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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258262, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614029

RESUMO

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created the GenomeTrakr Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) Network in 2013, as a tool to improve food safety. This study presents an analysis of Whole Genome source tracking implementation on potential food contamination and related illnesses through theoretical, empirical, and cost benefit analyses. We conduct empirical tests using data from FDA regulated food commodity outbreaks garnering FDA response from 1999 through 2019 and examine the effect of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Pathogen detection program of source tracking WGS isolates collected in the U.S. on outbreak illnesses for three pilot pathogens (E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella). Empirical results are consistent with the theoretical model and suggest that each additional 1,000 WGS isolates added to the public NCBI database is associated with a reduction of approximately 6 illnesses per WGS pathogen, per year. Empirical results are connected to existing literature for a Monte Carlo analysis to estimate benefits and costs. By 2019, annual health benefits are estimated at nearly $500 million, compared to an approximately $22 million investment by public health agencies. Even under conservative assumptions, the program likely broke even in its second year of implementation and could produce increasing public health benefits as the GenomeTrakr network matures.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Surtos de Doenças , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Estatística como Assunto , Estados Unidos
2.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 18(9): 627-639, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255548

RESUMO

The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the proportion of postinfectious reactive arthritis (ReA) after bacterial enteric infection from one of four selected pathogens. We collected studies from PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase, which assessed the proportion of postinfectious ReA published from January 1, 2000 to April 1, 2018. Papers were screened independently by title, abstract, and full text; papers in English, Spanish, and Portuguese utilizing a case-control (CC) or cohort study design, with a laboratory confirmed or probable acute bacterial enteric infection and subsequent ReA, were included. The proportion of ReA cases was pooled between and across pathogens. Factors that can induce study heterogeneity were explored using univariate meta-regression, including region, sample size, study design, and ReA case ascertainment. Twenty-four articles were included in the final review. The estimated percentage of cases across studies describing Campylobacter-associated ReA (n = 11) was 1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-5.84%); Salmonella (n = 17) was 3.9 (95% CI 1.6-9.1%); Shigella (n = 6) was 1.0 (95% CI 0.2-4.9%); and Yersinia (n = 7) was 3.4 (95% CI 0.8-13.7%). Combining all four pathogens, the estimated percentage of cases that developed ReA was 2.6 (95% CI 1.5-4.7%). Due to high heterogeneity reflected by high I2 values, results should be interpreted with caution. However, the pooled proportion developing ReA from studies with sample sizes (N) <1000 were higher compared with N > 1000 (6% vs. 0.3%), retrospective cohort studies were lower (1.1%) compared with CC or prospective cohorts (6.8% and 5.9%, respectively), and those where ReA cases are identified through medical record review were lower (0.3%) than those identified by a specialist (3.9%) or self-report (12%). The estimated percentage of people who developed ReA after infection with Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, or Yersinia is relatively low (2.6). In the United States, this estimate would result in 84,480 new cases of ReA annually.


Assuntos
Artrite Reativa , Infecções Bacterianas , Artrite Reativa/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1): 214-222, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350919

RESUMO

Foodborne illness source attribution is foundational to a risk-based food safety system. We describe a method for attributing US foodborne illnesses caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter to 17 food categories using statistical modeling of outbreak data. This method adjusts for epidemiologic factors associated with outbreak size, down-weights older outbreaks, and estimates credibility intervals. On the basis of 952 reported outbreaks and 32,802 illnesses during 1998-2012, we attribute 77% of foodborne Salmonella illnesses to 7 food categories (seeded vegetables, eggs, chicken, other produce, pork, beef, and fruits), 82% of E. coli O157 illnesses to beef and vegetable row crops, 81% of L. monocytogenes illnesses to fruits and dairy, and 74% of Campylobacter illnesses to dairy and chicken. However, because Campylobacter outbreaks probably overrepresent dairy as a source of nonoutbreak campylobacteriosis, we caution against using these Campylobacter attribution estimates without further adjustment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Gastroenterite , Listeria monocytogenes , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 17(2): 67-86, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589475

