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Evolution ; 77(6): 1277-1288, 2023 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36995728


Morphological evolution of the vertebrate skull has been explored across a wide range of tetrapod clades using geometric morphometrics, but the application of these methods to teleost fishes, accounting for roughly half of all vertebrate species, has been limited. Here we present the results of a study investigating 3D morphological evolution of the neurocranium across 114 species of Pelagiaria, a diverse clade of open-ocean teleost fishes that includes tuna and mackerel. Despite showing high shape disparity overall, taxa from all families fall into three distinct morphological clusters. Convergence in shape within clusters is high, and phylogenetic signal in shape data is significant but low. Neurocranium shape is significantly correlated with body elongation and significantly but weakly correlated with size. Diet and habitat depth are weakly correlated with shape, and nonsignificant after accounting for phylogeny. Evolutionary integration in the neurocranium is high, suggesting that convergence in skull shape and the evolution of extreme morphologies are associated with the correlated evolution of neurocranial elements. These results suggest that shape evolution in the pelagiarian neurocranium reflects the extremes in elongation found in body shape but is constrained along relatively few axes of variation, resulting in repeated evolution toward a restricted range of morphologies.

Crânio , Atum , Animais , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica
R Soc Open Sci ; 7(5): 192260, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537214


Many modern groups of marine fishes first appear in the fossil record during the early Palaeogene (66-40 Ma), including iconic predatory lineages of spiny-rayed fishes that appear to have originated in response to ecological roles left empty after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene extinction. The hypothesis of extinction-mediated ecological release likewise predicts that other fish groups have adopted novel predatory ecologies. Here, we report remarkable trophic innovation in early Palaeogene clupeiforms (herrings and allies), a group whose modern representatives are generally small-bodied planktivores. Two forms, the early Eocene (Ypresian) †Clupeopsis from Belgium and a new genus from the middle Eocene (Lutetian) of Pakistan, bear conspicuous features indicative of predatory ecology, including large size, long gapes and caniniform dentition. Most remarkable is the presence of a single, massive vomerine fang offset from the midline in both. Numerous features of the neurocranium, suspensorium and branchial skeleton place these taxa on the engraulid (anchovy) stem as the earliest known representatives of the clade. The identification of large-bodied, piscivorous anchovies contributes to an emerging picture of a phylogenetically diverse guild of predatory ray-finned fishes in early Palaeogene marine settings, which include completely extinct lineages alongside members of modern marine groups and taxa that are today restricted to freshwater or deep-sea environments.

Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1910): 20191502, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506051


The fish clade Pelagiaria, which includes tunas as its most famous members, evolved remarkable morphological and ecological variety in a setting not generally considered conducive to diversification: the open ocean. Relationships within Pelagiaria have proven elusive due to short internodes subtending major lineages suggestive of rapid early divergences. Using a novel sequence dataset of over 1000 ultraconserved DNA elements (UCEs) for 94 of the 286 species of Pelagiaria (more than 70% of genera), we provide a time-calibrated phylogeny for this widely distributed clade. Some inferred relationships have clear precedents (e.g. the monophyly of 'core' Stromateoidei, and a clade comprising 'Gempylidae' and Trichiuridae), but others are unexpected despite strong support (e.g. Chiasmodontidae + Tetragonurus). Relaxed molecular clock analysis using node-based fossil calibrations estimates a latest Cretaceous origin for Pelagiaria, with crown-group families restricted to the Cenozoic. Estimated mean speciation rates decline from the origin of the group in the latest Cretaceous, although credible intervals for root and tip rates are broad and overlap in most cases, and there is higher-than-expected partitioning of body shape diversity (measured as fineness ratio) between clades concentrated during the Palaeocene-Eocene. By contrast, more direct measures of ecology show either no substantial deviation from a null model of diversification (diet) or patterns consistent with evolutionary constraint or high rates of recent change (depth habitat). Collectively, these results indicate a mosaic model of diversification. Pelagiarians show high morphological disparity and modest species richness compared to better-studied fish radiations in contrasting environments. However, this pattern is also apparent in other clades in open-ocean or deep-sea habitats, and suggests that comparative study of such groups might provide a more inclusive model of the evolution of diversity in fishes.

Peixes , Filogenia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Fósseis , Especiação Genética , Oceanos e Mares , Atum