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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285619

RESUMO

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.

2.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 295: 102481, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390883

RESUMO

Corrosion is the degradation of a metal due to its reaction with the environment. One of the most efficient ways of securing metal surfaces from corrosion is the use of corrosion inhibitors. Their efficacy is connected to their chemical composition, their molecular structures, and their adsorption affinities on the metal surface. This review article focuses on the prospects of different types of monomeric and gemini surfactants, mixed surfactants systems, surfactants- additives mixed systems, inhibitors-surfactants (as additives) mixed systems, and ionic liquid based surfactants as promising corrosion-inhibiting formulations in the aqueous phase and the role of surfactants in developing protective coatings. The analysis starts with an accurate overview of the characteristics, types, and structure-property-performance relationship of anti-corrosion formulations of such inhibitors.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244435, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431906

RESUMO

Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Romã (Fruta) , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
4.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 54(1): 50-54, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135630

RESUMO

GOALS: We aimed to establish the epidemiological characteristics and documentation of diagnostic workup for gastroparesis (GP). BACKGROUND: No study has used a national database to evaluate the prevalence, demographics, and associated comorbid conditions of GP, and document rates of proper diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study using the Explorys Platform to determine the prevalence of GP in a large and diverse population highly representative of the US population and to examine the diagnostic approach of GP. Data collected were individual characteristics from electronic medical records (EMRs) included age, ethnicity/race, sex, diagnostic report for esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and gastric emptying study (GES). RESULTS: A total of 43,827,910 medical records were surveyed (1999 to 2014), of which 69,950 had a diagnosis of GP, yielding an overall prevalence of 0.16%. We identified 249,930 EMRs with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and 2,940,280 EMR's with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), of which 11,470 (4.59%) and 38,670 (1.31%) EMR's had concurrent GP, respectively. The remainder 19,810 EMRs with a diagnosis of GP were classified as having idiopathic GP. In all three subgroups, women and Caucasians had the highest prevalence of GP. The diagnosis of GP was confirmed by both GES and EGD in 9,950 of patients (14.22%). For patients with T1DM, T2DM, or idiopathic GP, GP was confirmed by both diagnostic tests in 16.8%, 14.0%, and 13.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimated rates of prevalence of GP in T1DM and T2DM indicate that GP is not a common clinical complication in these populations. Majority of EMRs that indicated a diagnosis of GP did not include any documentation of definitive diagnostic testing (EGD and/or GES).


Assuntos
Gastroparesia/diagnóstico , Gastroparesia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Feminino , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Gastrointest Cancer ; 51(3): 836-843, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605289