RESUMO

To strengthen the burden estimates for chronic sequelae of foodborne illness, we conducted a scoping review of the current literature for common foodborne pathogens and their associated sequelae. We aim to describe the current literature and gaps in knowledge of chronic sequelae associated with common foodborne illnesses. A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for peer-reviewed articles published January 1, 2000 to April 1, 2018. Articles available in English, of any epidemiological study design, for 10 common foodborne pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria, Shigella, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Giardia, Yersinia, and norovirus) and their associated gastrointestinal (GI)- and joint-related sequelae were included. Of the 6348 titles screened for inclusion, 380 articles underwent full-text review; of those 380, 129 were included for data extraction. Of the bacterial pathogens included in the search terms, the most commonly reported were Salmonella (n = 104) and Campylobacter (n = 99); E. coli (n = 55), Shigella (n = 49), Yersinia (n = 49), and Listeria (n = 15) all had fewer results. Norovirus was the only virus included in our search, with 28 article that reported mostly GI-related sequelae and reactive arthritis (ReA) reported once. For parasitic diseases, Giardia (n = 26) and Cryptosporidium (n = 18) had the most articles, and no results were found for Cyclospora. The most commonly reported GI outcomes were irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; n = 119) and inflammatory bowel disease (n = 29), and ReA (n = 122) or "joint pain" (n = 19) for joint-related sequelae. Salmonella and Campylobacter were most often associated with a variety of outcomes, with ReA (n = 34 and n = 27) and IBS (n = 17 and n = 20) reported most often. This scoping review shows there are still a relatively small number of studies being conducted to understand specific pathogen/outcome relationships. It also shows where important gaps in the impact of chronic sequelae from common foodborne illnesses still exist and where more focused research would best be implemented.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Artropatias/etiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/complicações , Viroses/complicações , Doença Crônica , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Humanos
5.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(12)2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938701

RESUMO

Water from the Hickey Run Tributary of the Anacostia River is being collected quarterly (beginning August 2018) and analyzed to create high-resolution baseline taxonomic profiles of microbiota associated with this important aquatic ecosystem, which has a long history of exposure to residential and commercial effluents from Washington, DC. These United States National Arboretum Microbial Observatory data are available under NCBI BioProject number PRJNA498951.

6.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 16(4): 290-297, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735066

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that disproportionally affects pregnant females, older adults, and immunocompromised individuals. Using U.S. Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) surveillance data, we examined listeriosis incidence rates and rate ratios (RRs) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and pregnancy status across three periods from 2008 to 2016, as recent incidence trends in U.S. subgroups had not been evaluated. The invasive listeriosis annual incidence rate per 100,000 for 2008-2016 was 0.28 cases among the general population (excluding pregnant females), and 3.73 cases among pregnant females. For adults ≥70 years, the annual incidence rate per 100,000 was 1.33 cases. No significant change in estimated listeriosis incidence was found over the 2008-2016 period, except for a small, but significantly lower pregnancy-associated rate in 2011-2013 when compared with 2008-2010. Among the nonpregnancy-associated cases, RRs increased with age from 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.73) for 0- to 14-year olds to 44.9 (33.5-60.0) for ≥85-year olds, compared with 15- to 44-year olds. Males had an incidence of 1.28 (1.12-1.45) times that of females. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, the incidence was 1.57 (1.18-1.20) times higher among non-Hispanic Asians, 1.49 (1.22-1.83) among non-Hispanic blacks, and 1.73 (1.15-2.62) among Hispanics. Among females of childbearing age, non-Hispanic Asian females had 2.72 (1.51-4.89) and Hispanic females 3.13 (2.12-4.89) times higher incidence than non-Hispanic whites. We observed a higher percentage of deaths among older patient groups compared with 15- to 44-year olds. This study is the first characterizing higher RRs for listeriosis in the United States among non-Hispanic blacks and Asians compared with non-Hispanic whites. This information for public health risk managers may spur further research to understand if differences in listeriosis rates relate to differences in consumption patterns of foods with higher contamination levels, food handling practices, comorbidities, immunodeficiencies, health care access, or other factors.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Listeriose/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Food Prot ; : 437-443, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474153

