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1.
Eur Phys J C Part Fields ; 81(4): 322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720713

RESUMO

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a powerful tool for a variety of physics topics. The high-intensity proton beams provide a large neutrino flux, sampled by a near detector system consisting of a combination of capable precision detectors, and by the massive far detector system located deep underground. This configuration sets up DUNE as a machine for discovery, as it enables opportunities not only to perform precision neutrino measurements that may uncover deviations from the present three-flavor mixing paradigm, but also to discover new particles and unveil new interactions and symmetries beyond those predicted in the Standard Model (SM). Of the many potential beyond the Standard Model (BSM) topics DUNE will probe, this paper presents a selection of studies quantifying DUNE's sensitivities to sterile neutrino mixing, heavy neutral leptons, non-standard interactions, CPT symmetry violation, Lorentz invariance violation, neutrino trident production, dark matter from both beam induced and cosmogenic sources, baryon number violation, and other new physics topics that complement those at high-energy colliders and significantly extend the present reach.

2.
Front Artif Intell ; 4: 649917, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505055

RESUMO

In liquid argon time projection chambers exposed to neutrino beams and running on or near surface levels, cosmic muons, and other cosmic particles are incident on the detectors while a single neutrino-induced event is being recorded. In practice, this means that data from surface liquid argon time projection chambers will be dominated by cosmic particles, both as a source of event triggers and as the majority of the particle count in true neutrino-triggered events. In this work, we demonstrate a novel application of deep learning techniques to remove these background particles by applying deep learning on full detector images from the SBND detector, the near detector in the Fermilab Short-Baseline Neutrino Program. We use this technique to identify, on a pixel-by-pixel level, whether recorded activity originated from cosmic particles or neutrino interactions.

3.
J Dent Res ; 100(11): 1220-1227, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077690

RESUMO

Dental care professionals (DCPs) are thought to be at enhanced risk of occupational exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, robust data to support this from large-scale seroepidemiological studies are lacking. We report a longitudinal seroprevalence analysis of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, with baseline sampling prior to large-scale practice reopening in July 2020 and follow-up postimplementation of new public health guidance on infection prevention control (IPC) and enhanced personal protective equipment (PPE). In total, 1,507 West Midlands DCPs were recruited into this study in June 2020. Baseline seroprevalence was determined using a combined IgGAM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the cohort followed longitudinally for 6 mo until January/February 2021 through the second wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in the United Kingdom and vaccination commencement. Baseline seroprevalence was 16.3%, compared to estimates in the regional population of 6% to 7%. Seropositivity was retained in over 70% of participants at 3- and 6-mo follow-up and conferred a 75% reduced risk of infection. Nonwhite ethnicity and living in areas of greater deprivation were associated with increased baseline seroprevalence. During follow-up, no polymerase chain reaction-proven infections occurred in individuals with a baseline anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level greater than 147.6 IU/ml with respect to the World Health Organization international standard 20-136. After vaccination, antibody responses were more rapid and of higher magnitude in those individuals who were seropositive at baseline. Natural infection with SARS-CoV-2 prior to enhanced PPE was significantly higher in DCPs than the regional population. Natural infection leads to a serological response that remains detectable in over 70% of individuals 6 mo after initial sampling and 9 mo from the peak of the first wave of the pandemic. This response is associated with protection from future infection. Even if serological responses wane, a single dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech 162b vaccine is associated with an antibody response indicative of immunological memory.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(15): 151803, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702305

RESUMO

The NOvA experiment has seen a 4.4σ signal of ν[over ¯]_{e} appearance in a 2 GeV ν[over ¯]_{µ} beam at a distance of 810 km. Using 12.33×10^{20} protons on target delivered to the Fermilab NuMI neutrino beamline, the experiment recorded 27 ν[over ¯]_{µ}→ν[over ¯]_{e} candidates with a background of 10.3 and 102 ν[over ¯]_{µ}→ν[over ¯]_{µ} candidates. This new antineutrino data are combined with neutrino data to measure the parameters |Δm_{32}^{2}|=2.48_{-0.06}^{+0.11}×10^{-3} eV^{2}/c^{4} and sin^{2}θ_{23} in the ranges from (0.53-0.60) and (0.45-0.48) in the normal neutrino mass hierarchy. The data exclude most values near δ_{CP}=π/2 for the inverted mass hierarchy by more than 3σ and favor the normal neutrino mass hierarchy by 1.9σ and θ_{23} values in the upper octant by 1.6σ.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(23): 231801, 2017 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28644674