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite advances in various treatment modalities, surgical resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains the only curative treatment. Data remains limited regarding survival rates for resectable PDA when managed by a multidisciplinary pancreas conference (MDPC). The aim of this study is to assess survival rates, identify significant predictors of mortality, and assess the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy for resectable PDA following presentation at a MDPC. METHODS: All patients presented from April 2013 to August 2016 with resectable PDA were discussed at a MDPC at a tertiary care center and were followed prospectively until November 2017. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier for age, tumor size, tumor differentiation, T-stage, lymph node status, and completion of adjuvant chemotherapy cycles. Independent predictors of survival were determined using multivariate Cox regression modeling. RESULTS: After MDPC consensus and exclusions, total of 64 patients underwent successful surgery. Amongst this cohort, 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival was 78.13%, 46.30%, and 27.27%, respectively. A total of 37 patients (58%) initiated and 16 patients (25%) finished chemotherapy following surgery. Log-rank analysis revealed that tumor size, age, surgical margins, lymph node status, and number of adjuvant chemotherapy cycles received significantly influenced post-operative survival. Tumor size (p < 0.001), lymph node status (p = 0.035), and number of adjuvant chemotherapy cycles (p = 0.041) remained significant after multivariate Cox regression model. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients with PDA with tumor size > 50 mm and/or lymph node involvement have poor outcomes despite being surgically resectable. Successful completion of adjuvant chemotherapy has better survival outcomes as compared with incomplete or no adjuvant chemotherapy. The role of alternative management such as down-staging with neoadjuvant therapy should be considered.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/normas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Metástase Linfática/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pâncreas/patologia , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária/normas , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
6.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 11(11): 1011-1020, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of all cancer related deaths in the United States and Europe. Although the incidence has been decreasing for individuals' ≥ 50, it has been on the rise for individuals < 50. AIM: To identify potential risk factors for early-onset CRC. METHODS: A population-based cohort analysis using a national database, Explorys, screened all patients with an active electronic medical record from January 2012 to December 2016 with a diagnosis of CRC. Subgroups were stratified based on age (25 - 49 years vs ≥ 50 years). Demographics, comorbidities, and symptom profiles were recorded and compared between both age groups. Furthermore, the younger group was also compared with a control group consisting of individuals aged 25-49 years within the same timeframe without a diagnosis of CRC. Twenty-data points for CRC related factors were analyzed to identify potential risk factors specific to early-onset CRC. RESULTS: A total of 68860 patients were identified with CRC, of which 5710 (8.3%) were younger than 50 years old, with 4140 (73%) between 40-49 years of age. Multivariable analysis was reported using odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI and demonstrated that several factors were associated with an increased risk of CRC in the early-onset group versus the later-onset group. These factors included: African-American race (OR 1.18, 95%CI: 1.09-1.27, P < 0.001), presenting symptoms of abdominal pain (OR 1.82, 95%CI: 1.72-1.92, P <0.001), rectal pain (OR 1.50, 95%CI: 1.28-1.77, P < 0.001), altered bowel function (OR 1.12, 95%CI: 1.05-1.19, P = 0.0005), having a family history of any cancer (OR 1.78, 95%CI: 1.67-1.90, P < 0.001), gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy (OR 2.36, 95%CI: 2.18-2.55, P < 0.001), polyps (OR 1.41, 95%CI: 1.08-1.20, P < 0.001), and obesity (OR 1.14, 95%CI: 1.08-1.20, P < 0.001). Comparing the early-onset cohort versus the control group, factors that were associated with an increased risk of CRC were: male gender (OR 1.34, 95%CI: 1.27-1.41), P < 0.001), Caucasian (OR 1.48, 95%CI: 1.40-1.57, P < 0.001) and African-American race (OR 1.25, 95%CI: 1.17-1.35, P < 0.001), presenting symptoms of abdominal pain (OR 4.73, 95%CI: 4.49-4.98, P < 0.001), rectal pain (OR 7.48, 95%CI: 6.42-8.72, P < 0.001), altered bowel function (OR 5.51, 95%CI: 5.19-5.85, P < 0.001), rectal bleeding (OR 9.83, 95%CI: 9.12-10.6, P < 0.001), weight loss (OR 7.43, 95%CI: 6.77-8.15, P < 0.001), having a family history of cancer (OR 11.66, 95%CI: 10.97-12.39, P < 0.001), GI malignancy (OR 28.67, 95%CI: 26.64-30.86, P < 0.001), polyps (OR 8.15, 95%CI: 6.31-10.52, P < 0.001), tobacco use (OR 2.46, 95%CI: 2.33-2.59, P < 0.001), alcohol use (OR 1.71, 95%CI: 1.62-1.80, P < 0.001), presence of colitis (OR 4.10, 95%CI: 3.79-4.43, P < 0.001), and obesity (OR 2.88, 95%CI: 2.74-3.04, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Pending further investigation, these potential risk factors should lower the threshold of suspicion for early CRC and potentially be used to optimize guidelines for early screening.

7.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech ; 29(1): 22-25, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520816

RESUMO

Radiation exposure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is known, however, data in relation to radiation usage is unclear. We evaluate radiation exposure using fluoroscopy dose (FD) and time (FT). A prospective analysis of 197 patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was completed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine characteristics associated with higher FD and FT. The mean FT was 307 seconds; the mean FD was 16.5 centigray. On univariate and multivariate analysis, indication of common bile duct stricture and pancreatic stricture, interventions including dilation and the use of plastic stents placement, procedures that were moderately or very difficult, and procedures that used magnification and high-resolution images were associated with higher FD± and longer FT. Indications of common bile duct stricture and pancreatic stricture as well as interventions of dilation, plastic stents placement, and procedures that are moderately or very difficult, involve high-resolution image leading to a higher radiation exposure. Special care should be considered in these settings.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colestase/cirurgia , Fluoroscopia/efeitos adversos , Pancreatopatias/cirurgia , Ductos Pancreáticos/cirurgia , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/métodos , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Feminino , Fluoroscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doses de Radiação , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Scand J Immunol ; 88(1): e12678, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855061

