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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is mounting evidence regarding the cardiovascular benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-Is) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is paucity of data assessing real-world practice patterns for these drug classes. We aimed to assess utilization rates of these drug classes and facility-level variation in their use. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used the nationwide Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system data set from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020 and included patients with established ASCVD and T2DM. Among these patients, we assessed the use of SGLT2-I and GLP-1 RA and the facility-level variation in their use. Facility-level variation was computed using median rate ratios (MRR), a measure of likelihood that two random facilities differ in use of SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA in patients with ASCVD and T2DM. RESULTS: Among 537,980 patients with ASCVD and T2DM across 130 VA facilities, 11.2% of patients received an SGLT2i while 8.0% of patients received a GLP-1 RA. Patients receiving these cardioprotective glucose-lowering drug classes were on average younger and had a higher proportion of non-Hispanic Whites. Overall, median (10th-90th percentile) facility-level rates were 14.92% (9.31-22.50) for SGLT2i and 10.88% (4.44-17.07) for GLP-1 RA. There was significant facility-level variation among SGLT2-Is use-MRRunadjusted: 1.41 (95% CI 1.35-1.47) and MRRadjusted: 1.55 (95% CI 1.46 -1.63). Similar facility-level variation was observed for use of GLP-1 RA-MRRunadjusted: 1.34 (95% CI 1.29-1.38) and MRRadjusted: 1.78 (95% CI1.65-1.90). CONCLUSIONS: Overall utilization rates of SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA among eligible patients are low, with significantly higher residual facility-level variation in the use of these drug classes. Our results suggest opportunities to optimize their use to prevent future adverse cardiovascular events among these patients.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 577, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022435

RESUMO

People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) have significantly increased risk for cardiovascular disease in part due to inflammation and immune dysregulation. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), the age-related acquisition and expansion of hematopoietic stem cells due to leukemogenic driver mutations, increases risk for both hematologic malignancy and coronary artery disease (CAD). Since increased inflammation is hypothesized to be both a cause and consequence of CHIP, we hypothesized that PLWH have a greater prevalence of CHIP. We searched for CHIP in multi-ethnic cases from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS, n = 600) and controls from the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities study (ARIC, n = 8111) from blood DNA-derived exome sequences. We observed that HIV is associated with a twofold increase in CHIP prevalence, both in the whole study population and in a subset of 230 cases and 1002 matched controls selected by propensity matching to control for demographic imbalances (SHCS 7%, ARIC 3%, p = 0.005). We also observed that ASXL1 is the most commonly mutated CHIP-associated gene in PLWH. Our results suggest that CHIP may contribute to the excess cardiovascular risk observed in PLWH.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025993

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypertriglyceridaemia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. This clinical trial evaluated olezarsen, an N-acetyl-galactosamine-conjugated antisense oligonucleotide targeted to hepatic APOC3 mRNA to inhibit apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) production, in lowering triglyceride levels in patients at high risk for or with established cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study was conducted in 114 patients with fasting serum triglycerides 200-500 mg/dL (2.26-5.65 mmol/L). Patients received olezarsen (10 or 50 mg every 4 weeks, 15 mg every 2 weeks, or 10 mg every week) or saline placebo subcutaneously for 6-12 months. The primary endpoint was the percent change in fasting triglyceride levels from baseline to Month 6 of exposure. Baseline median (interquartile range) fasting triglyceride levels were 262 (222-329) mg/dL [2.96 (2.51-3.71) mmol/L]. Treatment with olezarsen resulted in mean percent triglyceride reductions of 23% with 10 mg every 4 weeks, 56% with 15 mg every 2 weeks, 60% with 10 mg every week, and 60% with 50 mg every 4 weeks, compared with increase by 6% for the pooled placebo group (P-values ranged from 0.0042 to <0.0001 compared with placebo). Significant decreases in apoC-III, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were also observed. There were no platelet count, liver, or renal function changes in any of the olezarsen groups. The most common adverse event was mild erythema at the injection site. CONCLUSION: Olezarsen significantly reduced apoC-III, triglycerides, and atherogenic lipoproteins in patients with moderate hypertriglyceridaemia and at high risk for or with established cardiovascular disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03385239. KEY QUESTION: This clinical trial evaluated olezarsen (APOCIII-LRx), an N-acetyl-galactosamine-conjugated antisense oligonucleotide targeted to hepatic APOC3 mRNA to inhibit apolipoprotein C-III production, in lowering triglyceride levels. KEY FINDING: Olezarsen (APOCIII-LRx) significantly reduced apolipoprotein C-III, triglycerides, and atherogenic lipoproteins in patients with moderate hypertriglyceridaemia and at high risk for or with established cardiovascular disease. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Targeting apoC-III with antisense oligonucleotides is a unique and potent approach that results in the substantial reduction of triglycerides and atherogenic lipoproteins. Olezarsen (APOCIII-LRx) may have a variety of applications in patients with hypertriglyceridaemia.