RESUMO

Results are reported from an improved measurement of ν_{µ}→ν_{e} transitions by the NOvA experiment. Using an exposure equivalent to 6.05×10^{20} protons on target, 33 ν_{e} candidates are observed with a background of 8.2±0.8 (syst.). Combined with the latest NOvA ν_{µ} disappearance data and external constraints from reactor experiments on sin^{2}2θ_{13}, the hypothesis of inverted mass hierarchy with θ_{23} in the lower octant is disfavored at greater than 93% C.L. for all values of δ_{CP}.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(15): 151802, 2017 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28452513

RESUMO

This Letter reports new results on muon neutrino disappearance from NOvA, using a 14 kton detector equivalent exposure of 6.05×10^{20} protons on target from the NuMI beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The measurement probes the muon-tau symmetry hypothesis that requires maximal θ_{23} mixing (θ_{23}=π/4). Assuming the normal mass hierarchy, we find Δm_{32}^{2}=(2.67±0.11)×10^{-3} eV^{2} and sin^{2}θ_{23} at the two statistically degenerate values 0.404_{-0.022}^{+0.030} and 0.624_{-0.030}^{+0.022}, both at the 68% confidence level. Our data disfavor the maximal mixing scenario with 2.6σ significance.

7.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 99(4): 295-298, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION The objective of the study was to compare bacterial fallout during vascular prosthesis insertion and orthopaedic major joint replacement performed in conventional and laminar flow ventilation, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective single-centre case control study of 21 consecutive elective vascular procedures involving prosthetic graft insertion and 24 consecutive elective orthopaedic major joint replacements were tested for degree of bacterial fallout using agar settle plates. Preparation time, waiting time and total procedure duration were collected at the time of surgery, and bacterial colony counts on the agar settle plates from airborne bacterial fallout were counted after an incubation period. RESULTS Bacterial fallout count in vascular prosthetic graft insertion was 15-fold greater than in orthopaedic prosthetic joint insertion (15, (IQR 15) vs 1, (IQR 3) respectively, P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon). Waiting time and patient transfer did not significantly increase bacterial fallout counts during the procedure (P = 0.9). CONCLUSIONS Vascular surgical theatres have significantly higher bacterial fallout compared with orthopaedic theatres. This may be partly explained by orthopaedic surgery being routinely performed in laminar flow ventilation, a practice which has not been widely adopted for vascular surgery, in which prosthetic infection may also result in significant mortality and morbidity.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Substituição , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Salas Cirúrgicas , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Ambiente Controlado , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Ventilação
8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(15): 151806, 2016 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27127961

RESUMO

We report results from the first search for ν_{µ}→ν_{e} transitions by the NOvA experiment. In an exposure equivalent to 2.74×10^{20} protons on target in the upgraded NuMI beam at Fermilab, we observe 6 events in the Far Detector, compared to a background expectation of 0.99±0.11(syst) events based on the Near Detector measurement. A secondary analysis observes 11 events with a background of 1.07±0.14(syst). The 3.3σ excess of events observed in the primary analysis disfavors 0.1π<δ_{CP}<0.5π in the inverted mass hierarchy at the 90% C.L.

9.
Br J Surg ; 102(4): 368-74, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25689292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to review a consecutive series of patients treated with laparoscopic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. These patients were compared with patients having elective open AAA repair. METHODS: Demographic and operative details were collected prospectively and outcomes recorded for all patients undergoing laparoscopic or open AAA repair. RESULTS: A total of 316 patients underwent laparoscopic (51), open (53) or endovascular (EVAR; 212) AAA repair between 2007 and 2013. The median age of patients who had laparoscopic or open repair was 72 (i.q.r. 66-75) years, and 92·3 per cent were men. There was no significant difference in sex distribution, age or V-POSSUM physiology score between laparoscopic and open repair. Of the 51 laparoscopic procedures, six were totally laparoscopic, 43 were laparoscopically assisted and two were converted to open repair. Pain scores were similar on days 1 and 3 after laparoscopic and open repair, even though epidurals were used in the open group, and were lower on days 5 and 7 after laparoscopic procedures. Patients who had laparoscopic repair had significantly fewer postoperative cardiorespiratory and renal complications (P = 0·017), and were discharged from hospital sooner (median 5 (i.q.r. 3-7) versus 8 (6-11) days; P = 0 ·001). CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic AAA repair was performed safely, and with at least equivalent outcomes to open repair, in patients unfavourable for EVAR.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Idoso , Constrição , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(25): 251801, 2013 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23829728