RESUMO

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder characterized by increased peripheral immune platelet destruction and megakaryocyte defects in the bone marrow. Although ITP was originally thought to be primarily due to antibody-mediated autoimmunity, it is now clear that T cells also play a significant role in the disease. However, the exact interplay between platelet destruction, megakaryocyte dysfunction and the elements of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in ITP remains incompletely defined. While most studies have focused on immune platelet destruction in the spleen, an additional possibility is that the antiplatelet antibodies can also destroy bone marrow megakaryocytes. To address this, we negated the effects of T cells by utilizing an in vivo passive ITP model where BALB/c mice were administered various anti-αIIb, anti-ß3 or anti-GPIb antibodies or antisera and platelet counts and bone marrow megakaryocytes were enumerated. Our results show that after 24 hours, all the different antiplatelet antibodies/sera induced variable degrees of thrombocytopenia in recipient mice. Compared with naïve control mice, however, histological examination of the bone marrow revealed that only 2 antibody preparations (mouse-anti-mouse ß3 sera and an anti- αIIb monoclonal antibody (MWReg30) could affect bone marrow megakaryocyte counts. Our study shows that while most antiplatelet antibodies induce acute thrombocytopenia, the majority of them do not affect the number of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. This suggests that other mechanisms may be responsible for megakaryocyte abnormalities seen during immune thrombocytopenia.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Plaquetas/imunologia , Megacariócitos/patologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/patologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
13.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 66(11): 1591-5, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23860496

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Snodgrass technique for primary hypospadias repair was described in 1994 and involves dorsal incision and tubularisation of the urethral plate distal to the meatus. While the advantages of good short-term outcome and good cosmesis have been reported, there is little data on long-term results in patients who have undergone a Snodgrass repair as a primary procedure for hypospadias. Our aim is to retrospectively review our medium to long-term results of primary tubularised incised-plate urethroplasty for hypospadias repair over a two-year period with up to eight-year follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a case note review of 74 patients who had undergone single-stage Snodgrass hypospadias repair, performed by a single surgeon (AB), from April 2000 to January 2003. RESULTS: The mean documented follow up was 56 months (3-103 months). The mean age of patients at time of surgery was three and a half years. 95% (70) of patients had a distal (glanular, coronal, sub-coronal, distal shaft) meatus and 5% (4) had a proximal (mid-shaft) meatus. The overall complication rate was 7% (5). Two patients developed fistulae, which was noted and repaired at six months post-op with no further surgical intervention required. One patient underwent an EUA and meatal advancement glansplasty at 6 months for mild glanular dehiscence. Two further patients required EUA and dilatation procedures at two and three years respectively, both for mild meatal stenosis. Again, no further intervention was required. From a cosmetic perspective, two patients were noted to have some residual bulkiness of the skin around the corona and a further two patients were noted to have a small meatus, but with no functional symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our study has shown a low long-term complication rate in patients undergoing Snodgrass repair as a primary procedure for distal and midshaft hypospadias repair. This supports the results of earlier studies that have shown good functional and cosmetic outcome in the short-term for this procedure which persists into the medium/long term.