5.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 9: 100300, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950914

RESUMO

Objective: To determine whether natural language processing (NLP) of unstructured medical text can improve identification of ASCVD patients not using high-intensity statin therapy (HIST) due to statin-associated side effects (SASEs) and other reasons. Methods: Reviewers annotated reasons for not prescribing HIST in notes of 1152 randomly selected patients from across the VA healthcare system treated for ASCVD but not receiving HIST. Developers used reviewer annotations to train the Canary NLP tool to detect and extract notes containing one or more of these reasons. Negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, specificity and Area Under the Curve (AUC) were used to assess accuracy at detecting documents containing reasons when using structured data, NLP-extracted unstructured data, or both data sources combined. Results: At least one documented reason for not prescribing HIST occurred in 47% of notes. The most frequent reasons were SASEs (41%) and general intolerance (20%). When identifying notes containing any documented reason for not using HIST, adding NLP-extracted, unstructured data significantly (p<0.05) increased sensitivity (0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.76) to 0.89 (95% CI 0.81-0.93)), NPV (0.90 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.93) to 0.96 (95% CI 0.93-0.98)), and AUC (0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.88) to 0.91 (95% CI 0.90-0.93)) compared to structured data alone. Conclusions: NLP extraction of data from unstructured text can improve identification of reasons for patients not being on HIST over structured data alone. The additional information provided through NLP of unstructured free text should help in tailoring and implementing system-level interventions to improve HIST use in patients with ASCVD.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(1): 81-96, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932938

RESUMO

Large-scale gene sequencing studies for complex traits have the potential to identify causal genes with therapeutic implications. We performed gene-based association testing of blood lipid levels with rare (minor allele frequency < 1%) predicted damaging coding variation by using sequence data from >170,000 individuals from multiple ancestries: 97,493 European, 30,025 South Asian, 16,507 African, 16,440 Hispanic/Latino, 10,420 East Asian, and 1,182 Samoan. We identified 35 genes associated with circulating lipid levels; some of these genes have not been previously associated with lipid levels when using rare coding variation from population-based samples. We prioritize 32 genes in array-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci based on aggregations of rare coding variants; three (EVI5, SH2B3, and PLIN1) had no prior association of rare coding variants with lipid levels. Most of our associated genes showed evidence of association among multiple ancestries. Finally, we observed an enrichment of gene-based associations for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol drug target genes and for genes closest to GWAS index single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our results demonstrate that gene-based associations can be beneficial for drug target development and provide evidence that the gene closest to the array-based GWAS index SNP is often the functional gene for blood lipid levels.

7.
Circulation ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879218

RESUMO

Background: The 2018 American Heart Association/ American College of Cardiology Multisociety (AHA/ACC/MS) cholesterol guideline states that statin therapy may be withheld or delayed among intermediate risk individuals in the absence of coronary artery calcium (CAC=0). We evaluated whether traditional cardiovascular risk factors are associated with incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events among individuals with CAC=0 over long-term follow-up. Methods: We included participants with CAC=0 at baseline from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a prospective cohort study of individuals free of clinical ASCVD at baseline. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to study the association between cardiovascular risk factors [cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, preventive medication use (aspirin and statin), family history of premature ASCVD, chronic kidney disease, waist circumference, lipid and inflammatory markers] and adjudicated incident ASCVD outcomes. Results: We studied 3,416 individuals (mean (SD) age 58 (9) years; 63% were female, 33% White, 31% Black, 12% Chinese-American, and 24% Hispanic. Over a median follow-up of 16 years, there were 189 ASCVD events (composite of CHD and stroke) of which 91 were CHD, 88 were stroke, and 10 were both CHD and stroke events. The unadjusted event rates of ASCVD were ≤5 per 1000-person-years among individuals with CAC=0 for most risk factors with the exception of current cigarette smoking (7.3), diabetes mellitus (8.9), hypertension (5.4), and chronic kidney disease (6.8). After multivariable-adjustment, risk factors that were significantly associated with ASCVD: hazard ratio (HR) 95% confidence interval (CI) included current cigarette smoking: 2.12 (1.32,3.42), diabetes mellitus: 1.68 (1.01,2.80), and hypertension: 1.57 (1.06,2.33). Conclusions: Current cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension are independently associated with incident ASCVD over 16-year follow-up among those with CAC=0. Family history of premature ASCVD may be associated with ASCVD risk among women only.

