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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMO

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431907

RESUMO

Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cães , Cabras , Paquistão
3.
Physiol Int ; 107(1): 134-144, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491291

RESUMO

Microvascular function has been assessed by determining the rhythmic oscillations in blood flow induced by the vasomotion of resistance vessels. Although laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) allows simple, non-invasive evaluation of this flow-motion in the cutaneous microcirculation, the temporal and spatial reproducibility of such assessments remains unclear.In the present study, we investigated cutaneous flow-motion in three consecutive years in eight skin regions using LDF in six healthy young volunteers. The characteristic flow-motion frequency was determined using fast-Fourier transformation. Additionally, in two years a more traditional measure of microvascular reactivity, postocclusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) was evoked in the forearm after transient brachial artery occlusion (1-2-3 min) induced by cuff inflation.Well-defined flow-motion was found in six regions showing significant differences in frequency: the highest flow-motion frequency was found in the frontal and temporal regions (8.0 ± 1.1 and 8.5 ± 1.0 cycles/min, cpm, respectively, mean ± SD) followed by the scapular, infraclavicular and coxal regions (7.5 ± 1.3; 6.7 ± 1.1 and 6.5 ± 1.2 cpm, respectively). The lowest, stable flow-motion was found in the posterior femoral region (5.5 ± 1.0 cpm), whereas flow-motion was detectable only sporadically in the limbs. The region-dependent flow-motion frequencies were very stable within individuals either between the body sides, or among the three measurements, only the infraclavicular region showed a small difference (114 ± 17%∗, % of value in 1st year; ∗P < 0.05). However, PORH indices differed after 2-3 min occlusions significantly in consecutive years.We report that flow-motion frequencies determined from LDF signals show both region-specificity and excellent intra-individual temporal and spatial reproducibility suggesting their usefulness for non-invasive follow-up of microvascular reactivity.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Pele , Sistema Vasomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Antebraço/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hiperemia/diagnóstico , Hiperemia/fisiopatologia , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler/métodos , Masculino , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Pele/fisiopatologia
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 21(2 Suppl): 89-101, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and control women, were protected from in vitro H2O2-induced oxidative stress after addition of antioxidants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PBMC, from 8 HT women and 3 healthy women (controls), were cultured in the presence of 200 µM H2O2 alone, with subsequent addition of myo-inositol (Myo) (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 µM), selenomethionine (SelMet) (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 µM), or their combination (0.25+0.25, 0.5+0.5, 1.0+1.0 µM). PBMC proliferation, vitality, genotoxicity (Comet score) and secretion in the medium of the chemokines CXCL10 [IP10], CCL2 e CXCL9 [MIG] were the indices measured. RESULTS: PBMC proliferation was decreased by H2O2 alone, and it decreased further and dose-dependently in either group (greatest decrease with Myo+SelMet in HT). H2O2 alone decreased vitality by 5% in controls and 10% in the HT group, but vitality was rescued by the three additions. The addition of H2O2 alone increased the Comet score at +505% above baseline in controls and +707% in HT women. In either group, each addition dose-dependently contrasted genotoxicity. Concentrations of chemokines in the medium were increased by H2O2 alone, and in HT women more than in controls. Each addition dose-dependently decreased these concentrations in either group, and often below baseline levels, with Myo+SelMet being the most potent addition (up to approximately -80% of baseline). CONCLUSIONS: The tested antioxidants exert beneficial effects on PBMC exposed in vitro to H2O2-induced oxidative stress in both control and HT women. Particularly, the association Myo+SelMet is the most effective. After the demonstration of a favorable in vitro outcomes in a large cohort of HT patients, we could predict favorable in vivo outcomes given by the same supplement. Thus, one can select HT patients with a high chance of benefit from supplementation.


