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Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 78(4): 847-852, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835343


BACKGROUND: Considered the most common congenital testicular abnormality of companion animals and a predisposition factor to the development of testicular neoplasia, cryptorchidism is defined as the non-descent of one or both testes to their normal anatomical location. Data on the occurrence of cryptorchidism in Brazil are scarce. The purpose of this work was to verify the occurrence of cryptorchidism in dogs of different sizes and breeds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cryptorchidism identification was carried out by ultrasound scanning, from November, 1994 to March, 2007, at the Centre for Veterinarian Diagnosis and Support (Centro de Apoio e Diagnóstico Veterinário - CAD), in Rio de Janeiro. 4924 male dogs of different breeds were examined, revealing 403 (8.2%) cryptorchidism. RESULTS: In this study, occurrence took place more often on the right testicle (59.5%), more frequently displaying inguinal localisation (59.5%) and unilateral occurrence (70%). Regarding bilateral presentation, the symmetrical form was the most common (86.8%). Cryptorchidism was more common in the inguinal region of dog of small sized breeds and in the abdominal region in dogs of medium- and large-sized breeds. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound scan proved a valuable diagnosis tool for cryptorchid testes, giving precise localisation and parenchymal changes thus leading to a safe clinical treatment.

Tamanho Corporal , Cruzamento , Criptorquidismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criptorquidismo/veterinária , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testículo/patologia , Animais , Cães , Masculino , Ultrassonografia
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 78(2): 433-436, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178459


Variations of the renal veins are well described in the literature, although variations concerning the ureter are considered a rare finding in cats. The circumcaval ureter is one of the rarest variations of the ureter and is characterised by a loop of the ureter posterior to the caudal vena cava. This variant is also known as preureteral vena cava and retrocaval ureter. It is thought to be caused by a deviation during embryonic development of the aforementioned vein. Due to its rarity, there are scarce reports of the circumcaval ureter in cats, and its association with two renal veins makes it less common as well. These variations should be preoperatively identified in order to avoid complications in kidney transplants, ureteral surgeries and cystoscopies, for instance. The present work aims to report two cases of a circumcaval ureter with two renal veins in two different Brazilian shorthair cats (Felis catus).

Veias Renais/anormalidades , Ureter/anormalidades , Animais , Gatos , Masculino
Morphologie ; 102(337): 78-82, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625795


Venous punctures are among the most common procedures performed by healthcare professionals. In particular, the cubital fossa is the site where the venous accesses are frequently made due to the number of superficial veins and the numerous anastomoses in this region. The arrangement of these venous connections is of particular interest for clinical application in several areas, thus, the healthcare professional must possess knowledge about these vessels and their anatomical relationships. The present study aims to analyze the venous pattern of the cubital fossa among individuals from Brazil. This study was approved by a Research Ethics Committee. The sample had 100 healthy individuals (50 men and 50 women). The superficial veins of the cubital fossa were analyzed with the aid of a sphygmomanometer. When inflated, the pressure in the forearm increased and the veins became prominent. It was observed that in the selected sample the types with the highest prevalence were the Type I and Type VII, both with 22% in 200 limbs studied. The chi2 test showed a significant statistical difference between the anastomosis pattern and the sex of the studied sample. The anastomotic pattern of the superficial veins of the studies sample is similar to African, European and Asian populations. The study of these variations is necessary to provide scientific basis for the healthcare professional during a venipuncture in order to avoid iatrogenic errors and damages in cutaneous nerves or neighboring arteries.