8.
Am J Med ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861203

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evaluate associations between outpatient low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) testing and subsequent statin adherence and intensification in patients after an atherosclerotic cardiovascular (ASCVD) event. METHODS: Longitudinal study of adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitalized with an ASCVD event (myocardial infarction or stroke) during 01/01/2016 to 12/31/2017 with follow-up through 12/31/2019. Outcomes were statin adherence (estimated using continuous medication gap (CMG)) and intensification (defined by an increased dose or switch to a higher-intensity statin) based on pharmacy dispensing. The exposure of interest was first outpatient LDL-C test after an ASCVD event. Baseline for follow-up was LDL-C test date or a date assigned using incidence density sampling. Multivariate logistic regression models were specified to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for statin adherence or intensification among those with versus without an LDL-C test, with adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, BMI and eGFR. RESULTS: There were 19,604 adults hospitalized with ASCVD including 7,054 adults not on high-intensity statins; mean age was 69.5 years and 33.0% were women. Prevalence of good adherence (CMG≤20%) was significantly higher (80.2% vs 75.9%; OR=1.38; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.49; p<.001) among participants who had an LDL-C test compared to participants who did not. LDL-C testing was associated with significantly higher rates of treatment intensification (16.1% vs 10.7%; OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.29, 1.76; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: LDL-C testing is recommended for patients with a history of ASCVD and may be a high-value and low-cost intervention to improve adherence and statin management.

9.
J Diabetes Complications ; : 108101, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922811

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D), chronic kidney disease (CKD), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and heart failure (HF)-along with their associated risk factors-have overlapping etiologies, and two or more of these conditions frequently occur in the same patient. Many recent cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) have demonstrated the benefits of agents originally developed to control T2D, ASCVD, or CKD risk factors, and these agents have transcended their primary indications to confer benefits across a range of conditions. This evolution in CVOT evidence calls for practice recommendations that are not constrained by a single discipline to help clinicians manage patients with complex conditions involving diabetes, cardiorenal, and/or metabolic (DCRM) diseases. The ultimate goal for these recommendations is to be comprehensive yet succinct and easy to follow by the nonexpert-whether a specialist or a primary care clinician. To meet this need, we formed a volunteer task force comprising leading cardiologists, nephrologists, endocrinologists, and primary care physicians to develop the DCRM Practice Recommendations, a multispecialty consensus on the comprehensive management of the patient with complicated metabolic disease. The task force recommendations are based on strong evidence and incorporate practical guidance that is clinically relevant and simple to implement, with the aim of improving outcomes in patients with DCRM. The recommendations are presented as 18 separate graphics covering lifestyle therapy, patient self-management education, technology for DCRM management, prediabetes, cognitive dysfunction, vaccinations, clinical tests, lipids, hypertension, anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, antihyperglycemic therapy, hypoglycemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), ASCVD, HF, CKD, and comorbid HF and CKD, as well as a graphical summary of medications used for DCRM.

10.
J Clin Lipidol ; 15(4): 530-537, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815066

RESUMO

Clinical lipidology belongs par excellence to the preventive mode of medical practice. This Roundtable brings two long-time advocates of cardiometabolic prevention and a newly minted preventive cardiologist into a discussion that expands their recent JCL editorial on this topic. Atherosclerosis is a single disease process that leads to approximately 25% of deaths in economically advanced nations and a growing fraction of mortality and morbidity in nations with developing and emerging economies. Our discussants suggest that at least 75% of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease can be prevented. Diet and lifestyle including physical activity are the cornerstones for this effort. Public and private choices about diet-lifestyle are influenced by economics, education (especially in childhood), inequities, technology, misinformation, and trust. Lipid clinics perform well with pharmacologic treatment of lipid disorders and increasingly give attention to hypertension, obesity, and diabetes as needed. Cardiometabolic prevention in the clinic works best through provider teams. Business considerations and exemplary programs are highlighted.