Assuntos
Doença de Hashimoto/sangue , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Inositol/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Selenometionina/farmacologia , Adulto , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 21(2 Suppl): 36-42, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The beneficial effects obtained by myo-inositol in association with seleno-methionine in patients affected by subclinical hypothyroidism have been recently demonstrated. Here, we evaluate the immune-modulating effect of myo-inositol in association with seleno-methionine in patients with euthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive Caucasian patients with newly diagnosed euthyroid chronic AT were evaluated. All subjects were treated with myo-inositol in association with selenium (600 mg/83 mg) tablets, twice per day, for six months. A complete thyroid assessment was done before the treatment, and after six months. RESULTS: After the treatment thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels significantly declined with respect to basal values, overall in patients with an initial TSH value in the high normal range (2.1

Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/prevenção & controle , Inositol/uso terapêutico , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Compostos Organosselênicos/uso terapêutico , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Tireoidite Autoimune/complicações , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Masculino , Metionina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândula Tireoide/irrigação sanguínea , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Tireotropina/sangue
6.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 40(4): 367-376, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27785750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was associated with a number of polymorphisms of genes involved in insulin signaling. So far, they have been studied separately. The aim of this study was to verify the impact of the coexistence of two polymorphisms of insulin signaling. METHODS: One hundred consecutive PCOS women (diagnosed by Rotterdam criteria) and 45 age-matched healthy women were genotyped for two polymorphisms: Gly972Arg of IRS-1 and Lys121Gln of PC-1. Also, they underwent clinical evaluation, blood sampling for measurement of metabolic and hormonal indices, and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: Comparing PCOS women with controls, the rate of homo-/heterozygosity was significantly greater (50 vs. 24.5%, P = 0.004) for IRS-1 polymorphism, but insignificantly greater (20 vs. 13.3%, P = 0.33) for PC-1 polymorphism. In PCOS women, compared with controls, the genotypes IRS-1 hetero/PC-1 wild type (WT) (36 vs. 17.8%, P = 0.03) and IRS-1 hetero/PC-1 hetero (14 vs. 6.7%, P = 0.20) were overrepresented at the expense of IRS-1 WT/PC-1 WT (44 vs. 68.8%, P = 0.005), while IRS-1 WT/PC-1 hetero was similarly represented (6 vs. 6.7%). Based on genotype, metabolic and hormonal indices changed significantly. For instance, six indices (HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, insulin area under the curve at OGTT, triglycerides, total and calculated free testosterone) were the highest in IRS-1 hetero/PC-1 WT women. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations in insulin signaling contribute to the extent and the variability of metabolic and hormonal derangement.


Assuntos
Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPP/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Anim. Reprod. ; 13(4): 735-742, Oct.-Dec.2016. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-17360

RESUMO

Two different extenders were compared for their effects on preservation of semen from Indigenous rams and on pregnancy rate (PR) in Indigenous ewes. Semen was collected from nine Indigenous rams (Ovis aries) once a week using an artificial vagina. Each ejaculate was divided into 2 aliquots, diluted with either commercial (Triladyl®) or locally manufactured (tris, fructose, citric acid, egg yolk: TFE, prepared in own laboratory) extenders and kept at 4°C for 48 h. Motility, viability, functional integrity and morphological changes were evaluated at 0, 24 and 48 h. Synchronized oestrus ewes inseminated transcervically with 24 and 48 h of preserved chilled semen diluted with Triladyl and TFE extenders separately. Semen preserved in Triladyl had better motility, viability, and functional integrity at 24 and 48 h (P < 0.001) than did in TFE. The morphologically normal spermatozoa up to 48 h of preservation did not differ between extenders. However, in abnormalities studied, Triladyl had detrimental effect on sperm acrosome and TFE on sperm tail (P < 0.001) at 24 and 48 h of preservation. But, midpiece was not affected by any extender (P > 0.05) over the entire period of preservation. The quality of semen decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing preservation time for both extenders. The extenders did not differ (P > 0.05) the overall PR after transcervical AI (TCAI) in ewes. Increased preservation time (48 h) negatively affected the PR in TFE extended semen compared with than that of Triladyl. The results suggest that the quality of chilled semen (motility, viability, and functional integrity) is more improved when preserved in Triladyl than if extended with a TFE. PR may higher when TCAI is performed with chilled semen preserved in Triladyl for a longer time than TFE. However, TFE extender may be used to dilute the semen for chilling and used in TCAI to get similar PR of Triladyl up to 24 h of preservation.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ovinos/embriologia , Ovinos/genética , Taxa de Gravidez , Preservação do Sêmen/efeitos adversos , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária
8.
Clin Ter ; 166(3): e182-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26152630