RESUMO

We report measurements of oscillation parameters from ν(µ) and ν(µ) disappearance using beam and atmospheric data from MINOS. The data comprise exposures of 10.71×10(20) protons on target in the ν(µ)-dominated beam, 3.36×10(20) protons on target in the ν(µ)-enhanced beam, and 37.88 kton yr of atmospheric neutrinos. Assuming identical ν and ν oscillation parameters, we measure |Δm2| = (2.41(-0.10)(+0.09))×10(-3) eV2 and sin2(2θ) = 0.950(-0.036)(+0.035). Allowing independent ν and ν oscillations, we measure antineutrino parameters of |Δm2| = (2.50(-0.25)(+0.23))×10(-3) eV2 and sin2(2θ) = 0.97(-0.08)(+0.03), with minimal change to the neutrino parameters.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(17): 171801, 2013 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23679706

RESUMO

We report on ν(e) and ν(e) appearance in ν(µ) and ν(µ) beams using the full MINOS data sample. The comparison of these ν(e) and ν(e) appearance data at a 735 km baseline with θ13 measurements by reactor experiments probes δ, the θ23 octant degeneracy, and the mass hierarchy. This analysis is the first use of this technique and includes the first accelerator long-baseline search for ν(µ) → ν(e). Our data disfavor 31% (5%) of the three-parameter space defined by δ, the octant of the θ23, and the mass hierarchy at the 68% (90%) C.L. We measure a value of 2sin(2)(2θ13)sin(2)(θ23) that is consistent with reactor experiments.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(19): 191801, 2012 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23003026

RESUMO

We report an improved measurement of ν(µ) disappearance over a distance of 735 km using the MINOS detectors and the Fermilab Main Injector neutrino beam in a ν(µ)-enhanced configuration. From a total exposure of 2.95×10(20) protons on target, of which 42% have not been previously analyzed, we make the most precise measurement of Δm2=[2.62(-0.28)(+0.31)(stat)±0.09(syst)]×10(-3) eV2 and constrain the ν(µ) mixing angle sin2(2θ)>0.75 (90% C.L.). These values are in agreement with Δm2 and sin2(2θ) measured for ν(µ), removing the tension reported in [P. Adamson et al. (MINOS), Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 021801 (2011).].

13.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 6(2): 33-9, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22559704

RESUMO

Centralised laboratories routinely determine blood types by serological and molecular methods. Current practices have limitations in terms of cost, time and accessibility. Miniaturised microfluidic platforms offer an alternative to conventional genotyping methods, since they consume fewer reagents, provide faster analysis and allow for complete integration and automation. As these 'lab-on-a-chip' devices have been used for bacterial and viral detection, the authors investigated blood group genotyping as a novel application of microfluidic technology. To demonstrate the feasibility of microfluidic chip-based genotyping, the authors compared human platelet antigen 1 (HPA-1) genotype results from conventional and chip-based analysis for 19 blood donor specimens. DNA purification was performed with ChargeSwitch™ magnetic beads, DNA amplification (PCR), restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) for identification of the DNA on microfluidic chips. It was found that nine donors were HPA-1a/1a and ten were HPA-1a/1b. Concordance between the conventional and on-chip methods was achieved for all but one sample. All the steps were demonstrated for complete blood group genotyping analysis of patient whole blood specimens on separate microfluidic chips. Future work will focus on integration of all the genotyping protocols on a single microfluidic chip.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plaquetas Humanas/genética , DNA/sangue , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Microfluídica/métodos , Antígenos de Plaquetas Humanas/sangue , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Eletroforese em Microchip , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(18): 181802, 2011 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22107623

RESUMO

We report the results of a search for ν(e) appearance in a ν(µ) beam in the MINOS long-baseline neutrino experiment. With an improved analysis and an increased exposure of 8.2 × 10(20) protons on the NuMI target at Fermilab, we find that 2 sin(2) (θ(23))sin(2)(2θ(13))<0.12(0.20) at 90% confidence level for δ = 0 and the normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy, with a best-fit of 2sin(2) (θ(23))sin(2)(2θ(13)) = 0.041(-0.031)(+0.047) (0.079(-0.053) (+0.071)). The θ(13) = 0 hypothesis is disfavored by the MINOS data at the 89% confidence level.