11.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA121037388, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is a novel age-related risk factor for cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. The association of CHIP with risk of incident ischemic stroke was reported previously in an exploratory analysis including a small number of incident stroke cases without replication and lack of stroke subphenotyping. The purpose of this study was to discover whether CHIP is a risk factor for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: We utilized plasma genome sequence data of blood DNA to identify CHIP in 78 752 individuals from 8 prospective cohorts and biobanks. We then assessed the association of CHIP and commonly mutated individual CHIP driver genes (DNMT3A, TET2, and ASXL1) with any stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. RESULTS: CHIP was associated with an increased risk of total stroke (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.03-1.27]; P=0.01) after adjustment for age, sex, and race. We observed associations with CHIP with risk of hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.01-1.51]; P=0.04) and with small vessel ischemic stroke subtypes. In gene-specific association results, TET2 showed the strongest association with total stroke and ischemic stroke, whereas DMNT3A and TET2 were each associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: CHIP is associated with an increased risk of stroke, particularly with hemorrhagic and small vessel ischemic stroke. Future studies clarifying the relationship between CHIP and subtypes of stroke are needed.

12.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 8: 100278, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746903

RESUMO

Objective: Statins are sometimes associated with worsened glycemic control. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may require non-statin therapies to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering goals. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of bempedoic acid 180 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg fixed-dose combination (BA + EZE FDC) in patients with T2DM and hypercholesterolemia who were not receiving background statins or other lipid-lowering therapy. Methods: Patients with T2DM and elevated LDL-C levels were enrolled into this phase 2, double-blind study (NCT03531905). Patients received placebo during a 5-week washout period where background lipid-lowering therapies (including statins) were discontinued. Eligible patients were then randomized 1:1:1 to receive either BA + EZE FDC, ezetimibe 10 mg, or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Assessments included the percent change from baseline to week 12 in LDL-C, other lipid parameters, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP); and the monitoring of safety and tolerability. Results: Among 179 randomized patients, baseline characteristics following the washout period were similar across treatment groups, with mean LDL-C levels of 142.6 mg/dL and mean glycated hemoglobin of 8.0%. At week 12, BA + EZE FDC therapy lowered mean LDL-C levels by 38.8%, significantly more than ezetimibe alone (19.2%; difference, 19.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 13.4%-25.7%]; p < 0.001) or placebo (increase of 0.9%; difference, 39.6% [95% CI, 33.4%-45.8%]; p < 0.001). BA + EZE FDC significantly reduced hsCRP levels from baseline vs ezetimibe (29.2%; p = 0.005) and vs placebo (36.7%; p < 0.001). Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was low in all treatment groups, with no indication of worsened glycemic control. Conclusion: In patients with T2DM and hypercholesterolemia who were not receiving statins or other lipid-lowering drugs, BA + EZE FDC significantly lowered LDL-C levels and was generally well tolerated.

14.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802986

RESUMO

Lipoprotein measurements are pivotal in the management of patients at risk for atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) with myocardial infarction and coronary death as the main outcomes, and for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), which includes CHD and stroke. Recent developments and changes in guidelines affect optimization of using lipid measures as cardiovascular biomarkers. This scientific statement reviews the pre-analytical, analytical, post-analytical, and clinical aspects of lipoprotein measurements. Highlights include the following: i) It is acceptable to screen with nonfasting lipids. ii) non-high-density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) is measured reliably in either the fasting or the nonfasting state and can effectively guide ASCVD prevention. iii) low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) can be estimated from total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) measurements. For patients with LDL-C>100 mg/dL and TG ≤150 mg/dL it is reasonable to use the Friedewald formula. However, for those with TG 150-400 mg/dL the Friedewald formula for LDL-C estimation is less accurate. The Martin/Hopkins method is recommended for LDL-C estimation throughout the range of LDL-C levels and up to TG levels of 399 mg/dL. For TG levels ≥400 mg/dL LDL-C estimating equations are currently not recommended and newer methods are being evaluated. iv) When LDL-C or TG screening results are abnormal the clinician should consider obtaining fasting lipids. v) Advanced lipoprotein tests using apolipoprotein B (apoB), LDL Particle Number (LDL-P) or remnant cholesterol may help to guide therapeutic decisions in select patients, but data are limited for patients already on lipid lowering therapy with low LDL-C levels. Better harmonization of advanced lipid measurement methods is needed. Lipid measurements are recommended 4-12 weeks after a change in lipid treatment. Lipid laboratory reports should denote desirable values and specifically identify extremely elevated LDL-C levels (≥190 mg/dL at any age or ≥160 mg/dL in children) as severe hypercholesterolemia. Potentially actionable abnormal lipid test results, including fasting triglycerides (TG) ≥500 mg/dL, should be reported as hypertriglyceridemia. Appropriate use and reporting of lipid tests should improve their utility in the management of persons at high risk for ASCVD events.