RESUMO

Many studies have shown the involvement of interferon (IFN)γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and T-helper 1 (Th1) cytokines in Atopic Dermatitis (AD). IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-18 are potent stimulators of the expression and secretion of IP-10 in cultured keratinocytes from AD patients. Apoptosis of keratinocytes, induced mainly by T cells and mediated by IFN-γ, is the essential pathogenetic event in eczema formation. Enhanced IP-10, induced by IFN-γ, and IFN-inducible T cell alpha-chemoattractant (I-TAC) expression has been observed in lesional AD skin. It has been shown that keratinocytes undergoing apoptosis in acute eczematous lesions release chemokines that attract more T cells toward the epidermis, which may further augment the inflammation and keratinocyte apoptosis. Drugs used in the treatment of AD modulate IP-10. Antihistamines are widely used for the treatment of AD; it has been shown in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) and autologous CD4+ T cells that antihistamines inhibited the production of IP-10 and�� monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG) expressions. It has been also shown that antimycotics and tacrolimus suppress the induced production of IP-10 in human keratinocytes.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/fisiopatologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Quimiocina CXCL10 , Quimiocina CXCL11/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL9/metabolismo , Citocinas , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
9.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 65(4): 551-8, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25179087

RESUMO

The newborn pig is a widely accepted large animal model of hypoxic/ischemic (H/I) encephalopathy (HIE) of the term neonate appropriate for translational research. The methodology of the induction of H/I stress shows extensive variability of the literature, and little is known how these affect study outcome. The purpose of the present study was to determine the cerebrocortical microvascular effects of different H/I insults used in current HIE piglet models. For the semiquantitative study of cerebrocortical blood flow, we developed a methodological innovation: an operating microscope was converted into a custom-designed laser-speckle imager. Anesthetized, air-ventilated newborn pigs (n=7) were fitted with a closed cranial window. Speckle image series (2 ms, 1 Hz) were collected during baseline conditions, during transient bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO), hypoxic (FiO(2)=0.1) hypoxia, hypoxia + BCAO, and asphyxia induced by suspending ventilation. Laser-speckle contrast analysis was performed off-line over parenchymal and arteriolar regions of interests, and pial arteriolar diameters were also determined for detailed analysis of cortical perfusion changes. Under normoxic conditions, transient BCAO did not affect parenchymal perfusion or pial arteriolar diameters. Hypoxia induced marked cortical hyperemia in 5 out of 7 piglets, with simultaneous increases in pial arteriolar diameters and arteriolar flow velocity, however, BCAO could not even affect these hypoxia-induced perfusion changes. In contrast to hypoxia or hypoxia + BCAO, asphyxia inevitably led also to severe cerebrocortical ischemia. In summary, acute reversible BCAO does not reduce cerebrocortical blood flow in the piglet, and thus it likely does not exacerbate the effect of hypoxic ventilation. Asphyxia elicits not only severe hypoxia, but also severe brain ischemia. These microcirculatory effects must be taken into consideration when assessing results obtained in the various HIE piglet models.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Lasers , Masculino , Microcirculação , Suínos
10.
Neuroscience ; 260: 217-26, 2014 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24365459

RESUMO

Spontaneous depolarizations around the core are a consistent feature of focal cerebral ischemia, but the associated regional hemodynamic changes are heterogeneous. We determined how the features of depolarizations relate to subsequent cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in global forebrain ischemia. Forebrain ischemia was produced in halothane-anesthetized rats (n=13) by common carotid artery occlusion and hypovolemic hypotension. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was monitored via a femoral catheter. Specific illuminations allowed the capture of image sequences through a cranial window to visualize: changes in membrane potential (voltage-sensitive dye method); CBF (laser speckle contrast imaging); cerebral blood volume (intrinsic optical signal, IOS at 540-550nm); and hemoglobin deoxygenation (IOS at 620-640nm). A depolarization occurred (n=9) when CBF fell below 43.4±5% of control (41±4mmHg MABP), and propagated with a distinct wave front at a rate of 2.8mm/min. Depolarizations were either persistent (n=4), intermediate (n=3) or short, transient depolarization (n=2). Persistent and intermediate depolarizations were associated with sustained hypoperfusion (-11.7±5.1%) and transient hypoperfusion (-17.4±5.2, relative to CBF before depolarization). Short, transient depolarizations did not generate clear CBF responses. Depolarizations during incomplete global ischemia occurred at the lower limit of CBF autoregulation, propagated similar to spreading depolarization (SD), and the hemodynamic responses indicated inverse neurovascular coupling. Similar to SDs associated with focal stroke, the propagating event can be persistent or transient.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Pressão Arterial , Hemodinâmica , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Neuroscience ; 226: 197-207, 2012 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22986160