Variação Anatômica , Cotovelo/irrigação sanguínea , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Flebotomia/efeitos adversos , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Brasil , Cotovelo/inervação , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Flebotomia/métodos , Fatores Sexuais , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Pele/inervação , Esfigmomanômetros , Adulto Jovem
Morphologie ; 102(336): 44-47, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29133232


The cephalic vein arises from the radial end of the dorsal venous arch. It turns around the radial border of the forearm and passes proximally along the arm to the shoulder, where it enters the axillary vein by penetrating the clavipectoral triangle. The cephalic vein is prone to vary at the antecubital fossa, where it forms numerous anastomoses. A male cadaver fixated with a 10% formalin solution was dissected during regular anatomy lessons. It was found that the cephalic vein crossed the upper third of the arm between two fasciculi of the deltoid muscle and reached the shoulder, where it passed above the acromion and crossed the posterior border of the clavicle in order to join the external jugular vein. The cephalic vein is one of the most used veins for innumerous activities, such as venipunctures and arteriovenous fistula creation. Furthermore, it is an anatomical landmark known for its consistent anatomy, as it possesses low rates of variability. Despite that, its anatomical variations are clinically and surgically significant and healthcare professionals must be aware of the variations of this vessel. We aim to report a rarely described variation of the cephalic vein and discuss its embryological, phylogenetic and clinical features.

Variação Anatômica , Veias Jugulares/anatomia & histologia , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Veia Axilar/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia
Folia Morphol (Warsz) ; 77(2): 403-405, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29064541


Variations of the forearm musculature are vastly described in the literature. The palmaris longus muscle is one of the most variable structures of the human body. It usually arises from the medial epicondyle of the humerus and inserts itself into the palmar aponeurosis. Anatomy textbooks and recent papers state that this muscle may act as a weak wrist flexor. The present work aims to report an anatomical variation where the palmaris longus muscle was abnormally hypertrophied and was completely fleshy throughout the whole forearm. Anatomical variations of the palmaris longus may induce symptoms of neurovascular bundle compression, especially of the median nerve. The palmaris longus muscle may be used in tendon graft or muscle graft, due to its lack of apparent function. Furthermore, it is one of the anatomical landmarks for local anaesthesia procedures. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 2: 403-405).

Antebraço/patologia , Nervo Mediano/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa/patologia , Humanos
Morphologie ; 101(333): 101-104, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28522228


The quadrangular space is a space in the axilla bounded by the inferior margin of the teres minor muscle, the superior margin of the teres major muscle, the lateral margin of the long head of the triceps brachii muscle and the surgical neck of the humerus, medially. The axillary nerve (C5-C6) and the posterior circumflex humeral artery and veins pass through this space in order to supply their territories. The subscapularis muscle is situated into the scapular fossa and inserts itself into the lesser tubercle of the humerus, thus helping stabilize the shoulder joint. A supernumerary muscle known as accessory subscapularis muscle originates from the anterior surface of the muscle and usually inserts itself into the shoulder joint. It is a rare variation with few reports of its existence and incidence. We present a case of the accessory subscapularis muscle in a male cadaver fixated with a 10% formalin solution. The muscle passed anteriorly to the axillary nerve, thus, predisposing an individual to quadrangular space compression syndrome. We perform a review of the literature and address its clinical, anthropological and anatomical significance.

Variação Anatômica , Plexo Braquial/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anormalidades , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa/etiologia , Articulação do Ombro/anormalidades , Artéria Axilar/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Articulação do Ombro/irrigação sanguínea , Articulação do Ombro/inervação
Int. j. morphol ; 33(3): 865-867, Sept. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-762556


The Kaplan´s anastomosis represents the communication between the dorsal and superficial branch of the ulnar nerve distal to ulnar canal. In the present study, a case about this nerve communication, found in a male adult cadaver, is reported. Information about brachial plexus distal anastomosis is fundamental for interpretation of clinical and electrophysiological findings, in order to establish the precise diagnosis of neurological lesions at this level. Its relations with flexor carpi ulnaris muscle's tendon and with pisiform bone exposes it to iatrogenic lesions during surgery.

La anastomosis de Kaplan representa la comunicación entre la rama dorsal y superficial del nervio ulnar distal al canal ulnar. En el presente estudio se informa de un caso de esta comunicación nerviosa, encontrado en un cadáver adulto de sexo masculino. Información sobre el plexo braquial y sus anastomosis distales son fundamentales para la interpretación de los hallazgos clínicos y electrofisiológicos, a fin de establecer el diagnóstico preciso de las lesiones neurológicas a este nivel. Sus relaciones con el tendón del músculo flexor ulnar del carpo, como con el hueso pisiforme, pueden facilitar la ocurrencia de lesiones iatrogénicas durante la cirugía.

Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Nervo Ulnar/anatomia & histologia , Variação Anatômica , Cadáver
Int. j. morphol ; 25(4): 855-859, Dec. 2007. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-626948


The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of the ossified superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) on dry bones of scapulae. 221 dry bones were analyzed, (111 rights and 110 lefts), proceeding from Rio de Janeiro and of Santa Catarina, Brazil. As exclusion criterion, were not analyzed bones of children or damaged. For the quantitative analysis of the data, the software Graphad Instat was used. Fisher exact test was used considering the p ≤ 0,05 as significant. After analysis of the scapulae, 30,76% (68/ 221) presented the ossified STSL (p ≤ 0,0001) of which, 52,94% (36/68) were ossified on the right side and 47,05% (32/68) on the left one. The 153 scapulae that did not present the ossified STSL, it was observed in 19,6 % (30/153) of these bones, the superior edge varying in the transverse plan, increasing superior angulation and, modified the width and depth of the scapular incisure. This anatomical curiosity should be kept in mind by clinicians that approaches painful syndrome of the shoulder, as well as, this anatomical curiosity should be kept in mind by students that may manipulate this anatomical area.

El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar la prevalencia del ligamento escapular transverso superior (LETS) osificado, en huesos secos. 221 escápulas secas (111 derechas y 110 izquierdas) fueron analizadas procedentes de Río de Janeiro y de Santa Catarina, Brasil. No fueron analizados huesos de niños o dañados. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos fue realizado con el software Graphpad Instat, siendo seleccionado el test Fisher, con un p ≤ 0.05 como significativo. El 30.76% (68/221) de las escápulas presentaron el LETS osificado (p ≤ 0,0001) de ellos, el 52.94% (36/68) correspondían a escáulas derechas y 47.05% (32/68) a escápulas izquierdas. Las 153 escápulas que no presentaron el LETS osificado, se observó en el 19.6% (30/153) de estos huesos. El margen superior que variaba en el plano transversal, incrementaba la angulación superior y modificaba así el ancho y la profundidad de la incisura escapular. Esta variación anatómica la deben tener presente los clínicos debido al síndrome doloroso del hombro, como también, los estudiantes que manipulan esta área anatómica.

Int. j. morphol ; 24(2): 165-170, jun. 2006. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-432795


RESUMEN: Los pericitos son células musculares lisas modificadas de los tubos capilares circundantes los cuales cambian el diámetro del lumen vascular. En este artículo relatamos un caso dehemangiopericitoma renal presente en una mujer de 78 años, quien manifestaba dolor abdominal. La ultrasonografía determinó una lesión sólida en la tercera porción del riñón izquierdo. La exploración abdominal de CT reveló una masa tumoral. Debido a la alta sospecha de neoplasia maligna, la paciente fue sometida a nefrectomía radical izquierda. La evaluación histopatológica confirmó el hemangiopericitoma, a través de inmunohistoquímica. La paciente sobrevive cinco años después de la nefrectomía radical.

Feminino , Idoso , Humanos , Hemangiopericitoma/diagnóstico , Hemangiopericitoma/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Nefrectomia/tendências , Nefrectomia
Surg Radiol Anat ; 28(4): 422-5, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16642280


During regular dissection of the retroperitoneal region, three uncommon anatomical variations of the internal iliac veins were found on dissected specimens: in the first case, the internal iliac veins converge forming a common trunk draining into the left external iliac vein. In the other two cases, the internal iliac vein crosses the median plane and flows into the contralateral common iliac vein. These anomalies result from a persistence of the embryonic inferior branch of the cardinal vein and are important to be known for they may be undetected or may not appear in imaging. These data have implications for both pelvic surgeons and anatomists who manipulated this anatomical area.