15.
Am J Cardiol ; 161: 42-50, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794617

RESUMO

Plasma proteomic profiling may aid in the discovery of novel biomarkers upstream of the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). We used data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study to examine the relation between large-scale proteomics and incident AF in a cohort of older-aged adults in the United States. We quantified 4,877 plasma proteins in Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities participants at visit 5 (2011-2013) using an aptamer-based proteomic profiling platform. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between protein levels and incident AF, and explored relation of selected protein biomarkers using annotated pathway analysis. Our study included 4,668 AF-free participants (mean age 75 ± 5 years; 59% female; 20% Black race) with proteomic measures. A total of 585 participants developed AF over a mean follow-up of 5.7 ± 1.7 years. After adjustment for clinical factors associated with AF, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was associated with the risk of incident AF (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.68 to 1.98; p, 2.91 × 10-45 per doubling of NT-proBNP). In addition, 36 other proteins were also significantly associated with incident AF after Bonferroni correction. We further adjusted for medication use and estimated glomerular filtration rate and found 17 proteins, including angiopoietin-2 and transgelin, that remained significantly associated with incident AF. Pathway analyses implicated the inhibition of matrix metalloproteases as the top canonical pathway in AF pathogenesis. In conclusion, using a large-scale proteomic platform, we identified both novel and established proteins associated with incident AF and explored mechanistic pathways of AF development.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Proteômica/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Precursores de Proteínas , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; : CIRCGEN121003460, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated cardiac troponin levels in blood are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Cardiac troponin levels are heritable, but their genetic architecture remains elusive. METHODS: We conducted a transethnic genome-wide association analysis on high-sensitivity cTnT (cardiac troponin T; hs-cTnT) and high-sensitivity cTnI (cardiac troponin I; hs-cTnI) levels in 24 617 and 14 336 participants free of coronary heart disease and heart failure from 6 population-based cohorts, followed by a series of bioinformatic analyses to decipher the genetic architecture of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI. RESULTS: We identified 4 genome-wide significant loci for hs-cTnT including a novel locus rs3737882 in PPFIA4 and 3 previously reported loci at NCOA2, TRAM1, and BCL2. One known locus at VCL was replicated for hs-cTnI. One copy of C allele for rs3737882 was associated with a 6% increase in hs-cTnT levels (minor allele frequency, 0.18; P=2.80×10-9). We observed pleiotropic loci located at BAG3 and ANO5. The proportions of variances explained by single-nucleotide polymorphisms were 10.15% and 7.74% for hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI, respectively. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were colocalized with BCL2 expression in heart tissues and hs-cTnT and with ANO5 expression in artery, heart tissues, and whole blood and both troponins. Mendelian randomization analyses showed that genetically increased hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI levels were associated with higher odds of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.25-1.54] for hs-cTnT and 1.21 [95% CI, 1.06-1.37] for hs-cTnI). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel genetic locus associated with hs-cTnT in a multiethnic population and found that genetically regulated troponin levels were associated with atrial fibrillation.