RESUMO

Spreading depolarizations are accompanied by transient changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). In a post hoc analysis of previously studied control rats we analyzed CBF time courses after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat in order to test whether intra-ischemic flow, reperfusion, and different parameters of peri-infarct flow transients (PIFTs) (amplitude, number) can predict outcome. Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with either halothane (n=23) or isoflurane (n=32) underwent 90-min filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery followed by 72 h of reperfusion. The infarct size was determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Relative CBF changes were monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry at 4-5 mm lateral, and 1-2mm posterior to Bregma. An additional filament occlusion study (n=12) was performed to validate that PIFTs were coupled to direct current shifts of spreading depolarization. The PIFT-direct current shift study revealed that every PIFT was associated with a negative direct current shift typical of spreading depolarization. Post-hoc analysis showed that the number of PIFTs, especially with the combination of intra-ischemic level of flow, can predict the development of cortical infarcts. These findings show that PIFTs can serve as an early biomarker in predicting outcome in preclinical animal studies.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Infarto Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Anestesia , Anestesia por Inalação , Animais , Gânglios da Base/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Corantes , Halotano , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isoflurano , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sais de Tetrazólio , Tiazóis , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 15(2): 129-34, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21434479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inositol is a component of the vitamin B complex. Myo-inositol (MYO) is the most biologically important form in nature. It is involved in several systemic processes and in mechanisms of signal transduction in the plasma membrane as precursor of second messengers. On the male reproductive function, MYO appears to regulate seminal plasma osmolarity and volume; the expression of proteins essential for embryogenetic development and sperm chemiotaxis; and sperm motility, capacitation, and acrosome reaction. Recently, a seminal antioxidant action has also been suggested. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effects of MYO on sperm mitochondrial function and apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spermatozoa isolated from 5 normozoospermic men and from 7 patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (OAT) were incubated in-vitro with 2 mg/ml of MYO or placebo (control) for 2 hours. After this incubation period, the following sperm parameters were evaluated by flow cytometry: mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by JC-1 staining; phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization by annexin V and propidium iodide double staining; and chromatin compactness following propidium iodide staining. RESULTS: MYO did not affect the mitochondrial function of spermatozoa isolated from normozoospermic men, whereas it increased significantly the number of spermatozoa with high MMP and decreased significantly the number of those with low MMP in OAT patients. No effect of MYO was observed on PS externalization and chromatin compactness in both normozoospermic men and OAT patients. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that MYO is able to ameliorate mitochondrial function in OAT patients. We conclude that this compound may be useful for the treatment of male infertility.


Assuntos
Inositol/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Inositol/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
13.
Neurotox Res ; 12(2): 105-11, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17967734

RESUMO

Diazoxide (DIAZ) has been shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of different brain pathologies. However, the direct protective effect of DIAZ in different in vivo models of retinal degeneration has not yet been shown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of this compound in two rodent model systems: monosodium-glutamate (MSG)- and chronic bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO)-induced retinal degeneration. Rats were subjected either to s.c. MSG treatment on postnatal days 1, 5 and 9, or to BCAO at 2 months of age, followed by intravitreal DIAZ treatment. Histological examination was carried out 14 or 21 days after treatments, respectively. MSG treatment destroyed almost the entire inner retina, with the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers being fused. DIAZ treatment significantly ameliorated the MSG-induced retinal degeneration. BCAO led to a severe degeneration of all retinal layers, and DIAZ proved to be protective also in this model. Our results may have clinical implications in reducing glutamate-induced excitotoxicity or ischemic retinal degeneration in ophthalmic diseases.