Veia Ilíaca/anormalidades , Veia Ilíaca/anatomia & histologia , Espaço Retroperitoneal/anatomia & histologia , Dissecação/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Ilustração Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espaço Retroperitoneal/cirurgia
Int. j. morphol ; 24(1): 77-82, Mar. 2006. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-626830


The otic ganglion is a cranial component of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Similar to other parasympathetic ganglia, otic ganglion presents multipolar neurons that are completely surrounded by satellite cells and intercellular substance as well, which allow us to use this ganglion as a good experimental model for studying the relationship neuron / extracellular matrix. We have studied rat otic ganglion in 10 animals through light microscopy. After routine histological methods, 5 µm sections were obtained and coloured by Gomori`s trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Alcian Blue pH 2.5 and pH1.0, acetylation + PAS, acetylation + deacetylation + PAS, acid hydrolysis + PAS, phenylhydrazine + PAS and thiosemicarbazide + PAS. The presence of neutral glycoproteins was demonstrated by PAS reactivity. PAS inhibition following Alcian Blue staining in pH 2.5 and 1.0 showed the presence of a small quantity of acid glycoprotein. The extracellular matrix analysis showed the presence of neutral and acid glycoconjugates. These findings suggests a mutual interaction and a complex role in ganglionic physiology.

El ganglio ótico es un componente craneal de la división parasimpática del sistema nervioso autónomo (SNA). Similar al otro ganglio parasimpático, el ganglio ótico presenta neuronas multipolares que están rodeadas totalmente por las células satélites y la sustancia intercelular, lo cual permite la utilización de este ganglio como un buen modelo experimental para estudiar las relaciones matriz extracelular/neurona. Examinamos, con microscopio de luz, el ganglio ótico 10 ratones. Con los métodos histológicos rutinarios fueron obtenidas 5 secciones y coloreadas con tricrómico de Gomori, PAS, Azul de Alcián pH 2.5 y pH1.0, acetilación + PAS, acetilación + desacetilación + PAS, hidrólisis de ácido + PAS, fenilhidrazina + PAS y tiosemicarbacida + PAS. La presencia de glicoproteínas neutras fue demostrada por la reactividad de PAS. La inhibición de PAS y la posterior tinción con Azul de Alcian en pH 2.5 y 1.0, demostró la presencia de una cantidad pequeña de glicoproteínas ácidas. El análisis extracelular de la matriz demostró la presencia de glicoconjugados neutros y ácidos. Estos resultados sugieren una interacción mutua y un papel complejo en la fisiología ganglionar.

Int J Impot Res ; 18(2): 121-5, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16224492


The corpus cavernosum (CC) extracellular matrix is essential for normal penile erection and is implicated in erectile dysfunction. Although investigations of these issues have used the rabbit CC, organization of its components is not well known to date. We characterized and quantified the volumetric density (Vv) of the elastic system fibers in the corpus spongiosum (CS), CC and tunica albuginea (TA) of the rabbit penis. Adult New Zealand rabbits (n = 10) were used. The penile mid-shaft fragments were fixed with 4% phosphate-buffered formalin solution and/or Bouin's liquid for 24-48 h, and processed using standard histological techniques. The sections were stained with Weigert's Fucsin-Resorcin with previous oxidation. The elastic system fibers Vv (%) was determined in 25 random fields of each fragment, using the M-42 test grid. The histochemical methods detected elastic system fibers in CS, CC and TA of all animals. The Vv of elastic fibers average was 25.03+/-2.0% for CC, 32.23+/-1.41% for CS and 22.38+/-3.61% for TA. Results for CC and CS were not significantly different. The great amount of elastic fibers distribution beneath the endothelium suggest that these fibers may have an important role in the erection process in rabbits. The present data should therefore provide important information for devising experiments and interpreting results when using the rabbit penis as a model for penile dysfunctions, especially when making comparisons with humans.