Assuntos
Hipospadia/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Uretra/patologia , Fístula Urinária/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Constrição Patológica/etiologia , Constrição Patológica/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Uretra/cirurgia
14.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 199(3): W360-6, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22915427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the use of sonography as the primary imaging modality for congenital hypothyroidism (CH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From our regional registry, we reviewed the cases of patients for whom either sonography or (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scanning was performed for CH between 2003 and 2010. Ultrasound studies were reviewed for presence, size, echotexture, vascularity, and location of the thyroid gland. Technetium-99m-pertechnetate scans were evaluated for the presence and location of the thyroid gland. The ultrasound studies were compared with the (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scans. We assessed the use of ultrasound as the primary imaging modality for the evaluation of CH. RESULTS: We identified the cases of 124 patients (89 girls, 35 boys). Ultrasound studies were available for 121 patients, and (99m)Tc-pertechnetate studies for 62 patients. Three patients were examined only by (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scanning. The final imaging results were normal location with normal size or diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland (n = 47), sublingual thyroid gland (n = 49), agenesis (n = 18), hypoplasia (n = 8), and hemiagenesis (n = 2). Compared with (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scanning, ultrasound had high (100%) specificity and low (44%) sensitivity for detection of sublingual thyroid gland. CONCLUSION: We suggest using ultrasound as the primary imaging modality for guiding the treatment of children with CH, potentially decreasing radiation exposure and cost.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Cintilografia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Pertecnetato Tc 99m de Sódio , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
15.
Curr Med Chem ; 19(24): 4115-23, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22834801

RESUMO

New endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from chromogranin A (CgA) are secreted by nervous, endocrine and immune cells during stress. They display antimicrobial activities by lytic effects at micromolar range using a pore-forming mechanism against Gram-positive bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts. These AMPs can also penetrate quickly into neutrophils (without lytic effects), where, similarly to "cell penetrating peptides", they interact with cytoplasmic calmodulin, and induce calcium influx via Store Operated Channels therefore triggering neutrophils activation. Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritis are bacteria responsible for severe infections. We investigated here the effects of S. aureus and S. enteritis bacterial proteases on CgA-derived peptides and evaluated their antimicrobial activities. We showed that the Glu-C protease produced by S. aureus V8 induces the loss of the AMPs antibacterial activities and produces new antifungal peptides. In addition, four antimicrobial CGA-derived peptides (chromofungin, procatestatin, human/bovine catestatin) are degraded when treated with bacterial supernatants from S. aureus and S. enteritis, whereas, cateslytin, the short active form of catestatin, resists to this degradation. Finally, we demonstrate that several antimicrobial CgA-derived peptides are able to act synergistically with antibiotics against bacteria and fungi indicating their roles in innate defense.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/imunologia , Cromogranina A/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Cromogranina A/química , Cromogranina A/imunologia , Cromogranina A/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Visc Surg ; 148(6): e447-51, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22118896

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Graves' disease is the most common form of hyperthyroidism and surgery to remove the thyroid gland is a common treatment option for many of these patients. Interestingly, due to the enlarged gland size, their high vascularity, and the difficulty to control bleeding, many authors feel that Graves' disease remains a contraindication to current endoscopic techniques. We hypothesize that performing robotic subtotal thyroidectomy in Graves' disease settings could overcome the limitations of conventional endoscopic surgeries in the surgical management of this challenging thyroid disease. METHODS: Prospective study in an academic hospital. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients had robotic transaxillary thyroidectomy within a year. Of these, five cases (7%) were done for Graves' disease. There were three females and two males (mean age, 36 years). There were no conversions to laparoscopic or open surgery. The mean (SD) thyroid volume was 16.6 (3.2) ml. The mean (SD) operative time was 159 (17.8)min and docking time was 81 (20)min. Mean blood loss was 18 mL. All patients were discharged home in 24h. There were no perioperative or postoperative complications. There was no evidence of postoperative vocal cord palsy or paresis. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that robotic transaxillary thyroidectomy is feasible and can be safe and effective in patients with Graves' disease. To our knowledge, this is the first article describing this approach for Graves' disease. These findings, however, warrant additional investigation within future prospective clinical trials.


Assuntos
Axila/cirurgia , Doença de Graves/cirurgia , Robótica , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 32(6): 785-91, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21479909