15.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 69(10): 1330-6, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21782460

RESUMO

As water-soluble ionic contaminants, which arise following proton irradiation of [18O]H2O have been associated with decreased [18F]FDG yields, the minimization of these contaminants is an asset in improving the [18F]F reactivity. To this end, we have previously demonstrated that the use of Nb-sputtered Havar foils results in decreased radionuclidic and chemical impurities in proton irradiated [18O]H2O, improved [18F]FDG yields, and improved [18F]FDG yield consistency when compared with non-sputtered Havar. Resulting from the highly reactive chemical microenvironment within the target however, this niobium layer is observed to degrade over time. To find a material that displays increased longevity with regards to maintaining high [18F]F reactivity, this project extensively investigated and compared Havar foils sputtered with Nb, Pt, Ta, Ti, Zr and ZrO2. Of the materials investigated, the results of this study suggest that Ta-sputtered Havar foil is the preferred choice. For similar integrated currents (~1,000,000 µA min), when comparing the Ta-sputtered Havar with Nb-sputtered Havar we observed: (i) greater than an order of magnitude decrease in radionuclidic impurities, (ii) a 6.4 percent increase (p=0.0025) in the average TracerLab MX [18F]FDG yield, and (iii) an overall improvement in the FDG yield consistency. Excellent performance of the Ta-sputtered foil was maintained throughout its ~1,500,000 µA min lifetime.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18/síntese química , Nióbio/química , Platina/química , Tantálio/química , Zircônio/química , Ciclotrons , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/química , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/isolamento & purificação , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Prótons , Titânio , Água
16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(1): 011802, 2011 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21797535

RESUMO

Results are reported from a search for active to sterile neutrino oscillations in the MINOS long-baseline experiment, based on the observation of neutral-current neutrino interactions, from an exposure to the NuMI neutrino beam of 7.07×10(20) protons on target. A total of 802 neutral-current event candidates is observed in the Far Detector, compared to an expected number of 754 ± 28(stat) ± 37(syst) for oscillations among three active flavors. The fraction f(s) of disappearing ν(µ) that may transition to ν(s) is found to be less than 22% at the 90% C.L.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(2): 021801, 2011 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21797594

RESUMO

This Letter reports the first direct observation of muon antineutrino disappearance. The MINOS experiment has taken data with an accelerator beam optimized for ν(µ) production, accumulating an exposure of 1.71 × 10²° protons on target. In the Far Detector, 97 charged current ν(µ) events are observed. The no-oscillation hypothesis predicts 156 events and is excluded at 6.3σ. The best fit to oscillation yields |Δm²| = [3.36(-0.40)(+0.46)(stat) ± 0.06(syst)] × 10⁻³ eV², sin²(2θ) = 0.86(-0.12)(+0.11)(stat) ± 0.01(syst). The MINOS ν(µ) and ν(µ) measurements are consistent at the 2.0% confidence level, assuming identical underlying oscillation parameters.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 106(18): 181801, 2011 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21635083

RESUMO

Measurements of neutrino oscillations using the disappearance of muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam as observed by the two MINOS detectors are reported. New analysis methods have been applied to an enlarged data sample from an exposure of 7.25×10(20) protons on target. A fit to neutrino oscillations yields values of |Δm(2)|=(2.32(-0.08)(+0.12))×10(-3) eV(2) for the atmospheric mass splitting and sin(2)(2θ)>0.90 (90% C.L.) for the mixing angle. Pure neutrino decay and quantum decoherence hypotheses are excluded at 7 and 9 standard deviations, respectively.

20.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 4(3): 91-101, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20726675

RESUMO

Although electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection has tremendous potential in lab on chip-based point-of-care disease diagnostics, the wider use of microchip electrophoresis has been limited by the size and cost of the instrumentation. To address this challenge, the authors designed an integrated circuit (IC, i.e. a microelectronic chip, with total silicon area of <0.25 cm2, less than 5 mmx5 mm, and power consumption of 28 mW), which, with a minimal additional infrastructure, can perform microchip electrophoresis with LIF detection. The present work enables extremely compact and inexpensive portable systems consisting of one or more complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips and several other low-cost components. There are, to the authors' knowledge, no other reports of a CMOS-based LIF capillary electrophoresis instrument (i.e. high voltage generation, switching, control and interface circuit combined with LIF detection). This instrument is powered and controlled using a universal serial bus (USB) interface to a laptop computer. The authors demonstrate this IC in various configurations and can readily analyse the DNA produced by a standard medical diagnostic protocol (end-labelled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product) with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ng/microl (approximately 1 ng of total DNA). The authors believe that this approach may ultimately enable lab-on-a-chip-based electrophoretic instruments that cost on the order of several dollars.


Assuntos
Eletrônica Médica/instrumentação , Eletroforese em Microchip/instrumentação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Integração de Sistemas
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