RESUMO

Smartphones, tablets, and other personal electronic devices have become ubiquitous in Americans' daily lives. These devices are used by people throughout the day, including while preparing food. For example, a device may be used to look at recipes and therefore be touched multiple times during food preparation. Previous research has indicated that cell phones can harbor bacteria, including opportunistic human pathogens such as Staphylococcus and Klebsiella spp. This investigation was conducted with data from the 2016 Food Safety Survey (FSS) and from subsequent focus groups to determine the frequency with which consumers use personal electronic devices in the kitchen while preparing food, the types of devices used, and hand washing behaviors after handling these devices. The 2016 FSS is the seventh wave of a repeated cross-sectional survey conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The goal of the FSS is to evaluate U.S. adult consumer attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about food safety. The FSS included 4,169 adults that were contacted using a dual-frame (land line and cell phone interviews) random-digit-dial sampling process. The personal electronics module was the first of three food safety topics discussed by each of eight consumer focus groups, which were convened in four U.S. cities in fall 2016. Results from the 2016 FSS revealed that of those individuals who use personal electronic devices while cooking, only about one third reported washing hands after touching the device and before continuing cooking. This proportion is significantly lower than that for self-reported hand washing behaviors after touching risky food products such as raw eggs, meat, chicken, or fish. Results from the focus groups highlight the varied usage of these devices during food preparation and the related strategies consumers are using to incorporate personal electric devices into their cooking routines.

8.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 14(12): 701-710, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foodborne disease data collected during outbreak investigations are used to estimate the percentage of foodborne illnesses attributable to specific food categories. Current food categories do not reflect whether or how the food has been processed and exclude many multiple-ingredient foods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Representatives from three federal agencies worked collaboratively in the Interagency Food Safety Analytics Collaboration (IFSAC) to develop a hierarchical scheme for categorizing foods implicated in outbreaks, which accounts for the type of processing and provides more specific food categories for regulatory purposes. IFSAC also developed standard assumptions for assigning foods to specific food categories, including some multiple-ingredient foods. The number and percentage of outbreaks assignable to each level of the hierarchy were summarized. RESULTS: The IFSAC scheme is a five-level hierarchy for categorizing implicated foods with increasingly specific subcategories at each level, resulting in a total of 234 food categories. Subcategories allow distinguishing features of implicated foods to be reported, such as pasteurized versus unpasteurized fluid milk, shell eggs versus liquid egg products, ready-to-eat versus raw meats, and five different varieties of fruit categories. Twenty-four aggregate food categories contained a sufficient number of outbreaks for source attribution analyses. Among 9791 outbreaks reported from 1998 to 2014 with an identified food vehicle, 4607 (47%) were assignable to food categories using this scheme. Among these, 4218 (92%) were assigned to one of the 24 aggregate food categories, and 840 (18%) were assigned to the most specific category possible. CONCLUSIONS: Updates to the food categorization scheme and new methods for assigning implicated foods to specific food categories can help increase the number of outbreaks attributed to a single food category. The increased specificity of food categories in this scheme may help improve source attribution analyses, eventually leading to improved foodborne illness source attribution estimates and enhanced food safety and regulatory efforts.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos , Alimentos/classificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Laticínios/microbiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Pasteurização
9.
J Urban Health ; 93(6): 940-952, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27798762

RESUMO

The relationship between perceived neighborhood contentedness and physical activity was evaluated in the Add Health study population. Wave I includes 20,745 respondents (collected between 1994 and 1995) and wave II includes 14,738 (71 %) of these same students (collected in 1996). Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate this relationship in both wave I and wave II of the sample. Higher levels of Perceived Neighborhood Contentedness were associated with higher reports of physical activity in both males and females and in both waves. For every one-point increment in PNS, males were 1.3 times as likely to report being highly physically active than low (95 % CI 1.23-1.37) in wave 1 and 1.25 times as likely in wave 2 (95 % CI 1.17-1.33). Females were 1.17 (95 % CI 1.12-1.22) times as likely to report being highly active than low and 1.22 times as likely in wave 2 (95 % CI 1.17-1.27) with every one-point increment. PNC appears to be significantly associated with physical activity in adolescents. Involving the community in the development of intervention programs could help to raise the contentedness of adolescents in these communities.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudantes
10.
Dev Neurosci ; 32(5-6): 396-405, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20847541

