal spots on corolla lobes. The pal-rec-low-o in the homozygous condition is stably colorless (except for rare mutant spots), but when crossed with the recessive tester strain, pal-tub pal-tub (also stably colorless), the mutation frequency of the particular repressed state of pal-rec (i.e., pal-rec-low-o) increases spectacularly, giving several shifts of varying sizes. The evidence suggests that the activity of the repressed state of the: pal-rec-low-o allele is dependent on the presence of an independently located Pr element, contributed by the pal-tub tester strain. In the absence of such a regulatory element, the repressed allele exhibits stable expression due to the effect of a "repressor" Rp element residing at or near the locus. It has also been shown that the pal-tub regulatory element, Pr, while coming through a phase of heterozygosity, could be changed either by picking up an element from the stabilized colorless "original" strain which, being dominant, suppresses the gene action completely; or a change may take place in pal-tub's own regulatory machinery, which otherwise has characteristics of gene regulation. However, the pal-tub regulatory element, when inactive, can be made trans-active by introducing a fresh regulator into the genome, which may segregate at meiosis.

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