Tecido Elástico/anatomia & histologia , Pênis/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Tecido Conjuntivo/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Elástico/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular , Histocitoquímica , Masculino , Ereção Peniana , Coelhos
Anim Reprod Sci ; 86(3-4): 317-28, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15766809


The purpose of the present study was to verify the smooth muscle cell distribution and elastic system fibers volumetric density (Vv) in the corpus spongiosum and corpus cavernosum of the wild boar penis. Adult wild boars (n=13) were used. The penile mid shaft fragments were fixed with 4% phosphate buffered formalin solution and/or Bouin's liquid during 24-48 h, and processed using standard histological techniques. The sections were stained with Weigert's Resorcin-Fucsin with previous oxidation. The elastic system fibers Vv was determined in 25 random fields of each fragment using M42 test system. For immunohistochemical analysis, monoclonal anti-alpha actin smooth muscle was used. The histochemical methods detected elastic system fibers in both corpus spongiosum and corpus cavernosum of all animals. The elastic fibers Vv average was 36.6%+/-0.9 for corpus spongiosum and 11.7%+/-0.5 for corpus cavernosum. Through immunocitochemistry, a small quantity of smooth muscle cells was visualized in intimate relationship with blood vessels wall. The great amount of elastic fibers and the smooth muscle cell distribution beneath the endothelium suggest that these fibers may have an important role in penile erection process in the penis of wild boars.

Tecido Elástico/química , Imuno-Histoquímica , Músculo Liso/citologia , Pênis/anatomia & histologia , Suínos/anatomia & histologia , Actinas/análise , Actinas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Tecido Elástico/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Pênis/irrigação sanguínea , Pênis/inervação
Int. j. morphol ; 23(3): 231-233, 2005. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-626786


We report an unilateral three renal veins the right kidney in an elderly male cadaver. They were three calibrous veins having independent courses up to the inferior vena cava. No other vascular anomalies were noted in this specimen. This anatomical curiosity should be kept in mind by clinicians and academics that may manipulate this anatomical area.

Presentamos una variación anatómica consistente en tres venas renales unilaterales presentes en el riñón derecho de un cadáver de un individuo adulto de sexo masculino. Las tres venas eran de calibre considerable, las cuales tenían cursos independientes hasta la vena cava inferior. No se observó ninguna otra variación vascular en este individuo. Tanto los clínicos como los académicos deben tener presente esta variación anatómica cuando se acceda a esta área anatómica.

Int. j. morphol ; 23(1): 5-8, 2005. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-626961


We report an uncommon anatomical variations of the left renal vein was found on dissected specimen in an elderly male cadaver: a retroaortic left renal vein. No other vascular anomalies were noted in this specimen. The anomaly result may be related to a particular pattern of left inferior vena cava. The abnormality have to be known for it may be undetected or be misleading in imaging. This anatomical curiosity should be kept in mind by clinicians and academics that may manipulate this anatomical area.

Relatamos una variación anatómica infrecuente de la vena renal izquierda, denominada vena renal retroaórtica, encontrada en un cadáver masculino disecado. No se observaron otras variaciones vasculares. Lavariación anatómica encontrada se puede relacionar con un patrón particular de la vena cava inferior izquierda. La variación debe ser conocida ya que puede pasar inadvertida o ser confundida en proyecciones de imágenes de la región. Los clínicos y académicos que actúen en la región, deben considerar esta eventual variación anatómica.

Int. j. morphol ; 23(1): 37-42, 2005. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-626967