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(15): 1525-1537, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial) randomized statin-treated patients with elevated triglycerides to icosapent ethyl (IPE) or placebo. There was a significant reduction in adjudicated events, including the primary endpoint (cardiovascular [CV] death, myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, coronary revascularization, unstable angina requiring hospitalization) and key secondary endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke) with IPE. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of IPE on investigator-reported events. METHODS: Potential endpoints were collected by blinded site investigators and subsequently adjudicated by a blinded Clinical Endpoint Committee (CEC) according to a prespecified charter. Investigator-reported events were compared with adjudicated events for concordance. RESULTS: There was a high degree of concordance between investigator-reported and adjudicated endpoints. The simple Kappa statistic between CEC-adjudicated vs site-reported events for the primary endpoint was 0.89 and for the key secondary endpoint was 0.90. Based on investigator-reported events in 8,179 randomized patients, IPE significantly reduced the rate of the primary endpoint (19.1% vs 24.6%; HR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.67-0.81]; P < 0.0001) and the key secondary endpoint (10.5% vs 13.6%; HR: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.66-0.85]; P < 0.0001). Among adjudicated events, IPE similarly reduced the rate of the primary and key secondary endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: IPE led to consistent, significant reductions in CV events, including MI and coronary revascularization, as determined by independent, blinded CEC adjudication as well as by blinded investigator-reported assessment. These results highlight the robust evidence for the substantial CV benefits of IPE seen in REDUCE-IT and further raise the question of whether adjudication of CV outcome trial endpoints is routinely required in blinded, placebo-controlled trials. (Evaluation of the Effect of AMR101 on Cardiovascular Health and Mortality in Hypertriglyceridemic Patients With Cardiovascular Disease or at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: REDUCE-IT [Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA - Intervention Trial]; NCT01492361).

18.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 18(12): 805-806, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663945
19.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statin associated side effects (SASE) are a leading cause of statin discontinuation. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patient, provider, and facility characteristics associated with SASEs and whether these characteristics impact statin utilization. METHODS: Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) receiving care across the Veterans Affairs healthcare system from October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015 were included. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine (a) factors associated with SASE and (b) factors associated with statin use in those with SASE. RESULTS: Our cohort included 1,225,576 patients with ASCVD. Of these, 171,189 (13.7%) had at least 1 reported SASE since year 2000. The most significant odds for SASEs were observed with female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36, 1.45), White race (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.41, 1.45), hypertension (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33, 1.41) and ischemic heart disease (IHD: OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.43, 1.47). Lower odds were noted with care at a teaching facility (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.88, 0.90). Factors most associated with being on a statin among patients with SASE included having diabetes (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.15, 1.20), IHD (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.35, 1.43) and a higher number of cardiology visits (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07, 1.09), while female sex was associated with lower odds (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.61, 0.69). CONCLUSION: There are significant disparities in statin use by sex, ASCVD type, and comorbidities among secondary prevention patients with SASE, which represent areas for improvement in optimizing statin utilization.

20.
Circulation ; 144(22): 1750-1759, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is associated with adverse outcomes among patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes. Commonly used medications to treat CVD are less effective among patients with reduced kidney function. METHODS: REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial) was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that randomly assigned statin-treated patients with elevated triglycerides (135-499 mg/dL) who had CVD or diabetes and 1 additional risk factor to treatment with icosapent ethyl (4 g daily) or placebo. Patients from REDUCE-IT were categorized by prespecified estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categories to analyze the effect of icosapent ethyl on the primary end point (composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or unstable angina) and key secondary end point (a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke). RESULTS: Among the 8179 REDUCE-IT patients, median baseline eGFR was 75 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 (range, 17-123 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2). There were no meaningful changes in median eGFR for icosapent ethyl versus placebo across study visits. Treatment with icosapent ethyl led to consistent reduction in both the primary and key secondary composite end points across baseline eGFR categories. Patients with eGFR <60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 treated with icosapent ethyl had the largest absolute and similar relative risk reduction for the primary composite end point (icosapent ethyl versus placebo, 21.8% versus 28.9%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.71 [95% CI, 0.59-0.85]; P=0.0002) and key secondary composite end point (16.8% versus 22.5%; HR 0.71 [95% CI, 0.57-0.88]; P=0.001). The numeric reduction in cardiovascular death was greatest in the eGFR <60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 group (icosapent ethyl: 7.6%; placebo: 10.6%; HR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.51-0.95]; P=0.02). Although patients with eGFR <60 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 treated with icosapent ethyl had the highest numeric rates of atrial fibrillation/flutter (icosapent ethyl: 4.2%; placebo 3.0%; HR 1.42 [95% CI, 0.86-2.32]; P=0.17) and serious bleeding (icosapent ethyl: 5.4%; placebo 3.6%; HR, 1.40 [95% CI, 0.90-2.18]; P=0.13), HRs for atrial fibrillation/flutter and serious bleeding were similar across eGFR categories (P-interaction for atrial fibrillation/flutter=0.92; P-interaction for serious bleeding=0.76). CONCLUSIONS: In REDUCE-IT, icosapent ethyl reduced fatal and nonfatal ischemic events across the broad range of baseline eGFR categories. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01492361.

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