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Several studies over the past several years have evaluated the use of serum biomarkers to predict outcome after pediatric brain injury. These studies have all used simple point estimates such as initial and peak biomarker concentrations to predict outcome. However, this approach does not recognize patterns of change over time. Trajectory analysis is a type of analysis which can capture variance in biomarker concentrations over time and has been used with success in the social sciences. We used trajectory analysis to evaluate the ability of the serum concentrations of 3 brain-specific biomarkers - S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and myelin basic protein (MBP) - to predict poor outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale scores 3-5) after pediatric TBI and HIE. Clinical and biomarker data from 100 children with TBI or HIE were evaluated. For each biomarker, we validated 2-, 3- and 4-group models for outcome prediction, using sensitivity and specificity. For S100B, the 3-group model predicted poor outcome with a sensitivity of 59% and specificity of 100%. For NSE, the 3-group model predicted poor outcome with a sensitivity of 48% and specificity of 98%. For MBP, the 3-group model predicted poor outcome with a sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 61%. Thus, when the models predicted a poor outcome, there was a very high probability of a poor outcome. In contrast, 17% of subjects with a poor outcome were predicted to have a good outcome by all 3 biomarker trajectories. These data suggest that trajectory analysis of biomarker data may provide a useful approach for predicting outcome after pediatric brain injury.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/sangue , Hipóxia Encefálica/sangue , Proteína Básica da Mielina/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/sangue , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/sangue , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Proteínas S100/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tempo
12.
J AOAC Int ; 90(1): 250-7, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17373457

RESUMO

Environmental sampling has become increasingly important in the food industry for monitoring the presence of specific pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica. Several microbiological media are available for storage and transport of environmental samples from the processing plant to the test laboratory. In this study, we quantified the survival of L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhi in environmental sampling media over several time and temperature combinations to determine optimum conditions for transport and storage. A cocktail of L. monocytogenes strains and Salmonella serotypes was separately added to tubes of Dey-Engley (D/E) Neutralizing Broth, Copan SRK solution, and Neutralizing Buffer and incubated at either -4, 4, 10, or 15 degree C. Counts were made of the bacterial load after 0, 12, 24, and 48 h. Neutralizing Buffer and Copan SRK solution were best at maintaining bacterial concentrations at all temperatures. D/E Neutralizing Broth, at 10 and 15 degrees C, allowed significant bacterial growth. This study helped validate the use of these 3 media for environmental sample transport and storage at cold holding temperatures and demonstrated that, at elevated temperatures (>4 degrees C), it is preferable to use Neutralizing Buffer or Copan SRK solution for quantifying microbial recovery.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Tampões (Química) , Meios de Cultura , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cinética , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella enteritidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura
13.
J Food Prot ; 69(6): 1468-72, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16786877

RESUMO

The largest documented foodborne hepatitis A outbreak in U.S. history occurred in November 2003. The source of that outbreak was green onions from a farm in Mexico. Two biomarkers were used to determine ways in which hepatitis A virus (HAV) can contaminate onions. Fluorescent microspheres (1.0 to 10 microm) and HAV vaccine were placed on the soil and the surfaces of pot-grown onions and in the liquid medium of hydroponically cultivated onions. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to identify HAV RNA. Microspheres were found on the outside and inside of the pot-grown onions for up to 60 days. RT-PCR revealed HAV RNA from the vaccine in well-washed green onions. In the hydroponically grown onions, microspheres were found throughout the onion after only 1 day. RT-PCR also revealed HAV RNA inside the hydroponically grown onions. Both biomarkers support the hypothesis that HAV can contaminate the inside of the growing onion and can be taken up intracellularly through the roots. Once inside, the particles are impossible to remove by cleaning.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Vírus da Hepatite A , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/virologia , Cebolas/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Hepatite A/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite A/patogenicidade , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
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