RESUMO

Peak exercise myocardial perfusion was evaluated in patients with D-transposition of the great arteries 12 years after the arterial switch operation (SWITCH) to evaluate coronary perfusion. Gas-exchange measurements were used to assess cardiac limiting factors to exercise capacity in SWITCH patients when compared to healthy gender-matched controls (CON). Peak myocardial perfusion was evaluated in 42 patients 12 years post-SWITCH, using technetium-99 m (Tetrofosmin). SWITCH exercise data was compared to 42 gender-matched controls (CON). One symptomatic and one asymptomatic SWITCH patient had abnormal exercise myocardial perfusion; both patients had variant coronary anatomy preoperatively. SWITCH patients had lower VO(2peak) (p < 0.01), peak heart rates (p = 0.01), percentages of age-predicted peak heart rates (p < 0.01), and peak oxygen pulses indexed to body surface area (p < 0.01) than CON patients. Exercise testing with myocardial perfusion imaging helped to identify the rare SWITCH patient with coronary insufficiencies. This study demonstrates that exercise testing with myocardial perfusion scans can help identify patients at risk for myocardial events. This study also demonstrated that SWITCH patients have a mildly diminished VO(2peak) when compared to CON patients.


Assuntos
Circulação Coronária , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Fatores de Tempo , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/metabolismo , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Parasitology ; 137(10): 1559-68, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20388236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several reports indicate high prevalences of both onchocerciasis and epilepsy in some regions of Africa. This raises the question of whether these diseases are associated. We therefore investigated people with epilepsy and/or onchocerciasis living in an area in Tanzania endemic for Onchocerca volvulus (O. volvulus). METHODS: We collected clinical information, skin snips, and blood from 300 individuals, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 197. Participants were allocated to 4 groups consisting of people with epilepsy and onchocerciasis (n=135), those with either epilepsy (n=61) or onchocerciasis only (n=35), and healthy individuals (n=69). Samples were evaluated for microfilaria, IgG4 antibodies against O. volvulus, O. volvulus antibody index (CSF/serum), and CSF routine parameters. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on skin snips and CSF. RESULTS: No difference was found in microfilarial density between participants with and without epilepsy (P=0.498). The antibody index was raised in 2 participants. CSF PCR was negative in all samples tested. DISCUSSION: Our results do not give evidence of a relationship between O. volvulus and epilepsy. Despite the fact that 2 participants had raised antibody index, the existence of cerebral onchocerciasis caused by migration of microfilariae into the CSF appears unlikely. However, to date unexplored reactions to the infestation with O. volvulus causing epilepsy cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Onchocerca volvulus/isolamento & purificação , Oncocercose/complicações , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Sangue/parasitologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/parasitologia , Criança , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Microfilárias/imunologia , Microfilárias/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Onchocerca volvulus/imunologia , Oncocercose/diagnóstico , Oncocercose/parasitologia , Prevalência , Pele/parasitologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 45(8): 2604-15, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17567789

RESUMO

This study has adapted the oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) to probe for low-level nevirapine (NVP) resistance mutations K103N and Y181C in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) population of infected mother-infant pairs from Uganda. When NVP is used to prevent perinatal transmission, NVP-resistant HIV-1 clones may be rapidly selected due to a low barrier for mutation and a relatively high level of fitness (compared to that of other drug-resistant HIV-1 clones). Monitoring for even a low frequency of NVP resistance mutations may help predict the success of subsequent treatment or warrant the use of another regimen to prevent transmission in a subsequent pregnancy. The standard OLA was optimized by using nonstandard bases in oligonucleotides to allow promiscuous base pairing and accommodate significant HIV-1 heterogeneity. Radiolabeled as opposed to fluorescently tagged oligonucleotides increased the sensitivity, whereas alteration of the template, oligonucleotides, salt, and thermostable DNA ligase concentrations increased the specificity for the detection of minority codons. This modified OLA is now capable of detecting mutants with the K103N or the Y181C mutation present in an HIV-1 population at a frequency of approximately 0.4% and is at least 10- to 30-fold more sensitive than the original protocol. A cohort of 19 Ugandan mothers who received NVP treatment perinatally were sampled 6 weeks postdelivery. Ten of 19 HIV-1 DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells had a detectable K103N (0.5 to 44%) or Y181C (0.8 to 92.5%) mutation, but only one plasma HIV-1 RNA sample had a viral population with the Y181C mutation. These findings suggest that OLA is a robust, sensitive, and specific method for the detection of low-frequency drug resistance mutations in an intrapatient HIV-1 population.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Ligase/métodos , Nevirapina/farmacologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Feminino , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Plasma/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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