Assuntos
Diazóxido/uso terapêutico , Ácido Glutâmico/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Retinianas/etiologia , Doenças Retinianas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Contagem de Células/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Medicamentosas , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Doenças Retinianas/patologia
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 39(8): 567-81, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18265866

RESUMO

We assessed resources, challenges and prospects of the dairy industries in four districts of Bangladesh (Mymensingh, Satkhira, Chittagong and Sirajganj) with the participation of 8 to 12 dairy farm families in each district. We used ten participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools, namely social mapping, semistructured interview, activity profiles, seasonal calendar, pie charts, mobility diagram, matrix ranking, preference ranking and scoring, system analysis diagram and focus group discussion in 57 PRA sessions from September through October 2002. Dairying contributed more to family income (63 to 74%) and utilized a smaller portion of land than did crops. Twenty seven to 49% of cattle feed is rice straw. Only Sirajganj and Chittagong had limited, periodic grazing facilities. Fodder (Napier; Pennisetum purpureum) cultivation was practiced in Sirajganj and Satkhira. Fodder availability increased milk production and decreased disease occurrence. Friesian crossbred cows were ranked best as dairy cattle. The present utilization of veterinary and AI services was ranked highly. Farmers outside the milk union desired milk purchasing centres as the most required service in the future. They identified veterinary and AI services as inadequate and desired significant improvements. The PRA tools effectively identified resources, constraints, opportunities and farmers' perspectives related to the dairy industries in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Indústria de Laticínios , Renda , Leite/metabolismo , Adulto , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poaceae , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Medicina Veterinária , Recursos Humanos
15.
Neuroscience ; 136(1): 217-30, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16181738

RESUMO

Cajal-Retzius cells and their secreted product reelin are essential for the lamination of the cerebral cortex. In all species studied to date Cajal-Retzius cells form a transient neuronal population that almost completely disappears from the neocortex postnatally. Recently, in the hippocampal formation of adult domestic pig, we have found a large calretinin- and reelin-immunoreactive cell population that morphologically corresponded to Cajal-Retzius cells. In the present study, we examined calretinin- and reelin-immunoreactive neurons in layer I of the prefrontal, temporal, parietal and occipital neocortical areas of newborn, young adult and adult domestic pigs. Large numbers of bipolar or fusiform calretinin-positive cells were found in the upper half of layer I in all examined age groups. The morphology of these neurons resembled that of the Cajal-Retzius cells. Layer I was occupied by a dense calretinin-positive axonal plexus that was similar to the previously described axons of Cajal-Retzius cells in other species. In a similar location, where calretinin-positive cells occurred in layer I, large numbers of reelin-immunoreactive cells were found in all examined age groups. In addition, reelin colocalized with calretinin in layer I neurons. The number of calretinin and reelin-positive neurons decreased from 1 day to one year, but calretinin-positive Cajal-Retzius-type cells still comprised a remarkable large population in 12-month-old animals. Correlated light and electron microscopic examination of calretinin-labeled Cajal-Retzius-type cells indicated that these cells are integrated in the synaptic circuitry of the neocortex. Our results suggest that Cajal-Retzius cells do not disappear inevitably from the mature neocortex in all mammalian species. The function of this cell type is not known, but late persisting Cajal-Retzius-type cells in the domestic pig provide an opportunity to study their neuronal connections and the possible role of reelin in plasticity and regeneration of neocortex.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Neocórtex/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteína G de Ligação ao Cálcio S100/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Calbindina 2 , Imuno-Histoquímica , Microscopia Eletrônica , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Neocórtex/citologia , Neocórtex/ultraestrutura , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Lobo Occipital/metabolismo , Lobo Parietal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Suínos , Distribuição Tecidual
16.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 19(5): 380-4, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12756598

RESUMO

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common acquired gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. We have developed an animal model of NEC in asphyxiated newborn pigs and investigated the effects of asphyxia on blood flow in superior mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta, cardiovascular data, arterial acid-base and blood gas parameters, and endothelial cytoskeletal structure in mesenteric microvasculature. Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated newborn pigs were included in two groups: piglets underwent severe asphyxia, and sham-operated control animals. A cardiovascular and metabolic failure developed in asphyxiated piglets approximately 1 h after the induction: severe hypotension and bradyarrhythmia were seen and significant reductions of the blood flow were measured in the superior mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta during the critical phase. Rearrangement of cytoskeletal actin structure corresponding to enhanced vascular permeability was seen with bodipy phallacidin in mesenterial endothelium of asphyxiated piglets after a 24-h recovery period. In conclusion, severe vasomotor changes during asphyxia may result in mesenteric endothelial dysfunction implicated in increased vascular permeability, edema formation, and development of NEC in asphyxiated piglets.