The purpose of this study is gain a better understanding of the anatomical variations of celiac artery and its branches in dogs. The celiac artery supply was analyzed in thirty dogs.The animals were injected with solution of Petrolatex S65 and dissected to evidence the celiac artery origin and its proximal ramifications. The celiac artery and its proximal branches were dissected and lengthen. The celiac artery more frequently emerged ahead of the first lumbar vertebra in one way form. The medium length of the celiac artery was of 0.98 cm. The gastrolienal trunk was the predominant morphological arrangement with medium length of 0.19 cm. The lienal artery emerged in one way form emitting more frequently 2 main branches. A branch emerging of the celiac artery irrigating the left adrenal occurred in 4 animals. The left gastric artery presented 1 branch in 17 animals (56.7%), 2 branches in 11 animals (36.6%) and 3 branches in 3 animals (10%). The left pancreatic lobe received a main branch from the lienal artery in 24 animals (80.0%), two branches in 4 animals (13.4%), and a branch emerging of the gastrolienal trunk in 2 animals (6.6%). The present data should therefore provide important information for devising experiments and interpreting results when using the mongred dogs as a model for experimental surgery and radiolocal practice of the celiac artery specially when making comparisons to human anatomy.

El propósito de este estudio es comprender mejor las variaciones anatómicas de la arteria celiaca y de sus ramas en los perros. Estudiamos la arteria celiaca en 30 perros (Canis familiaris). La parte abdominal de la aorta y el tronco celiaco fueron inyectados con una solución de Petrolatex S65, disecándose, desde su origen, la arteria celiaca y sus ramificaciones proximales. La arteria celiaca se originaba, de manera más frecuente, a nivel de la primera vértebra lumbar. La longitud media de la arteria celiaca fue de 0.98 cm. El tronco gastrolienal era el elemento morfológico predominante, con una longitud promedio de 0.19 cm. La arteria lienal se originaba de un tronco y emitía, frecuentemente, dos ramas principales. En 4 animales, se originaba una rama de la arteria celiaca, la cual irrigaba la glándula adrenal izquierda. La arteria gástrica izquierda emitía una rama en 17 animales (56.7%), dos ramas en 11 animales (36.6%) y 3 ramas en 3 animales (10%). El lóbulo pancreático izquierdo recibía una rama principal de la arteria lienal en 24 animales (80.0%), 2 ramas en 4 animales (13.4%), y una rama que se originaba del tronco gastrolienal en 2 animales (6.6%). Los resultados obtenidos se deben tener presentes cuando son utilizados perros como modelo en cirugía experimental y práctica radiolocal, especialmente, cuando se hacen comparaciones con la anatomía humana.

Int. j. morphol ; 22(4): 273-278, dez. 2004. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-396045


El objetivo del estudio fue establecer morfométricamente la localización del agujero infraorbital (FIO) en los planos sagital y transversal del cráneo y analizar las variaciones, así como verificar la simetría con el FIO contralateral. Fueron analizados 210 cráneos de individuos adultos. Utilizamos un paquímetro digital para efectuar las dos mediciones: a) sagital: del borde infraorbital hasta el borde superior del FIO; b) transversal: del borde lateral de la abertura piriforme hasta el bordemedial del FIO, utilizando el plano transversal. Estas mediciones forman un ángulo de 90 entre sí. Los datos fueron analizados por Kolmogorov-Smirnov y prueba de Person para evaluar la correlación, considerando un p 0.05. La media y ± SD en la distancia sagital fueron en el lado derecho 6,71± 1.70 mm y en el lado izquierdo 6,83±1.83 mm (p0.0001). Las medidas transversales fueron: lado derecho 13.28±2.17 mm y lado izquierdo 13.31±2.19 mm (p0.0001). Fueron observadas foraminas supranumerarias del FIO, con la presencia del IOF doble en 50 casos, siendo bilaterales en 8 especímenes izquierdos y derechos de la cara, 21 para cada lado. El FIO no era absolutamente simétrico y podía presentar el par bilateral y la abertura unilateral. La presencia de foraminas supranumerarias, como diversas medidas de este estudio, pueden interferir con la anestesia. Así sugerimos considerar estos parámetros en la evaluación anestésica y recordar las variantes durante los procedimientos usados para la localización del agujero infraorbital.