Assuntos
Asfixia/complicações , Enterocolite Necrosante/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/irrigação sanguínea , Isquemia , Circulação Esplâncnica/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Feminino , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Suínos
17.
Theriogenology ; 59(5-6): 1265-75, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12527074

RESUMO

Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) has the potential to increase the rate of genetic improvement in sheep. However, better realization of this potential requires maximum survival rates of transferred embryos of high genetic merit after transfer into recipient ewes. These studies were therefore conducted to investigate the effect of both embryonic and recipient ewe factors on the survival rate of transferred embryos. Survival rate was similar after transfer of morula or blastocyst stage embryos, and these were higher (P<0.05) than for very early morulae and early morulae. Advanced embryos (Day 5 blastocyst) had an advantage (P<0.05) in survival rate over retarded embryos (Day 6 morula). Grades 1 and 2 embryos survived significantly (P<0.05) better than Grades 3 or 4 embryos. There was no difference in embryo survival rate following transfer to recipients with different numbers of corpora lutea. In general, age or parity of recipient ewes did not affect embryo survival rate, although a higher (P<0.05) embryo survival rate was observed for yearling recipients. Buserelin (GnRH agonist) treatment of recipient ewes 5 or 6 days after transfer of embryos (Day 12 of the cycle) did not improve embryo survival rate. These results confirm that both embryonic and recipient factors can play an important role in the success of a MOET program in sheep.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Morte Fetal/veterinária , Ovinos/embriologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Busserrelina/farmacologia , Corpo Lúteo/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário e Fetal/fisiologia , Feminino , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/farmacologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ovinos/fisiologia
18.
Neurosci Lett ; 329(2): 189-92, 2002 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12165409

RESUMO

We examined whether hypoxic/ischemic (H/I) stress decreased the cerebral Na(+),K(+)-ATPase enzyme activity (NEA) of newborn pigs. The effects of global ischemia (10 min), asphyxia (10 min), and incomplete forebrain ischemia (45 min) were analyzed in ten different brain regions. The lengths of the reperfusion periods varied between 15 min and 3 h. NEA was determined as the ouabain-sensitive fraction of the total ATPase activity of the sample. Marked regional differences in NEA were observed in all experimental groups, whereas NEA was not significantly affected in any of the brain structures investigated. The present results suggest that damaged brain Na(+),K(+)-ATPase may not be the cause of the neuronal-vascular impairment following H/I stress.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/enzimologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Suínos
19.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 46(7): 815-20, 2002 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12139536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of laser Doppler flowmetry and non-invasive blood pressure monitoring allows the continuous observation of cutaneous vascular resistance (CVR). Continuous recording of unmodulated skin blood flow (SBF) is very sensitive to artefacts, rendering the method unreliable. In contrast, intermittent short lasting challenges of the CVR by cardiovascular autonomic reflexes may provide information about the responsiveness of the sympathetic nervous system in the skin. METHODS: Eleven patients with below-wrist hand surgery (six males and five females; aged 35.2+/-7.1 years) performed Valsalva maneuver following axillary blockade. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored on the forearm of the side axillary blockade, as well as on the contra-lateral forearm, which was used as the control. The responses were expressed as changes compared with the baseline level derived from a resting period of 30 s. The maximal change in CVR was determined during the late strain phase of the Valsalva maneuver on both sides. For numerical comparison the change in CVR on the axillary blockade and control sides were simultaneously calculated. RESULTS: During the Valsalva maneuver a significant increase in CVR was observed on the control side with a maximum value during the late strain phase (baseline 0.18+/-0.1 and late strain phase 0.42+/-0.2 relative units; P<0.01). In contrast, only minimal changes were detected on the side of axillary blockade in CVR (baseline 0.17+/-0.8 and late strain 0.16+/-0.2 relative units; P=NS). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the disputed hypothesis that the human skin microvasculature is involved in baroreflex regulation under thermoneutral conditions. The determination of baroreflex stimulus-induced microvascular responses may serve as a feasible method for monitoring the effectiveness of sympathetic blockade.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Plexo Braquial , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Resistência Vascular , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Pressão Sanguínea , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Antebraço , Mãos/cirurgia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Masculino , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Intraoperatória , Pele/inervação , Manobra de Valsalva
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