Humanos , Masculino , Cefalometria , Órbita/anatomia & histologia , Brasil
BJU Int ; 92(6): 592-6, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14511041


OBJECTIVE: To analyse quantitatively the acini and changes in the acinar epithelium and lumen in the transitional zone of normal and hyperplastic human prostates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tissue samples of the transitional zone were taken from prostates with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) obtained from 20 patients with clinical symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction who underwent open prostatectomy. The control tissue comprised 20 transitional zones of prostates obtained during autopsy of adults aged < 30 years (killed in accidents). The following variables were measured; the number of acini, total acinar area, area of the lumen, epithelial area, and the median (range) epithelial height, using computerized histomorphometric techniques. RESULTS: The total area of the acini and the luminal area was statistically significantly greater in BPH. In normal and hyperplastic prostates, respectively, the total mean (sd) area (mm2) of the acini was 0.041 (0.007) and 0.056 (0.016), of the lumen was 0.016 (0.003) and 0.036 (0.013), and of the epithelium was 0.025 (0.004) and 0.019 (0.003) (all P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the number of acini between controls and BPH. The area and the height of the acinar epithelium was statistically significantly greater in BPH; for epithelial height ( micro m) in normal and BPH tissue, respectively the minimum height was 9.92 (1.67) and 6.45 (1.14), the maximum 54.38 (4.09) and 41.52 (4.51) and the median 27.89 (2.48) and 19.96 (2.20) (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the number of acini between control and BPH tissue, but the area and the height of the acinar epithelium was significantly lower in BPH.

Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Obstrução do Colo da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Idoso , Epitélio , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Int. j. morphol ; 21(1): 29-35, Mar. 2003. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-359415


El nervio isquiático, ramo del plexo sacro, abandona la pelvis pasando, generalmente, por debajo del músculo piriforme. Este nervio puede presentar variaciones en su relación con el músculo piriforme, entre ellas, las referidas a la división alta. Sin embargo, son pocos los trabajos que correlacionan esta división con variaciones anatómicas y su relación con el músculo piriforme, en fetos humanos. Con el propósito de verificar una posible asociación entre el trayecto y relaciones de ramos del nervio isquiático, fueron disecadas 100 regiones glúteas de fetos humanos. Se encontraron 3 tipos de variaciones entre el nervio isquiático y el músculo piriforme: en 8 casos (16,0 por ciento) el nervio fibular común pasó a través del músculo y el nervio tibial transcurrió por debajo de su margen inferior (Tipo I). En estos mismos casos se observó que 5 (62,5 por ciento) estaban a la izquierda y 3 a la derecha. En un caso (2,0 por ciento), el nervio fibular común hizo su trayecto por sobre el margen superior del músculo piriforme y el nervio tibial pasó por debajo de su margen inferior (Tipo II). Fue observado en el Tipo III,que el nervio isquiático perfora el músculo piriforme, no presentando ninguna división. El músculo piriforme mostró variaciones de fusión con el músculo glúteo mediano (lado derecho =2,0 por ciento) y con el músculo gemelo superior (lado derecho =24,0 por ciento e izquierdo =32,0 por ciento). Estos datos muestran que existe una equivalencia de variacion entre los trayectos y relaciones del nervio isquiático con el músculo piriforme en fetos y adultos. Las variaciones en el músculo piriforme no están asociadas con alteraciones funcionales en la biomecánica de la pelvis.

Humanos , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Nervo Isquiático/anatomia & histologia , Nervo Isquiático/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dissecação , Desenvolvimento Embrionário e Fetal
Eur J Morphol ; 41(1): 41-2, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15121548


The sciatic nerve normally leaves the pelvis by passing through the greater sciatic foramen below piriformis. However, it may divide into its common fibular and tibial nerve components within the pelvis and its relationship with piriformis is variable. In this paper, we describe a new anatomical variation in which the common fibular nerve passed superior, and the tibial nerve inferior, to the superior gemellus muscle. Anatomical variations such as these may contribute to piriformis syndrome, coccygodynia and muscle atrophy.

Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Nervo Isquiático/anatomia & histologia , Coxa da Perna/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Fibular/anatomia & histologia , Nervo Tibial/anatomia & histologia